Amphioxus (lancelet) is an important model animal in the field of Evo-Devo study. However, the specimens for laboratorial experiments are usually sampled directly from the field. Thus, it is necessary to correctly identify species and evaluate the genetic diversity of geographic populations. In the present investigation, we amplified and sequenced COX 1
gene of amphioxus collected from various localities of the West Pacific Ocean and downloaded all available sequences of the gene from NCBI. Based on those sequences data, we constructed NJ tree to decide the taxonomic status of those amphioxus and performed AMOVA analysis to estimate genetic diversities among geographic populations and individuals. The current results supported the validity of the three amphioxus species, Branchiostoma malayanum
, B. belcheri
and B. japonicum
. We also proposed that some amphioxus species names recorded in NCBI sequence database might be inaccurate. Genetic analysis on the geographic populations of amphioxus species suggested that each examined amphioxus species have a high level of genetic diversity. However, the genetic divergences among geographic populations of the same species are indetectable, indicating a frequent gene flow among them.