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International Journal of Environment Science and Technology
Center for Environment and Energy Research and Studies (CEERS)
ISSN: 1735-1472
EISSN: 1735-2630
Vol. 12, No. 5, 2015, pp. 1591-1602
Bioline Code: st15148
Full paper language: English
Document type: Research Article
Document available free of charge

International Journal of Environment Science and Technology, Vol. 12, No. 5, 2015, pp. 1591-1602

 en Chromium(III) biosorption onto spent grains residual from brewing industry: equilibrium, kinetics and column studies
Ferraz, A.I.; Amorim, C.; Tavares, T. & Teixeira, J.A.

Abstract

The use of industrial wastes for wastewater treatment as a strategy to their re-use and valorisation may provide important advances toward sustainability. The present work gives new insights into heavy metal biosorption onto low-cost biosorbents, studying chromium(III) biosorption onto spent grains residual from a Portuguese brewing industry both in batch and expanded bed column systems. Experimental studies involved unmodified spent grains and spent grains treated with NaOH. Metal uptake followed a rapid initial step, well described by the pseudosecond- order kinetic model up to 2–7 h, indicating chemisorption to be the rate-limiting step. Beyond this period intraparticle diffusion assumed an important role in the uptake global kinetics. The best fit for equilibrium data was obtained using the Langmuir model, with unmodified spent grains having the higher maximum uptake capacity (qmax = 16.7 mg g-1). In open system studies, using expanded bed columns, the best performance was also achieved with unmodified spent grains: Breakthrough time (C/Ci = 0.25) and total saturation time (C/Ci = 0.99) occurred after 58 and 199 h of operation, corresponding to the accumulation of 390 mg of chromium(III), 43.3 % of the total amount entering the column. These results suggest that alkali treatment does not improve spent grains uptake performance. Changes in biomass composition determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy suggested hydroxyl groups and proteins to have an important role in chromium(III) biosorption. This study points out that unmodified spent grains can be successfully used as lowcost biosorbent for trivalent chromium.

Keywords
Breakthrough curves; Heavy metals; Low-cost biosorbents; Waste valorisation

 
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