In order to evaluate the phylogenetic position and validity of Rana altaica
, we investigated the phylogeny of brown frogs in Eurasia by Bayesian Inference and Maximum Parsimony analyses of a fragment from the mitochondrial DNA gene Cytochrome b. Both analyses resolved R. altaica
as nesting deeply within R. arvalis
. Most samples of the nominal R. altaica
from the Altai region and specimens from Central Siberia shared a haplotype with R. arvalis
. The matrilineal relationships suggested that R. altaica
should be considered as a junior synonym of R. arvalis
. Furthermore, our study suggested that the species group division of Chinese brown frogs should be re-evaluated within a phylogenetic context.