We present a morphological and molecular assessment of the Microhyla
fauna of Myanmar based on new collections from central (Magway Division) and northern (Kachin State) parts of the country. In total, six species of Microhyla
are documented, including
and two new species described from the semi-arid savanna-like plains of the middle part of the Irrawaddy (Ayeyarwady) River Valley. We used a 2 481 bp long 12S rRNA–16S rRNA fragment of mtDNA to hypothesize genealogical relationships within Microhyla
. We applied an integrative taxonomic approach combining molecular, morphological, and acoustic lines of evidence to evaluate the taxonomic status of Myanmar Microhyla
. We demonstrated that the newly discovered populations of Microhyla
sp. from the Magway Division represent two yet undescribed species. These two new sympatric species are assigned to the M. achatina
species group, with both adapted to the seasonally dry environments of the Irrawaddy Valley. Microhyla fodiens sp. nov.
is a stout-bodied species with a remarkably enlarged shovel-like outer metatarsal tubercle used for burrowing and is highly divergent from other known congeners (P
-distance≥8.8%). Microhyla irrawaddy sp. nov.
is a small-bodied slender frog reconstructed as a sister species to M. kodial
from southern India (P
-distance=5.3%); however, it clearly differs from the latter both in external morphology and advertisement call parameters. Microhyla mukhlesuri
is reported from Myanmar for the first time. We further discuss the morphological diagnostics and biogeography of Microhyla
species recorded in Myanmar.