Extramedullary Relapse of Acute Myeloid and Lymphoid Leukemia in Children: A Retrospective Analysis|
Kim, Jee Young; Im, Soo Ah; Lee, Ju Hyun; Lee, Jae Wook; Chung, Nak Gyun & Cho, Bin
Background: Extramedullary relapse (EMR) is a recurrence of leukemia in sites other than the bone marrow, and it exhibits a relatively
rare presentation of relapse of acute leukemia. However, EMR is an important cause of treatment failure among patients with
acute leukemia. Therefore, early detection of these relapses may improve the prognosis.
Objectives: To describe the disease-related demographic and clinical features and radiologic findings for children diagnosed with
EMR in acute leukemia.
Patients and Methods: The study was basedon22 children (M: F = 14: 8; meanage 7.30 (2.1 - 15.7) years) with 8 acute myeloid leukemia
(AML) and 14 acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) who had experienced an EMR. Age, gender, clinical symptoms, initial extramedullary
disease (EMD), French-American-British (FAB) morphology, cytogenetics, time to and site of EMR, concurrent bone marrow relapse
(BMR), radiologic findings, and outcomes were evaluated.
Results: No definite relationship was found between initial EMD and EMR. A predilection for AML to relapse in the central nervous
system (CNS), except for the CSF and bone, and for ALL to relapse in the CSF and kidney seemed to occur. Patients with EMR had a
significantly higher incidence of t(8: 21) cytogenetics and FAB M2 and L1 morphologies. EMR accompanied with concurrent BMR
occurred in 31.8% of the patients, who exhibited a relatively grave clinical course. Radiologic findings were nonspecific and had a
great variety of structure involved, including bulging enhancing mass in the CT scan, hypoechoic mass in the US, and enhanced
mass-like lesion in the MRI.
Conclusions: Knowledge of the potential sites of EMR, their risk factors, and their clinical and radiologic features may be helpful
in the early diagnosis of relapse and planning for therapy.
Leukemia; Relapse; Extramedullary Leukemia; Pediatrics