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Tanzania Journal of Health Research
Health User's Trust Fund (HRUTF)
ISSN: 1821-6404
Vol. 15, No. 4, 2013, pp. 1-9
Bioline Code: th13033
Full paper language: English
Document type: Review Article
Document available free of charge

Tanzania Journal of Health Research, Vol. 15, No. 4, 2013, pp. 1-9

 en Plague in Tanzania: an overview
ZIWA, MICHAEL H.; MATEE, MECKY I.; HANG’OMBE, BERNARD M.; LYAMUYA, ELIGIUS F. & KILONZO, BUKHETI S.

Abstract

Human plague remains a public health concern in Tanzania despite its quiescence in most foci for years, considering the recurrence nature of the disease. Despite the long-standing history of this problem, there have not been recent reviews of the current knowledge on plague in Tanzania. This work aimed at providing a current overview of plague in Tanzania in terms of its introduction, potential reservoirs, possible causes of plague persistence and repeated outbreaks in the country. Plague is believed to have been introduced to Tanzania from the Middle East through Uganda with the first authentication in 1886. Xenopsylla brasiliensis check for this species in other resources , X. cheopis check for this species in other resources , Dinopsyllus lypusus check for this species in other resources , and Pulex irritans check for this species in other resources are among potential vectors while Lophuromys check for this species in other resources spp, Praomys delectorum check for this species in other resources , Graphiurus murinus check for this species in other resources , Lemniscomys striatus check for this species in other resources , Mastomys natalensis check for this species in other resources , and Rattus rattus check for this species in other resources may be the potential reservoirs. Plague persistence and repeated outbreaks in Tanzania are likely to be attributable to a complexity of factors including cultural, socio-economical, environmental and biological. Minimizing or preventing people’s proximity to rodents is probably the most effective means of preventing plague outbreaks in humans in the future. In conclusion, much has been done on plague diagnosis in Tanzania. However, in order to achieve new insights into the features of plague epidemiology in the country, and to reorganize an effective control strategy, we recommend broader studies that will include the ecology of the pathogen, vectors and potential hosts, identifying the reservoirs, dynamics of infection and landscape ecology.

Keywords
plague; history; outbreaks; persistence; reservoirs; Tanzania

 
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