To determine the larvicidal activity of the essential oil derived from Zanthoxylum avicennae
(Lam.) DC. (Rutaceae) leaves and stems against the larvae of Aedes albopictus
Essential oil of Z. avicennae
leaves and stems were obtained by hydrodistillation and
analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromaotography-mas spectrometry (GC-MS). The
activity of the essential oil was evaluated, using World Health Organization (WHO) procedures, against
the fourth larvae of A. albopictus
for 24 h and larval mortality recorded at various essential oil
concentrations ranging from 12.5 - 200 μg/mL.
A total of 31 components of the essential oil of Z. avicennae
were identified. The essential oil
had higher content of monoterpenoids (65.70 %) than sesquiterpenoids (33.45 %). The principal
compounds of the essential oil were 1,8-cineol (53.05 %), β-elemene (6.13 %), α-caryophyllene (5.96
%), β-caryophyllene (5.09 %) and caryophyllene oxide (4.59 %). The essential oil exhibited larvicidal
activity against A. albopictus
with a median lethal concentration (LC50) value of 48.79 μg/mL.
The findings obtained indicate that the essential oil of Z. avicennae
has potentials for use
in the control of A. albopictus
larvae and could be useful in the search for newer, safer and more
effective natural compounds as larvicides.