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Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria
ISSN: 1596-5996
EISSN: 1596-9827
Vol. 13, No. 9, 2014, pp. 1407-1413
Bioline Code: pr14194
Full paper language: English
Document type: Research Article
Document available free of charge

Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, Vol. 13, No. 9, 2014, pp. 1407-1413

 en Attenuation of Neuroinflammatory Responses in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced BV-2 Microglia by Suaeda asparagoides Miq. (Chenopodiaceae)
Kopalli, Spandana Rajendra & Koppula, Sushruta

Abstract

Purpose: To investigate the protective effect of Suaeda asparagoides (Chenopodiaceae) extract on neuroinflammatory responses induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in BV-2 microglial cells and its antioxidant effects.
Methods: Biochemical studies carried out include 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5- diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay for cell viability and radical scavenging activities, respectively. To evaluate the anti-neuroinflammatory effects of S. asparagoides (SAE) extract, LPS (1μg/ml)-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells were used and pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines such as nitric oxide (NO), inducible NO (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) were measured using Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Results: LPS-stimulation of BV-2 cells increased the levels of NO (25.2 ± 2.15, p < 0.001) and proinflammatory mediators such as iNOS, COX-2 and TNF-α. However, treatment with SAE extract (20, 40 and 80 μg/ml) to LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells significantly inhibited the excessive release of NO (p < 0.05 at 20 μg/ml and p < 0.001 at 40 and 80 μg/ml, respectively) and suppressed the increased levels of iNOS, COX-2 and TNF-α. SAE also concentration dependently inhibited the NF-κB activation in LPSstimulated BV-2 microglia. Further, SAE significantly and concentration-dependently (p < 0.001 at 20 - 200 μg/ml, respectively) scavenged DPPH radicals with IC50 of 36.33 ± 2.12 μg/ml.
Conclusion: The results strongly suggest that SAE exhibits protective activity against LPS-stimulated neuroinflammatory responses. Mechanistic study reveals that SAE might by regulating NF-κB signaling. The antioxidant activity exhibited by SAE extract might also play a role in the plant’s significant antineuroinflammatory effect.

Keywords
Suaeda asparagoides; Chenopodiaceae; Microglia; Lipopolysaccharide; Neuroinflammation; Cytokines; Antioxidant

 
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