Characterization of apoptosis and autophagy through Bcl-2 and Beclin-1 immunoexpression in gestational trophoblastic disease|
Wargasetia, Teresa Liliana; Shahib, Nurhalim; Martaadisoebrata, Djamhoer; Dhianawaty, Diah & Hernowo, Bethy
Background: The pathogenesis of Gestational Trophoblastic Disease (GTD) is not clearly known.
Objective: In this study, immunoexpression of proteins Bcl-2 and Beclin-1 in trophoblastic lesions and normal trophoblastic tissue was conducted to study the mechanism of apoptotic and autophagic cell death that is expected to complete the study of GTD pathogenesis.
Materials and Methods: Bcl-2 and Beclin-1 immunoexpression were studied on complete hydatidiform mole, partial hydatidiform mole, invasive mole, choriocarcinoma and normal placenta slides.
Results: The average total scores of Bcl-2 immunoexpression had a decreasing value, starting from partial hydatidiform mole (3.09), complete hydatidiform mole (2.36), invasive mole (1.18) to choriocarcinoma (0) when compared to normal placenta (6). The results showed no significant difference in Beclin-1 immunoexpression total score between complete hydatidiform mole, partial hydatidiform mole and invasive mole, namely that the value of the average total score of Beclin-1 was low (2.27, 2.45 and 2.36), but on the contrary choriocarcinoma showed an increasing strong Beclin-1 expression with the average total score of 4.57.
Conclusion: Bcl-2 expression decreases in line with the excessive proliferation of trophoblast cells in hydatidiform mole and leads to malignancy in invasive mole and choriocarcinoma. The decreased expression of Beclin-1 that leads to autophagy defects in complete hydatidiform mole, partial hydatidiform mole and invasive mole shows the role of autophagy as tumor suppressor, whereas strong Beclin-1 expression shows the survival role of autophagy in choriocarcinoma. The change of Bcl-2 activity as antiapoptosis and Beclin-1 as proautophagy plays a role in pathogenesis of GTD.
Gestational trophoblastic disease; Apoptosis; Autophagy; Bcl-2; Beclin-1