Low dose bitter leaf improves sperm quality disrupted in immunosuppressed Wistar rats: An experimental study|
Kadir, Risikat Eniola; Ibrahim, Abdulmumin; Ibrahim, Balkis Abimbola; Gwadabe, Sadiya Musa; Jaji-Sulaimon, Rukayat; Adigun, Munirat Foyeke & Oyewopo, Adeoye Oyetunji
Background: Synthetic prednisolone (PRED) is a widely used over-the-counter
glucocorticoid. Glucocorticoids have inhibitory effects on the immune system and are
often used as immunosuppressive agents. Suppressed immunity may impact fertility
via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Bitter leaf (BL) has been shown to improve
sperm parameters, but its effects on immunosuppression-associated infertility have not
yet been documented.
Objective: To determine the fertility effects of bitter leaf on immunosuppressed Wistar
Materials and Methods: A total of 30 male adult Wistar rats were randomly assigned
to 6 groups (n = 5/each). Group A served as a control and were given distilled water
in addition to normal feeds, group B received 2 mg/kg PRED for 14 days and served
as the standard immunosuppressed group, and groups C-F were immunosuppressed
as in B but in addition received 50 mg/kg levamisole, low-dose (250 mg/kg) BL, highdose
(375 mg/kg) BL, and low-dose BL + levamisole, respectively. The CD4 counts,
hematological parameters, and sperm parameters were analyzed and compared.
Results: There were significant decreases in sperm motility, progressive motility,
morphology, and life/death ratio in the animals given PRED only compared to the
controls (p = 0.002, 0.001, 0.001, and 0.01, respectively). These were significantly
increased in the treated groups, and animals given levamisole and 250 mg/kg BL
showed significantly increased sperm counts compared to the controls (p = 0.04 and p
= 0.04, respectively).
Conclusion: Low-dose BL (250 mg/kg) restored the sperm parameters altered by
Bitter leaf; Immunosuppression; Infertility; Prednisolone; Rats.