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Zoological Research
Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
ISSN: 2095-8137
Vol. 40, No. 3, 2019, pp. 219-225
Bioline Code: zr19022
Full paper language: English
Document type: Report
Document available free of charge

Zoological Research, Vol. 40, No. 3, 2019, pp. 219-225

 en Depressed female cynomolgus monkeys ( Macaca fascicularis check for this species in other resources ) display a higher second-to-fourth (2D:4D) digit ratio
Li, Wei; Luo, Ling-Yun; Yang, Xun; He, Yong; Lian, Bin; Qu, Chao-Hua; Wu, Qing-Yuan; Zhang, Jian-Guo & Xie, Peng

Abstract

This research aimed to provide evidence of a relationship between digit ratio and depression status in the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis). In stable cynomolgus monkey social groups, we selected 15 depressed monkeys based on depressive-like behavioral criteria and 16 normal control monkeys. All animals were video recorded for two weeks, with the duration and frequency of the core depressive behaviors and 58 other behaviors in 12 behavioral categories then evaluated via behavioral analysis. Finger lengths from the right and left forelimb hands of both groups were measured by X-ray imaging. Finger length and digit ratio comparisons between the two groups were conducted using Student’s t-test. In terms of the duration of each behavior, significant differences emerged in “Huddling” and five other behavioral categories, including Ingestive, Amicable, Parental, Locomotive, and Resting. In addition to the above five behavioral categories, we found that depressed monkeys spent less time in parental and rubbing back and forth behaviors than the control group. Furthermore, the 4th fingers were significantly longer in the left and right hands in the control group relative to the depressed monkeys. The second-to-fourth (2D:4D) digit ratio in the left and right forelimb hands was significantly lower in the control group than that in the depressed group. Our findings revealed significant differences in finger lengths and digit ratios between depressed monkeys and healthy controls, which concords with our view that relatively high fetal testosterone exposure may be a protective factor against developing depressive symptoms (or that low fetal testosterone exposure is a risk factor).

Keywords
Finger length; Digit ratio; Major depressive disorder; Cynomolgus monkey

 
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