Five years’ (2000–2004) continuous study has been carried out on small mammals such as rodents in seven different sample plots, at three different altitudes and in six different ecological environment types in the eastern part of the Wuling Mountains, south bank of the Three Gorges of Yangtze River in Hubei. A total of 29 297 rat clamps/times were placed and 2 271 small mammals such as rodents were captured, and 26 small mammals were captured by other means. All the small mammals captured belonged to 8 families 19 genera and 24 species, of which rodentia accounted for 70.83% and insectivora 29.17%. Through analysis of the data, the results showed that: 1）although the species richness had a trend of increasing along different sample plots as altitude increased from south to north, quite a few species showed a wide habitat range in a vertical distribution（15 species were dispersed over three zones and two species over two zones）, indicating a strong adaptability of small mammals such as rodents at lower altitudes in most areas and comparatively less vertical span of entire mountains; 2）whether in seven different sample plots or six different ecological types, Apodemus agrarius
and Rattus norvegicus
were dominant species below 1 200 m, and Anourosorex squamipes
, Niviventer confucianus
were dominant above altitudes of 1 300 m，however, in quantity they were short of identical regularity，meaning they did not increase as the altitude did，or decrease as the ecological areas changed; 3）the density in winter was obviously greater than that in spring, and the distribution showed an increasing trend along with altitude, but the density in different sample plots was short of identical regularity, showing changes in different seasons and altitude grades had an important impact on small mammals such as rodents; 4) in species diversity and evenness index, there were obvious changes between the seven different sample plots, probably caused by frequent human interference in this area. Comparatively speaking, there was less human interference at high altitudes where vegetation was rich and had a high diversity and evenness index, and the boundary effect and community stability were obvious. Most ecological types have been seriously interfered with due to excessive assart at low altitudes with singular vegetation and low diversity and evenness index and poor community stability, showing an ecosystem with poor anti-reversion. If human interference can be reduced in those communities at high altitudes with low diversity and evenness index, the biological diversity in the communities will gradually recover to similar levels of other ecological areas.