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International Journal of Environment Science and Technology
Center for Environment and Energy Research and Studies (CEERS)
ISSN: 1735-1472
EISSN: 1735-2630
Vol. 11, No. 3, 2014, pp. 843-872
Bioline Code: st14085
Full paper language: English
Document type: Review Article
Document available free of charge

International Journal of Environment Science and Technology, Vol. 11, No. 3, 2014, pp. 843-872

 en Biotechnological advances in bioremediation of heavy metals contaminated ecosystems: an overview with special reference to phytoremediation
Mani, D. & Kumar, Chitranjan

Abstract

The ability of heavy metals bioaccumulation to cause toxicity in biological systems—human, animals, microorganisms and plants—is an important issue for environmental health and safety. Recent biotechnological approaches for bioremediation include biomineralization (mineral synthesis by living organisms or biomaterials), biosorption (dead microbial and renewable agricultural biomass), phytostabilization (immobilization in plant roots), hyperaccumulation (exceptional metal concentration in plant shoots), dendroremediation (growing trees in polluted soils), biostimulation (stimulating living microbial population), rhizoremediation (plant and microbe), mycoremediation (stimulating living fungi/mycelial ultrafiltration), cyanoremediation (stimulating algal mass for remediation) and genoremediation (stimulating gene for remediation process). The adequate restoration of the environment requires cooperation, integration and assimilation of such biotechnological advances along with traditional and ethical wisdom to unravel the mystery of nature in the emerging field of bioremediation. This review highlights better understanding of the problems associated with the toxicity of heavy metals to the contaminated ecosystems and their viable, sustainable and eco-friendly bioremediation technologies, especially the mechanisms of phytoremediation of heavy metals along with some case studies in India and abroad. However, the challenges (biosafety assessment and genetic pollution) involved in adopting the new initiatives for cleaning-up the heavy metals-contaminated ecosystems from both ecological and greener point of view must not be ignored.

Keywords
Biomineralization; Bioremediation; Biostimulation; Cyanoremediation; Detoxification; Genoremediation; Mycoremediation; Phytoremediation; Rhizoremediation

 
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