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Zoological Research
Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
ISSN: 2095-8137
Vol. 34, No. 1, 2013, pp. E1-E8
Bioline Code: zr13010
Full paper language: English
Document type: Research Article
Document available free of charge

Zoological Research, Vol. 34, No. 1, 2013, pp. E1-E8

 en Proximity association in polygynous western black crested gibbons ( Nomascus concolor jingdongensis check for this species in other resources ): network structure and seasonality
GUAN, Zhen-Hua; HUANG, Bei; NING, Wen-He; NI, Qing-Yong & JIANG, Xue-Long

Abstract

We investigated the structure and seasonality of the proximity network in a group of polygynous western black crested gibbons ( Nomascus concolor check for this species in other resources ) using social network analysis. The spatial proximity changed seasonally and was affected by temperature and rainfall. Preferred proximity association was not distributed randomly among individuals. Kinship was one explanation for the social structure, as offspring preferred to maintain close proximity with their mothers. The proximity of infants to mothers decreased with age, and independent offspring had lower proximity to mothers than dependent ones. We found that the adult male had different proximity relationships with two different adult females. The frequency of proximity between the male and the infant-carrying female was significantly higher than that between the male and the female who had immigrated carrying one offspring of uncertain paternity into the group. Infanticide avoidance and/or predation protection for dependent infants might explain the proximity relationship differences. Temperature influenced group proximity association, with individual proximity increasing in the cold months and decreasing in the hot months. Group proximity decreased in months with higher anthropogenic disturbance.

Keywords
Proximity; Nomascus concolor; Polygynous; Social network

 
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