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International Journal of Environment Science and Technology
Center for Environment and Energy Research and Studies (CEERS)
ISSN: 1735-1472
EISSN: 1735-2630
Vol. 9, No. 1, 2012, pp. 183-193
Bioline Code: st12019
Full paper language: English
Document type: Report
Document available free of charge

International Journal of Environment Science and Technology, Vol. 9, No. 1, 2012, pp. 183-193

 en Remediation of chromium contaminants using bacteria
Kanmani, P; Aravind, J & Preston, D

Abstract

Chromium contaminants emanating from industrial activities pose a significant threat to human’s well-being. Chromium (III) and Chromium (VI) are the forms in which they are commonly encountered, of which the trivalent form is relatively benign. Hence, biological reduction of hexavalent chromium has been widely explored by researchers, yielding fruitful outcomes, opening up exciting avenues and also throwing up new challenges. This article attempts to review this area of research. Microbes, especially bacteria capable of Chromium (VI) reduction, belonging to a heterogeneous group have been isolated from contaminated sites. They exhibit plasmid-mediated chromate resistance and the reduction is enzymatically mediated. Reduction studies have been carried out with free and immobilized enzymes as well as whole cells. Experiments have been carried out in specifically designed bioreactors operated in batch and continuous modes. Although significant progress has been made, much needs to be done for its successful in situ application as the organism may not withstand the Chromium concentration or may be impeded by the presence of other toxicants. With molecular engineering, it may be possible to derive strains with improved performance even under stressful field conditions.

Keywords
Bioreduction; Biosorption; Chromate reductase; Chromium; Resistance; Toxicity

 
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