The community characteristics of soil Sarcomastigophora in the Mayan Forest Region of the National Nature Reserve of Xiaolong Mountains was studied using the “non-flooded petri dish method” and observation in vivo
from July of 2006 to April of 2007. In total 78 species were identified, including 2 unnamed species and 12 new records of soil Sarcomastigophora in China, belonging to two subphylums, five classes, 16 orders, 32 families, and 47 genera. Amoebida was the dominant group, Kinetoplastida and Euglenida were the subdominant groups, Dinoflagellida, Chaenoflagellida, Pelobiontida, Diplomonaida and Actinophyrida were the incidental group, and Bodo minimus
, Bodo ovatus
, Oikomonas termo
and Raphidiophrys viridis
were the dominant species. The result of the study showed that there were abundant species and endemic and rare species in the community of soil Sarcomastigophora, the species composition of soil Sarcomastigophora in the Mayan Forest Region of the National Nature Reserve of Xiaolong Mountains was unique. The community characteristics of soil Sarcomastigophora was discussed based on analyzing the complexity and uniqueness of the ecological environment in the Mayan Forest Region of the National Nature Reserve of Xiaolong Mountains.