In the present study, six flavonoids (5,7-dimethoxyflavanone-4'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 5,7dimethoxyflavanone-4'-O-[2''-O-(5'''-O-trans-cinnamoyl)-β-D-apiofuranosyl]-β-D-glucopyranoside, naringenin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 5,7,3'-trihydroxy-flavanone-4'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, rutin, and nicotiflorin) isolated from Galium fissurense
, Viscum album
and Cirsium hypoleucum were screened against extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing multidrug-resistant (trimetoprimesulphametoxazole, sulbactam-ampicillin, clavulonate-amoxicilin, ceftriaxon, cefepime, imipenem, ceftazidime, tobramicin, gentamicin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin) bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae
We performed susceptibility testing according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI, formerly NCCLS) and used an inhibition endpoint for determination of the minimum inhibition concentrations (MICs).
All the flavonoids showed in vitro antimicrobial activity against all the isolated strains of K. pneumoniae
similar to the control antibacterial (ofloxacin) at the concentrations of 32 -64 µg ml-l
; another control, ampicillin, had no activity. Since, ESβL-producing strains are known to be resistant to all β-lactam antibiotics, our results fall notably within the concentration range for antimicrobial activity.
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the study of the activity of these flavonoids against (ESβL)-producing K. pneumoniae
and may throw light to the low-toxicity of flavonoids, and their potentials for developing therapies for infections caused by ESβL-producing bacteria in the future. Further work is under investigation to identify their precise antibacterial mechanism.