Predictors of Mortality in Out Born Neonates with Acute Renal Failure; an Experience of a Single Center|
Kapoor, Kapil; Jajoo, Mamta & Dabas, Vikas
Objective: To evaluate the incidence, etiology, outcome, and predictors of mortality in neonates with Acute
Renal Failure (ARF) in an out born Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of India.
Methods: A retrospective analysis of case records of out born neonates, who had ARF at admission or
developed ARF during NICU stay, from January to December 2011 (one year) was done.
Findings: Out of the total 456 neonates admitted during the study period, 44 (9.6%) neonates with ARF (32
males, 12 females) were studied. Their mean gestational age, weight, and age at admission was 34.7±3.9
weeks, 2100±630 grams, and 2.1±6.3 respectively. Causes of ARF were pre-renal in 22 (50%), intrinsic renal
failure in 16 (36.3%), and post-renal in six (13.6 %). Oliguria was present in 29 neonates. Neonatal sepsis was
the commonest cause of ARF, followed by perinatal asphyxia, respiratory distress syndrome, and
genitourinary anomalies. ARF was present at admission in 37 neonates. The mortality rate was 15.9% (7/44).
Thirty-seven (84%) were discharged with complete recovery of renal functions and followed for six months.
Shock, oliguria, need for mechanical ventilation, and presence of disseminated intravascular coagulopathy
(DIC) emerged as predictors of mortality in neonates with ARF.
Conclusion: The incidence and mortality rate of neonatal ARF were 9.6% and 15.9% respectively in our out
born NICU. Neonatal sepsis was the commonest cause of ARF followed by perinatal asphyxia. Shock, oliguria,
need for mechanical ventilation, and presence of DIC were associated with poor outcome.
Acute Renal Failure; Neonates; Asphyxia; Sepsis; Perinatal Care; Neonatal Intensive Care Units