Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria
Vol. 12, No. 1, 2013, pp. 27-32
Bioline Code: pr13005
Full paper language: English
Document type: Research Article
Document available free of charge
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, Vol. 12, No. 1, 2013, pp. 27-32
© Copyright 2013 - Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Effect of Permeation Enhancers on the Release Behavior and Permeation Kinetics of Novel Tramadol Lotions|
Shah, S.N.H.; Tahir, M.A.; Safdar, A.; Riaz, R.; Shahzad, Y.; Rabbani, M.; Karim, S. & Murtaza, G.
Purpose: The aim of this research work was to formulate, characterize and evaluate the in vitro
permeation behavior of tramadol lotion containing propylene glycol (PG) and polyethylene glycol (PEG)
as permeation enhancers.
Methods: The permeation experiments were conducted in vitro using full thickness rabbit skin in Franz
diffusion cells. The donor compartment was filled with PBS (phosphate buffered saline) at pH 7.4 ± 0.1.
The receptor phase was continuously stirred PBS (pH 7.4) at 37 °C ± 0.5. The amount of tramadol
permeated into the receptor phase was determined spectrophotometrically at 271 nm. Various
permeation parameters such as permeation coefficient (Kp), diffusion coefficient (D), flux (J), input rate,
and enhancement ratio were obtained using Fick’s diffusion laws.
Results: Permeation increased with increase in the concentrations of both enhancers tested. Maximum
cumulative amount permeated for control lotion (Lc) was 357 μg/cm2/min with input rate 0.574 μg/min
and lag time (tlag) of 34.93 min, while for the optimum test lotion (L4, containing 8 % PG/PEG in ratio of
1:1 v/v), it was 926 μg/cm2/min, 1.482 μg/min and 58.36 min, respectively. The significantly (p < 0.05)
higher permeability shown by the test lotion L4 can be attributed, in part, to the interaction of PG with
intercellular lipids leading to the disruption of their organization and increasing their fluidity, and also
partly as a result of solubilization of lipid bilayers by PEG.
Conclusion: A binary system of PG and PEG in lotion can be successfully utilized for the permeation
enhancement of tramadol.
Tramadol, Transdermal delivery, Permeation, Propylene glycol, Polyethylene glycol, Rabbit skin.
Alternative site location: http://www.tjpr.org