To investigate the essential oil content of Clausena suffruticosa
leaf for its in-vitro
antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities.
The essential oil of Clausena suffruticosa
leaf was extracted by hydrodistillation using a
modified Clevenger-type apparatus and was analyzed by GC-MS using electron impact ionization
method. Antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic screenings were made by disc diffusion technique,
poisoned food technique and brine shrimp lethality bioassay, respectively. Minimum inhibitory
concentration (MIC) of the oil was determined by measuring the zone of inhibition, with tetracycline as
reference standard. Fluconazole served as standard in the antifungal assessment.
A total of twenty two compounds, of which Estragole, Anethole and β-Ocimene were the major
ones, were found in the essential oil of C. suffruticosa
. The oil showed higher antibacterial activity
against Shigella flexneri
than the reference, tetracycline (p < 0.05). Significant activity (p < 0.001)
against other Gram-positive microbes - Staphylococcus aureus
, Bacillus subtilis
, Bacillus cereus
and Bacillus megaterium
– was also observed. However, Gram-negative bacteria -
, Shigella flexneri
, Proteus mirabilis
and Escherichia coli
. Klebsiella pneumoniae
- showed no sensitivity to the oil. In the antifungal assay, the oil exhibited greater activity
(p < 0.001) against Aspergillus ochraceus
than the reference, fluconazole, Inhibition of other fungal
strains tested was also statistically significant (p < 0.001). The lethal concentration (LC50
) of the oil
against brine shrimp was 41.2 μg/ml in the cytotoxic assay.
It is evident that the essential oil of C. suffruticosa
is a potent antimicrobial and cytotoxic
agent that should be further evaluated.