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International Journal of Environment Science and Technology
Center for Environment and Energy Research and Studies (CEERS)
ISSN: 1735-1472
EISSN: 1735-2630
Vol. 11, No. 1, 2014, pp. 111-118
Bioline Code: st14012
Full paper language: English
Document type: Research Article
Document available free of charge

International Journal of Environment Science and Technology, Vol. 11, No. 1, 2014, pp. 111-118

 en Isotherms for the sorption of zinc and copper onto kaolinite: comparison of various error functions
Shahmohammadi-Kalalagh, Sh. & Babazadeh, H.


In this research, the equilibrium sorption of Zn(II) and Cu(II) by kaolinite was explained using the Freundlich, Langmuir and Redlich–Peterson isotherms, via both linear and non-linear regression analyses. In the case of non-linear regression method, the best-fitting model was evaluated using six different error functions, namely coefficient of determination (r2), hybrid fractional error function (HYBRID), Marquardt’s percent standard deviation (MPSD), average relative error (ARE), sum of the errors squared (SSE) and sum of the absolute errors (EABS). The examination of error estimation methods showed that the Langmuir model provides the best fit for the experimental equilibrium data for both linear and nonlinear regression analyses. The SSE function was found to be a better option to minimize the error distribution between the experimental equilibrium data and predicted two-parameter isotherms. In the case of three-parameter isotherm, HYBRID was found to be the best error function to minimize the error distribution structure between experimental equilibrium data and theoretical isotherms. Non-linear method was found to be more appropriate method for estimating the isotherm parameters.

Adsorption; Freundlich; Langmuir; Redlich–Peterson; Regression analysis

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