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International Journal of Environment Science and Technology
Center for Environment and Energy Research and Studies (CEERS)
ISSN: 1735-1472
EISSN: 1735-2630
Vol. 12, No. 2, 2015, pp. 537-550
Bioline Code: st15049
Full paper language: English
Document type: Research Article
Document available free of charge

International Journal of Environment Science and Technology, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2015, pp. 537-550

 en Enrichment, risk assessment, and statistical apportionment of heavy metals in tannery-affected areas
Ali, Z.; Malik, R.N.; Shinwari, Z.K. & Qadir, A.

Abstract

Tannery-affected surface soils from 72 sampling sites from industrial area of Sialkot district, Pakistan, were collected and analyzed for nine physicochemical parameters, nine heavy metals, and four macro-nutrients. Most of the soils were poor in organic matter (0.11–2.98 %), basic in nature with pH(7.1–10.6) and electrical conductivity (1.2–17.9 mS/ cm). Mean concentration of total dissolved solids, Cl1-, alkalinity, NO⅓-N, salinity, and PO43- was 3,093 mg/L, 6,587, 3,929, 301.3, 10.3, and 1.7 mg/kg. The results showed that concentration of macro-nutrients was in the order: Na>Mg>K>Ca whereas heavy metals followed the order: Cr>Fe>Ni>Mn>Cu>Zn>Co>Pb>Cd. Factor analysis based on principal component analysis, cluster analysis, and correlation analysis identified contribution of metals from tannery effluents, agrochemicals, automobiles exhaust, and natural weathering processes. Tannery-affected soils were enriched withCd followed by Cr, Pb, Ni, Cu, Co, Zn, and Mn. Geo-accumulation index (Igeo) classified the soil samples in unpolluted tomoderately polluted categories. Metal pollution index provided better estimation of heavy metal pollution as compared to pollution load index. Ecological risk index showed high potential ecological risk associated with Cd and Cr withmean concentrations above respective average shale/ background values. The results are useful for heavy metals source identification, enrichment, risk assessment, and management of tannery-affected soils and can contribute to monitoring programs at regional levels.

Keywords
Cluster analysis; Ecological risk index; Enrichment indices; Factor analysis; Geo-accumulation

 
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