To investigate the phytochemistry and cytotoxic activity of the leaf, branch and fruit extracts of
Symington type LS, an endangered medicinal plant in the peninsula of Thailand.
Extracts of the mature leaves, branches and fruit (both cotyledon and pericarp) of five-year
old tree were obtained using various organic solvents. Thin–layer chromatography (TLC) and
phytochemical screening were employed to identify the chemical constituents. Cytotoxicity was
characterized by 50 % inhibition (IC50
) of human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468)
using 3-(4,5-dimethylthaizol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay.
The extracts of the plant parts differed in chemical composition. Terpenoids and
anthraquinones were present in all extracts, while cardiac glycosides and tannins were isolated from the
branches and leaves, respectively. The acetone and methanol extracts of the fruit cotyledons were
highly cytotoxic against MDA-MB-468 cell line (IC50
= 3.1 μg/ml for both extracts), whereas acetone and
dichloromethane extracts of the fruit pericarps were highly active against MCF-7 cell line (IC50
and 21.0 μg/ml, respectively). The other extracts were less active.
This work revealed the potentials of V. diospyroides
fruit as a cytotoxic agent against
human breast cancer cell lines. However, further studies, including identification and purification of the
active compounds, will need to be pursued.