Detailed information on the size and genetic structure of wildlife populations is critical for developing effective conservation strategies, especially for those species that have suffered population decline and fragmentation due to anthropogenic activities. In the present study, we used a non-invasive approach combining fecal pellet sampling with mitochondrial DNA and nuclear DNA microsatellite marker analysis to monitor and compare the population structure of the Chinese goral ( Naemorhedus griseus
) in Beijing and northeast Inner Mongolia in China. Of the 307 fecal samples confirmed to be from N. griseus
, 15 individuals (nine females and six males) were found in the Beijing population and 61 individuals (37 females and 24 males) were found in the Inner Mongolian population. Among these 76 individuals, we identified eight haplotypes and 13 nucleotide polymorphic sites from mtDNA and 45 alleles from 10 microsatellite loci. Spatially structured genetic variation and a significant level of genetic differentiation were observed between the two populations. In both populations, the sex ratios were skewed toward females, indicating high reproductive potential, which is crucial for population recovery and conservation of this patchily distributed vulnerable species. We suggest that managing the two populations as evolutionarily significant units with diverse genetic backgrounds could be an effective solution for present population recovery, with the possible relocation of individuals among different groups to help ensure future goral species prosperity.