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Zoological Research
Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
ISSN: 2095-8137
Vol. 35, No. 3, 2014, pp. 214-221
Bioline Code: zr14025
Full paper language: English
Document type: Research Article
Document available free of charge

Zoological Research, Vol. 35, No. 3, 2014, pp. 214-221

 en Influence of dominance rank and affiliation relationships on self-directed behavior in female Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana check for this species in other resources )
ZHANG, Qi-Xin; LI, Jin-Hua; XIA, Dong-Po; ZHU, Yong; WANG, Xi & ZHANG, Dao

Abstract

Self-directed behavior (SDB) is characterized as an indicator of anxiety, frustration and stress in nonhuman primates. In this study, we collected self-directed behavior data from one group of free-ranging Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana check for this species in other resources ) at Mt. Huangshan, China (September 2012–May 2013) using a combination of behavioral sampling methods including focal animal sampling, behavioral sampling, continuous sampling and instantaneous sampling. Our results showed that females engaged in significantly higher rates of self-directed behavior when they were in proximity to dominant individuals compared to subordinate ones. Conflict losers significantly increased their SDB rates after agonistic episodes, indicating that SDB might also serve as an index of anxiety in M. thibetana. We further found that females significantly increased their SDB rates when focal individual was proximity to weakly affiliation relationship higher rank members than to strongly affiliation relationship higher rank members. If conflicts were not reconciled, the postconflict SDB rates of losers were higher when they stayed with strongly affiliation opponents; if conflicts were reconciled, victims of strongly affiliation relationships opponents engaged in more SDB rates before reconciliation than after reconciliation, while victims of moderately affiliation relationships opponents did not engaged in more SDB rates before reconciliation than after reconciliation. We conclude that both of dominance rank and affiliation relationships might both influence the SDB rates of female Tibetan macaques significantly, suggesting that SDB is not only an index of anxiety in Tibetan macaques, but also can provide a new insight into evaluation of social relationships between individuals.

Keywords
Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana); Female; Self-directed behavior (SDB); Dominance Rank; Affiliation relationship

 
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