Rwanda Medical Journal
Rwanda Health Communication Center - Rwanda Biomedical Center (RHCC - RBC)
Vol. 78, No. 1, 2021, pp. 9-15
Bioline Code: rw21002
Full paper language: English
Document type: Research Article
Document available free of charge
Rwanda Medical Journal, Vol. 78, No. 1, 2021, pp. 9-15
© Copyright 2021 - The Author(s)
Impact of Body Mass Index (BMI) and Gestational Weight Gain on Term Pregnancy Outcome in Rwanda|
Nkubito, P.; Rulisa, S.; Ntasumbumuyange, D.; Small, M. & Magriples, U.
BACKGROUND: There is limited data on the consequences of obesity and gestational weight gain
on pregnancy outcomes in developing countries.
This study aimed at evaluating BMI and gestational weight gain in Rwanda and their effects on
METHODS: Prospective cross-sectional study of women with a singleton gestation who entered
antenatal care in the 1st trimester and delivered at term. Only patients with accurate gestational
age assignments were included. All participants were admitted to 1 of 3 maternity units in Kigali,
Rwanda from June to December 2016 and were weighed at the entry to care and at the time of
delivery to calculate gestational weight gain.
RESULTS: Of the 1000 participants, 3.1% were underweight, 64.1% had a normal BMI, 26.1% were
overweight and 6.7% were obese. Most women (68%) had less weight gain than recommended.
Overweight and obese women were at increased risk of hypertension (p<0.0001). Obese women
were at increased risk of cesarean section (p<0.0001). Excessive weight gain increased the risk
of hypertensive disorders and cesarean section (p<0.0001). Large for gestational age infants
were more common in overweight and obese women (OR=3.3, p=0.008 vs OR= 5.3, p=0.007).
Underweight women had a 3.5-fold increased risk of low birth weight (p=0.05) and insufficient
weight gain significantly increased the risk for a small for gestational age infant (OR=2.5, p<0.0001).
CONCLUSIONS: BMI and gestational weight gain have significant impacts on the term pregnancy
outcome in Rwanda. The findings of this study highlight the need for nutritional education and
support to improve pregnancy outcomes.
Gestational Weight Gain; Obesity; Developing Country; Rwanda
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