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Revista Colombia Médica
Universidad del Valle - Facultad de Salud
ISSN: 0120-8322
EISSN: 1657-9534
Vol. 34, No. 1, 2003, pp. 17-23
Bioline Code: rc03004
Full paper language: Spanish
Document type: Research Article
Document available free of charge

Revista Colombia Médica, Vol. 34, No. 1, 2003, pp. 17-23

 es Coberturas de vacunación en el Valle del Cauca, 2002
Luis Fernando Cruz, Luz Nelly Girón, Rodrigo Velásquez, Lina María García, Alberto Alzate

Resumen

Para determinar las coberturas del Programa Ampliado de Inmunizaciones (PAI) en niños con edades entre los 12 y 23 meses, residentes en los municipios más grandes del Departamento del Valle, se realizó un muestreo por conglomerados en Buenaventura, Palmira, Buga, Tuluá y Cartago. Se realizaron 754 encuestas con una cobertura de 72% para los cinco municipios. En 97.2% de los hogares se encontró el carné de vacunación actualizado; 51.5% de los niños encuestados no tenían afiliación al Sistema General de Seguridad Social en Salud (SGSSS) al momento de la encuesta, 40.5% estaban afiliados al régimen contributivo y sólo 61 (8.1%) niños estaban afiliados al régimen subsidiado. Para cada uno de los biológicos las coberturas en los municipios estudiados fueron superiores a 95% en BCG, con excepción de Buenaventura (87.6%) y 90% para polio, con Buenaventura nuevamente con 78%. Para DPT las coberturas también fueron superiores a 90% menos en Buenaventura con 77.5%. En hepatitis B y triple viral las coberturas llegaron a 80% con la excepción de Buenaventura (triple viral 68.5%). Para Hemophilus influenzae tipo B (HIB) las coberturas llegan a 70% en Palmira, Buga y Tuluá, pero Cartago (58.4%) y Buenaventura (52.4%) quedan muy por debajo. Tenían esquema completo 67.5% de los niños de Buga, 63% los de Palmira, 61.2% los de Tuluá, 51.2% los de Cartago y sólo 44.3% de los de Buenaventura. Las variables asociadas con tener el esquema de vacunación completo, fueron la afiliación a la seguridad social y la escolaridad de la madre. Mientras que el sector público obtiene coberturas completas de 60% (119/196) entre los 196 afiliados al SGSSS que vacuna, su cobertura con esquema completo entre los 531 niños no afiliados al sistema que vacuna es de 27% (143/531).

Palabras-clave
Coberturas. PAI. Vacunación. BCG. DPT. Polio. HIB. Hepatitis B. Sarampión.

 
 en
Luis Fernando Cruz, Luz Nelly Girón, Rodrigo Velásquez, Lina María García, Alberto Alzate

Abstract

A community based survey of the vaccination status of children aged 12-23 months was conducted to evaluate the coverage of the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) in the Departamento del Valle, Colombia. A simplified cluster sampling method, involving the random selection of 210 children in 30 clusters of 7 children each was adapted in Buenaventura, Palmira, Buga, Tuluá y Cartago. Of the 1050 children expected in the sample, 754 (72%) were located and their mothers were interviewed. The vaccination card was assessed in 97.2 % of the children. At the time of the survey interview, 67.5% of the children were fully vaccinated in Buga, 63% in Palmira, 61.2% in Tuluá, 51.2% in Cartago and 44.3% in Buenaventura. The main factors associated to be fully vaccinated were the number of years of schooling of the mothers and their affiliation to the Social Security System. 51.5% of the children were uncovered by the Social Security System, 40.5% were fully affiliated (Paid Plan), and 8.1% had partial protection (Subsidized Plan). BCG coverage was over 95% in four municipalities, but Buenaventura had only 87.6% coverage. The coverage with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) coverage was also over 90% but in Buenaventura it was only 78%. For diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT) the situation was similar, with coverage over 90%, but only 77.5 in Buenaventura. In the case of hepatitis B all the municipalities were over 80% coverage, but in the case of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) four were over 80%, and Buenaventura only had 68,5% of their children vaccinated. For Hemophilus influenzae type B (HIB) 70% of the children in Palmira, Buga and Tuluá were vaccinated, while in Cartago (58.4%), and Buenaventura (52.4%) the coverage was very low. The Public Health System, in charge of the children without Social Security, vaccinates 196 children affiliated to the Social Security System with 119 of them (60%) fully vaccinated, whereas among the 531 children uncovered by the Social Security and under its responsibility, only 143 of them (27%) were fully vaccinated.

Keywords
Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). Vaccination. BCG. DPT. MMR. HIB. Hepatitis B.

 
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