Northern pig-tailed macaques (NPMs, Macaca leonina
) are susceptible to HIV-1 infection largely due to the loss of HIV-1-restricting factor TRIM5α. However, great impediments still exist in the persistent replication of HIV-1 in vivo
, suggesting some viral restriction factors are reserved in this host. The APOBEC3 proteins have demonstrated a capacity to restrict HIV-1 replication, but their inhibitory effects in NPMs remain elusive. In this study, we cloned the NPM A3A-A3H genes, and determined by BLAST searching that their coding sequences (CDSs) showed 99% identity to the corresponding counterparts from rhesus and southern pig-tailed macaques. We further analyzed the anti-HIV-1 activities of the A3A-A3H genes, and found that A3G and A3F had the greatest anti-HIV-1 activity compared with that of other members. The results of this study indicate that A3G and A3F might play critical roles in limiting HIV-1 replication in NPMs in vivo
. Furthermore, this research provides valuable information for the optimization of monkey models of HIV-1 infection.