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Zoological Research
Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
ISSN: 2095-8137
Vol. 40, No. 2, 2019, pp. 113-120
Bioline Code: zr19011
Full paper language: English
Document type: Report
Document available free of charge

Zoological Research, Vol. 40, No. 2, 2019, pp. 113-120

 en Social functions of relaxed open-mouth display in golden snub-nosed monkeys ( Rhinopithecus roxellana check for this species in other resources )
Zhang, You-Ji; Chen, Yi-Xin; Chen, Hao-Chun; Chen, Yuan; Yao, Hui; Yang, Wan-Ji; Ruan, Xiang-Dong & Xiang, Zuo-Fu

Abstract

Relaxed open-mouth display serves important social functions in relation to submission, reconciliation, affiliation and reassurance among non-human primate societies; however, quantitative evidence on this behavior remains insufficient among multi-level social groups. From July to November 2016, we examined four potential functions of the relaxed open-mouth display during pairwise, intra-unit social interactions among 18 free-ranging adult and sub-adult golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) who belonged to three one-male, multi-female units (OMU) at Dalongtan, Shennongjia National Park, China. Results showed that: compared with no relaxed open-mouth display, (1) the occurrence of displacement by a dominant individual approaching a subordinate was lower and the distance of the subordinate to the approaching dominant was shorter when the subordinate showed open-mouth display; (2) relaxed open-mouth display reduced the probability of continued attack for victims of aggression and allowed victims to achieve closer proximity to the aggressor during post-conflict periods; (3) relaxed open-mouth display by dominant individuals allowed them to achieve closer proximity to subordinates; and (4) the exchange of relaxed open-mouth display had a greater impact on the outcome of interactions than one individual alone giving this signal. These findings suggest that relaxed open-mouth display serves important functions regarding submission, reconciliation, affiliation and reassurance in coordinating social interactions within OMUs in golden snub-nosed monkeys.

Keywords
Golden snub-nosed monkeys; Open-mouth; Submission; Reconciliation; Affiliation; Reassurance

 
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