Studies on behavioral flexibility in response to habitat differences and degradation are crucial for developing conservation strategies for endangered species.
species inhabit various habitats and display different patterns of strata use; however, the effect of habitat structure on strata use remains poorly studied. Here, we investigated strata use patterns of Indo-Chinese gray langurs (
) in a primary evergreen forest in Mt. Wuliang, southwest China, from June 2012 to January 2016. In addition, we compared
strata use and terrestriality with five other
species from previous studies. Unlike langurs living in karst forests, our study group was typically arboreal and spent only 2.9% of time on the ground. The group showed a preference for higher strata when resting and lower strata (<20 m) when moving. The langurs primarily used time on the ground for geophagy, but otherwise avoided the ground during feeding. These strata use patterns are similar to those of limestone langurs (
) when using continuous forests. At the genus level (
=6 species), we found a negative relationship between habitat forest cover and terrestriality. This negative relationship was also true for the five limestone langur species, implying limestone langurs increase territoriality in response to decreased forest cover. Our results document behavioral flexibility in strata use of
langurs and highlight the importance of the protection of continuous forests to promote langur conservation.