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Rwanda Medical Journal
Rwanda Health Communication Center - Rwanda Biomedical Center (RHCC - RBC)
ISSN: 2079-097X
EISSN: 2079-097X
Vol. 76, No. 2, 2019, pp. 1-6
Bioline Code: rw19010
Full paper language: English
Document type: Research Article
Document available free of charge

Rwanda Medical Journal, Vol. 76, No. 2, 2019, pp. 1-6

 en Neonatal antibiotic use at a district and teaching hospital in Rwanda – a retrospective descriptive study
Ndayizeye, R.; Sibomana, E.; Nyaziyose, I.; Conard, C. J. & Cartledge, P.


INTRODUCTION: Infection remains a significant cause of death in the neonatal period. Antibiotics are lifesaving in genuine infection but have been shown to be detrimental if overused in neonates who have no evidence of infection. This study aims to describe baseline length and choice of antibiotic used in a district and referral teaching hospital neonatal unit in Kigali, Rwanda.
METHODS: A retrospective, descriptive chart review was conducted among neonates admitted from January 2015 to December 2017 to Neonatology Units at Muhima District Hospital (MHD) and University Teaching Hospital of Kigali (UTHK).
RESULTS: Convenience sampling was used to identify 178 neonates who were enrolled from MDH (n=112) and UTHK (n=66). 88% of neonates received antibiotics, for a median of 6 days. Neonates spent a mean of 72% of their admission-period on intravenous antibiotics. The most common first-line antibiotics were ampicillin (100%) and gentamicin (97%). Blood cultures were ordered in 70 cases (41.2%) and a positive culture was found in 16 cases, with Klebsiella check for this species in other resources species and Staphylococcus aureus check for this species in other resources the only organisms cultured.
CONCLUSION: Infection remains a significant problem for neonates. With increasing challenges from antibiotic resistance, the results of this study demonstrate the need for antibiotic stewardship programs in Rwandan Neonatology Units.

Anti-Bacterial agents; Neonatal Sepsis; Sepsis; Infant mortality; Neonatal Intensive Care Units; Africa; Rwanda

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