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Revista Colombia Médica
Universidad del Valle - Facultad de Salud
ISSN: 0120-8322
EISSN: 1657-9534
Vol. 36, No. 4s3, 2005, pp. 6-14
Bioline Code: rc05072
Full paper language: Spanish
Document type: Research Article
Document available free of charge

Revista Colombia Médica, Vol. 36, No. 4s3, 2005, pp. 6-14

 en Behavior of diarrhea caused by viruses and bacteria in regions located near the Equator
María Fernanda Gutiérrez, Delfina Urbina, Adriana Matiz Martha Puello, Marcela Mercado, Miguel Parra, Nadim Ajami,Piedad Serrano, Alba Alicia Trespalacios

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: The infectious acute diarrhea (IAD) constitutes an important health problem affecting a large number of children worldwide. The morbility index associated with the IAD in children under five years of age, involves between 2.6% and 3.3% episodes/child/year, with mortality index of 3.2 millions per year. Most of the epidemiological studies have been performed in countries belonging to temperate zones but little is known concerning the tropics, where this infection is endemic.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to contribute to the knowledge of the IAD in Colombia comparing two geographic and climatically different regions, one located at the Caribbean coast (Cartagena) and another of the central highland (Facatativá). We analyzed the etiology of the two regions identifying the source of the infection.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Diarrheic samples from children under five years of age who had medical assistance in local hospitals were collected during 14 months. Bacteria were isolated in selective media and typified with biochemical methods. The presence of viruses was detected with immunoassay commercial kits. Analyses of independent variables (age, gender, temperature, rainfall and humidity) were evaluated with bivariated and Z tests and correlated with the presence of the infection in both regions.
RESULTS: The predominance of viral diarrhea was higher in both regions (29.2% and 21.4%) compared with the bacterial source of infections (16% and 15%) for Cartagena and Facatativá, respectively. Rotavirus was the most frequent pathogen with prevalences around 24.8% and 18%, respectively. Astrovirus and enteric adenovirus had prevalences below 3%. There were no significant statistic differences between the regions studied accounting for the infection or supporting that different climate conditions or child characteristics could be associated with diarrhea. However, the Z test showed that rotavirus and in general, all viral infections follow different patterns when analyzed comparatively in both regions.

Keywords
Diarrhea; Rotavirus; Epidemiology of acute diarrhea; Children.

 
 es Comportamiento de la diarrea causada por virus y bacterias en regiones cercanas a la zona ecuatorial
María Fernanda Gutiérrez, Delfina Urbina, Adriana Matiz Martha Puello, Marcela Mercado, Miguel Parra, Nadim Ajami,Piedad Serrano, Alba Alicia Trespalacios

Resumen

INTRODUCCIÓN: La enfermedad diarreica aguda (EDA) es un problema de salud a nivel mundial que afecta a la población infantil de distintas regiones. Casi todos los estudios epidemiológicos se han hecho en países con estaciones y poco se informa su comportamiento en países sin estaciones, donde la EDA es endémica con picos epidémicos.
OBJETIVOS: Contribuir a conocer la conducta de EDA en Colombia y determinar si su comportamiento es diferente en niños menores de cinco años en dos regiones distintas entre sí en geografía y clima.
MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Se hizo un estudio descriptivo en dos localidades colombianas. Una en la costa atlántica y otra en el centro del país. La muestra se obtuvo en menores de cinco años que consultaron por diarrea a centros asistenciales de cada región. Los microorganismos bacterianos se identificaron mediante pruebas bioquímicas y los virus con técnicas inmunoenzimáticas. En el análisis estadístico se siguieron un ensayo bivariado y pruebas Z de normalidad para verificar si el clima modifica el comportamiento de EDA y si se presenta de manera distinta en las dos regiones.
RESULTADOS: En ambas zonas (Cartagena, Bolívar y Facatativa, Cundinamarca) predominó la diarrea viral, frente a la EDA bacteriana. También en ambas el rotavirus fue prevalente. Fue mucho más baja la presencia de astrovirus y adenovirus. No hubo datos con significación estadística para demostrar que las condiciones ambientales y las propias de los niños, alteran el comportamiento de la EDA, pero sí se observó que la EDA por rotavirus se comporta de manera diferente al analizar en forma comparativa las dos regiones del estudio.

Palabras-clave
Diarrea; Rotavirus; Epidemiología de la EDA; Niños.

 
© Copyright 2005 - Revista Colombia Médica
Alternative site location: http://colombiamedica.univalle.edu.co

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