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African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines
African Ethnomedicines Network
ISSN: 0189-6016
Vol. 13, No. 4, 2016, pp. 216-222
Bioline Code: tc16107
Full paper language: English
Document type: Research Article
Document available free of charge

African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, Vol. 13, No. 4, 2016, pp. 216-222

 en ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANT EXTRACTS AGAINST PHYTOPATHOGENIC FUNGI.
Mahlo, Salome Mamokone; Chauke, Hasani Richard; McGaw, Lyndy & Eloff, Jacobus

Abstract


Background: Medicinal plants are used by many ethnic groups as a source of medicine for the treatment of various ailments in both humans and domestic animals. These plants produce secondary metabolites that have antimicrobial properties, thus screening of medicinal plants provide another alternative for producing chemical fungicides that are relatively non-toxic and cost-effective.
Materials and methods: Leaf extracts of selected South African plant species ( Bucida buceras check for this species in other resources , Breonadia salicina check for this species in other resources , Harpephyllum caffrum check for this species in other resources , Olinia ventosa check for this species in other resources , Vangueria infausta check for this species in other resources and Xylotheca kraussiana check for this species in other resources ) were investigated for activity against selected phytopathogenic fungi ( Aspergillus niger check for this species in other resources , Aspergillus parasiticus check for this species in other resources , Colletotricum gloeosporioides check for this species in other resources , Penicillium janthinellum check for this species in other resources , P. expansum check for this species in other resources , Trichoderma harzianum check for this species in other resources and Fusarium oxysporum check for this species in other resources ). These plant fungal pathogens causes major economic losses in fruit industry such as blue rot on nectaries and postharvest disease in citrus. Plant species were selected from 600 evaluated inter alia, against two animal fungal pathogens ( Candida albicans check for this species in other resources and Cryptococcus neoformans check for this species in other resources ). Antioxidant activity of the selected plant extracts were investigated using a qualitative assay (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)). Bioautography assay was used to determine the number of antifungal compounds in plant extracts.
Results: All plant extracts were active against the selected plant phytopathogenic fungi. Moreover, Bucida buceras had the best antifungal activity against four of the fungi, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values as low as 0.02 mg/ml and 0.08 mg/ml against P. expansum, P. janthinellum, T. harzianum and F. oxysporum. The plant extracts of five plant species did not possess strong antioxidant activity. However, methanol extract of X. kraussiana was the most active radical scavenger in the DPPH assay amongst the six medicinal plants screened. No antifungal compounds were observed in some of the plant extracts with good antifungal activity as shown in the microdilution assay, indicating possible synergism between the separated metabolites.
Conclusion: The results showed that acetone was the best extractant. Furthermore, our findings also confirm the traditional use of Breonadia salicina and demonstrate the potential value of developing biopesticides from plants.

Keywords
Antifungal activity; Antioxidant activity; 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH); Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC); bioautography assay

 
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