Bacteremia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in children. The causative bacteria and antibiotic sensitivities differ from region to region. Timely administration of effective antibiotics can be life-saving for septic patients, therefore it is important for clinicians to be aware of their local epidemiology when selecting empiric antibiotics for the treatment of bacteremia.
The goal of this study was to describe the microbiology and antibiotic resistance patterns of bacteremia in the pediatric department of the University Teaching Hospital of Kigali (UTHK).
This was a retrospective descriptive study conducted from 1st January 2015 to 31st December 2015. All admitted children with a positive blood culture were included in the study.
Eighty children were identified with positive blood cultures during the period of the study. The most commonly isolated bacteria were Klebsiella
species (30%, 24/80), Staphylococcus aureus
(27.5%, 22/80), and Escherichia coli
(22.5%, 18/80). In terms of resistance patterns, 60.0% of S. aureus
was resistant to oxacillin. Among Klebsiella
species, 33.3% were resistant to cefotaxime, 77.3% to gentamicin, and 42.8% to ciprofloxacin. There was 100% resistance to ampicillin.
Klebsiella species, S. aureus, and E. coli account for 80% of the cases of bacteremia. Use of ampicillin combined with gentamicin or cefotaxime for empiric treatment of bacterial sepsis provides poor
coverage in this pediatric department. Epidemiological surveillance must continue to track changes in antibiotic susceptibility patterns.