The effect of extract and fractions of the root bark of Securidaca longipedunculata
Fres (Polygalaceae) on acute inflammation was evaluated. Solvent extraction yielded the crude methanol extract (ME) while solvent guided extraction yielded a petroleum ether fraction (PF) and methanol fraction (MF). The extract and fractions inhibited topical edema induced by xylene in the mouse ear. In the systemic edema of the rat paw, the methanol extract (ME) and methanol fraction (MF) significantly (P<0.05) suppressed the development of paw edema induced by egg albumin in rats while the petroleum ether fraction (PF) was devoid of such activity.Ulcerogenic assay in rats indicated that the extract and fractions exhibited varying degrees of gastric irritation in rats in the order of magnitude: MF > PF > ME. Phytochemical tests showed that ME and MF tested positive for carbohydrates, reducing sugars, glycosides, flavonoids, terpenoids, sterols and saponins while PF gave positive reaction for resins only.Acute toxicity test for ME in mice established an i.p and p.o LD50
of 11 and 282 mg/kg respectively.