Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is an endogenous opportunistic infection brought about by the disruption of the normal vaginal microbiota. Its early diagnosis and treatment during pregnancy may reduce the risk of negative pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this review was to report on the aerobic bacteria most prevalent in AV and to provide evidence of the threat of untreated AV on pregnancy outcomes. More than 300 papers on preterm delivery were extracted from several research domains and filtered to include only AV-associated bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus
, Enterococcus faecalis
, Escherichia coli
and Group B streptococci and their association with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Due to the diverse sample groups, study techniques and outcomes, a meta-analysis was not conducted. The review revealed that the association of AV with adverse pregnancy outcomes has not been as widely researched as bacterial vaginosis (BV) and needs further investigation. Furthermore, the frequent misdiagnosis of AV coupled with the emerging antimicrobial resistance associated with bacteria implicated in AV and neonatal nosocomial infections pose a problem for prophylaxis and treatment to reduce the risk of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality.