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International Journal of Environment Science and Technology
Center for Environment and Energy Research and Studies (CEERS)
ISSN: 1735-1472
EISSN: 1735-2630
Vol. 6, No. 3, 2009, pp. 353-358
Bioline Code: st09039
Full paper language: English
Document type: Research Article
Document available free of charge

International Journal of Environment Science and Technology, Vol. 6, No. 3, 2009, pp. 353-358

 en Contamination and impacts of new antifouling biocide Irgarol-1051 on subtropical coral reef waters
Sheikh, M. A.; Higuchi, T.; Fujimura, H.; Imo, T. S.; Miyagi, T. & Oomori, T.


Coral reefs are deteriorating worldwide due to various stresses, including pollution of hazardous chemicals such as antifouling chemicals. Occurrence and impacts of a new antifouling biocide Irgarol-1051 (2-methylthio-4-tert- butylamino -6-cyclopropylamino -s-triazine) have been studied in coral reef waters around Okinawa Islands, Japan. The average concentration of Irgarol detected at commercial and fisheries Ports was 24.70 ± 9.88 ng/L. In Naha Bay, the average concentration of Irgarol was 10.00±12.98 ng/L. The average level detected around the Ports has already approaches the environmental risk limit for the marine organisms. Irgarol was detected in waters at the frequency of 92.3 % (24/26) of the total samples collected during two sampling campaigns (September and December, 2007) at the Ports. In Naha Bay, Irgarol was detected by 40.5 % (17/42) of the total water samples collected monthly from Sep., 2007 to Feb., 2008, indicating that Irgarol is widely detected along the coastal shorelines of Okinawa Island. The eco-toxicological study revealed that the rate of photosynthesis in the coral Galaxea fascicularis check for this species in other resources was significantly reduced by 18 % and 121 % relative to control when the corals were exposed to 1000 and 10,000 ng/L of Irgarol, respectively. The calcification rate dropped by 98.3 % relative to control when the corals were exposed to 10,000 ng/L of Irgarol. The results of the present study report the wide occurrence of new antifouling biocide Irgarol around coastal areas of Okinawa Island. However, the contamination does not pose serious threat on the photosynthesis and calcification of corals under short term exposure (96 h).

Calcification; Photosynthesis; Pollution; PS II compounds

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