: Infection remains a significant cause of death in the neonatal period. Antibiotics are lifesaving in genuine
infection but have been shown to be detrimental if overused in neonates who have no evidence of infection. This study
aims to describe baseline length and choice of antibiotic used in a district and referral teaching hospital neonatal unit in
: A retrospective, descriptive chart review was conducted among neonates admitted from January 2015 to
December 2017 to Neonatology Units at Muhima District Hospital (MHD) and University Teaching Hospital of Kigali (UTHK).
: Convenience sampling was used to identify 178 neonates who were enrolled from MDH (n=112) and UTHK (n=66).
88% of neonates received antibiotics, for a median of 6 days. Neonates spent a mean of 72% of their admission-period on
intravenous antibiotics. The most common first-line antibiotics were ampicillin (100%) and gentamicin (97%). Blood cultures
were ordered in 70 cases (41.2%) and a positive culture was found in 16 cases, with Klebsiella
species and Staphylococcus aureus
the only organisms cultured.
Infection remains a significant problem for neonates. With increasing challenges from antibiotic resistance,
the results of this study demonstrate the need for antibiotic stewardship programs in Rwandan Neonatology Units.