A phylogenetic hypothesis for the Asian newts of the Tylototriton asperrimus
group was generated using data from two mitochondrial fragments including COI and the ND1-ND2 regions. Four distinct clades (A, B, C, D) were resolved with high nodal support within this monophyletic group. Clade A included T. asperrimus, T. hainanensis, T. notialis, "T. vietnamensis"
, and two unnamed salamander populations from Vietnam. Clade A, constituted the sister group of clades B + C. Newly identified clade C likely represents a new cryptic species. Clade C was the sister group of T. wenxianensis
. The true T. vietnamensis
exclusively constituted clade D. Our results bring into question some previous taxonomic decisions, and a revision is required. This study illustrates the necessity to include samples from type localities in taxonomic studies, and highlights the importance of fine-grained geographical sampling.