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International Journal of Environment Science and Technology
Center for Environment and Energy Research and Studies (CEERS)
ISSN: 1735-1472
EISSN: 1735-2630
Vol. 13, No. 6, 2016, pp. 1475-1488
Bioline Code: st16139
Full paper language: English
Document type: Research Article
Document available free of charge

International Journal of Environment Science and Technology, Vol. 13, No. 6, 2016, pp. 1475-1488

 en Determination of fuel combustion product in airport runoff water samples using liquid–liquid extraction with gas chromatography–spectrometry
Sulej-Suchomska, A. M.; Polkowska, Ż.; Przyjazny, A.; Kokot, Z. J. & Namieśnik, J.

Abstract

Determination of xenobiotics in samples of airport runoff water is both a complex and indispensable task due to an increasing threat resulting from the activities of numerous airports. The aim of this study was to develop, optimize, and validate a procedure based on liquid–liquid extraction (LLE) coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). So far, no procedure was available that would ensure reliable data about concentration levels of these toxic pollutants in a new type of environmental samples, such as airport stormwater. The most difficult step in the analytical procedure used for the determination of fuel combustion products in airport stormwater samples is sample preparation. In this work, eight different protocols of sample preparation were tested. The evaluation of the LLE demonstrated that the best extraction conditions were as follows: dichloromethane (extraction solvent), solvent volume of 15 mL and sample volume of 250 mL. The percent recovery values ranged from 66 to 106 %, which shows that the LLE technique is a powerful method for extracting PAHs from airport runoff water samples with a complex matrix composition. Moreover, the developed procedure was characterized by satisfactory selectivity and a relatively low LOQ (0.17–0.52 µg/L). The procedure has been successfully applied to the analysis of stormwater samples collected from different sites at international airport in Poland. The procedure can thus be used as a tool for tracking the environmental fate of these compounds and for assessing the environmental effect of airports.

Keywords
Airport stormwater; Runoff water; PAHs; Analytical procedures; LLE; GC–MS

 
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