Coagulation factor X (FX) plays an important role in the immune response of mammals. In this study, the full length cDNA sequence of the ayu FX gene, 1817 bp in length excluding 3'-polyA tail, was determined for the first time. The sequence contained an open reading frame, which encoded a protein of 453 amino acids with a molecular weight of 5.07 × 104. The predicted protein had motifs typical of animal FX, and its N-terminal 24 residues were the signal peptides. Sequence comparison showed that ayu FX shared 53% amino acid sequence identity with zebrafish FX. In healthy ayu, FX mRNA was expressed mainly in the liver and weakly in the brain and gill. After Listonella anguillarum
infection, liver FX transcriptions significantly increased, and peaked at 16 h post infection. The serine protease motif of ayu FX was expressed in Escherichia coli
and was subsequently used for antiserum preparation. Western blotting analysis revealed that serum FX significantly increased in bacterially infected ayu fish. In conclusion, the ayu FX gene expression was significant in the progress of bacterial infection, which suggests FX’s role in fish immune response.