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African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines
African Ethnomedicines Network
ISSN: 0189-6016
Vol. 4, No. 3, 2007, pp. 338-344
Bioline Code: tc07041
Full paper language: English
Document type: Research Article
Document available free of charge

African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, Vol. 4, No. 3, 2007, pp. 338-344

 en IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF CRUDE EXTRACTS FROM PLANTS BRYOPHYLLUM PINNATUM check for this species in other resources AND KALANCHOE CRENATA check for this species in other resources
Akinsulire, Odunayo R.; Aibinu, Ibukun E.; Adenipekun, Tayo; Adelowotan, Toyin & Odugbemi,Tolu

Abstract

Extracts from the leaves of Bryophyllum pinnatum check for this species in other resources and Kalanchoe crenata check for this species in other resources were screened for their antimicrobial activities. Solvents used included water, methanol, and local solvents such as palmwine, local gin (Seaman's Schnapps 40% alcoholic drink,) and "omi ekan-ogi" (Sour water from 3 days fermented milled maize). Leaves were dried and powdered before being soaked in solvents for 3 days. Another traditional method of extraction by squeezing raw juice from the leaves was also employed. All extracts were lyophilized. These extracts were tested against some Gram-negative organisms ( Escherichia coli check for this species in other resources ATCC 25922, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa check for this species in other resources , Klebsiella pneumoniae check for this species in other resources , Shigella flexneri check for this species in other resources , Salmonella paratyphi check for this species in other resources , Citrobacter spp); Gram-positive organisms Staphylococcus aureus check for this species in other resources ATCC 25213, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis check for this species in other resources , Bacillus subtilis check for this species in other resources ) and a fungus ( Candida albicans check for this species in other resources ). Agar well diffusion and broth dilution methods were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) at concentrations of 512mg/ml to 4mg/ml. All the organisms except Candida albicans were susceptible to the extracts obtained from the traditional method. The squeezed-leaf juice of Kalanchoe crenata was the most active one with MIC of 8 mg/ml against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bacillus subtilis, 32 mg/ml against Shigella flexneri, 64 mg/ml against Escherichia coli and 128 mg/ml against the control strain Staphylococcus aureus while its MBC is 256 mg/ml against these organisms except Bacillus subtilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The Gram-positive organisms were more sensitive to the methanol and local gin-extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum. Extracts from other solvents showed moderate to weak activity.

Keywords
Antimicrobial, Bryophyllum pinnatum, Kalanchoe crenata, Local solvents, Gram-positive organism, Gram-negative organism

 
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