Using different amendments to reduce heavy metals movement in soils|
A. Akhavan Sepahy, M. Mazaheri Assadi, V. Saggadian and A. Noohi
With long-term use of sewage waste, heavy metals can accumulate to phytotoxic levels and resulted in reduced plant growth and/or enhanced metal concentrations in plants, as a result food chain. If these metals penetrate too rapidly in a particular soil, especially with high water table, they can pollute ground water supplies. The aim of this research is prevention of movement of waste water-borne heavy metals in soils of southern parts of Tehran. These waste waters are used for irrigation of agricultural lands at southern regions since many years ago. For this purpose, 6 soil samples from southern parts of Tehran city and 2 ones from Zanjan city without lime and organic matter were selected. In laboratory, sorption capacities of the soils for Ni, Cd and Pb were compared with those of calcite, Nabentonite, zeolite, illite and hematite amendments. The method was carried out by equilibration of known quantities of these adsorbents and soils with solutions containing these elements. The results showed that among the 5 amendments, calcite and Na-bentonite had the greatest sorption percentages of the 3 elements and illite had the least one. The retention capacity of calcite and Na-bentonite for Cd was highest in all 8 soils. However, retention capacities of these 2 minerals for Pb and Ni were higher than those of loamy soils without lime and organic matter and also sandy soils. Because of abundance and low price of calcite, this amendment is preferred to Na-bentonite. Therefore, calcite is recommended for adding to soils with low sorption capacity of Ni, Cd and Pb.
Heavy metals, movement, sewage waste, amendments, sorption