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Iranian Journal of Pediatrics
Tehran University of Medical Sciences Press
ISSN: 1018-4406
EISSN: 2008-2150
Vol. 26, No. 3, 2016, pp. 29-38
Bioline Code: pe16033
Full paper language: English
Document type: Research Article
Document available free of charge

Iranian Journal of Pediatrics, Vol. 26, No. 3, 2016, pp. 29-38

 en Extramedullary Relapse of Acute Myeloid and Lymphoid Leukemia in Children: A Retrospective Analysis
Kim, Jee Young; Im, Soo Ah; Lee, Ju Hyun; Lee, Jae Wook; Chung, Nak Gyun & Cho, Bin

Abstract

Background: Extramedullary relapse (EMR) is a recurrence of leukemia in sites other than the bone marrow, and it exhibits a relatively rare presentation of relapse of acute leukemia. However, EMR is an important cause of treatment failure among patients with acute leukemia. Therefore, early detection of these relapses may improve the prognosis.
Objectives: To describe the disease-related demographic and clinical features and radiologic findings for children diagnosed with EMR in acute leukemia.
Patients and Methods: The study was basedon22 children (M: F = 14: 8; meanage 7.30 (2.1 - 15.7) years) with 8 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and 14 acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) who had experienced an EMR. Age, gender, clinical symptoms, initial extramedullary disease (EMD), French-American-British (FAB) morphology, cytogenetics, time to and site of EMR, concurrent bone marrow relapse (BMR), radiologic findings, and outcomes were evaluated.
Results: No definite relationship was found between initial EMD and EMR. A predilection for AML to relapse in the central nervous system (CNS), except for the CSF and bone, and for ALL to relapse in the CSF and kidney seemed to occur. Patients with EMR had a significantly higher incidence of t(8: 21) cytogenetics and FAB M2 and L1 morphologies. EMR accompanied with concurrent BMR occurred in 31.8% of the patients, who exhibited a relatively grave clinical course. Radiologic findings were nonspecific and had a great variety of structure involved, including bulging enhancing mass in the CT scan, hypoechoic mass in the US, and enhanced mass-like lesion in the MRI.
Conclusions: Knowledge of the potential sites of EMR, their risk factors, and their clinical and radiologic features may be helpful in the early diagnosis of relapse and planning for therapy.

Keywords
Leukemia; Relapse; Extramedullary Leukemia; Pediatrics

 
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