Submission of Manuscripts
Manuscripts written in the two official languages of
ALPA (Spanish and Portuguese) and in English will be accepted. Authors should
send to the Editor three copies of the manuscript, typed with double spacing
and with the lines
numbered at the left margin. The manuscript should be accompanied
by a cover letter of intent of submission and
concession of rights of authorship. If none of the authors is
an active member of ALPA, a check or money order in the
amount of US $40.00 (forty dollars) should be enclosed,
and this sum will be credited to the cost of publication if the
manuscript is accepted.
Manuscripts should be written on letter size paper, typed
with double spacing, and with the lines numbered at the, left
margin, and if possible, using type of Courier 10 letters. All
the pages including bibliography, tables, figures and legends,
should be numbered consecutively and should include
in the upper right hand corner, the surname of the fist
author. When complimenting articles or articles of a series
are submitted, they should all be sent to the Editor at the
All manuscripts should be accompanied by a letter from
the author responsible for publication indicating the full title
and an abbreviated title (with a maximum of 45 characters,
including spaces), the names of the authors, their respective
institutions and postal addresses. The responsible
author should also include his telephone number (and fax)
and may suggest to the Editor the names of several people
who might serve as external reviewers of the manuscript.
The Editor will notify the author responsible for publication
of receipt of the manuscript and the number that has been
assigned to it.
All manuscripts submitted for possible publication in the
journal should conform to the style and format herein explained,
otherwise the process of both revision and publication
will be unnecessarily delayed. The authors should use
short and concise sentences with the verbs in active form
and avoid use of the first person, unless this is absolutely
necessary. The style guideline of the journal is based on the
CBE Style Manual (9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD
20814, USA). For terminology employed in Pastures and
Forage research it is suggested that the publication terminology
for Grazing Lands and Grazing Animals (The Forage
and Grazing Terminology Committee, Pocahontas
Press, Blacksburg, Virginia) be consulted.
All results should be expressed using units of measure of
the metric system. In the numerical values, the decimal
point indicates the separation between whole numbers and
fractions of numbers. When the value of the whole number exceeds three digits,
a blank space should be left to indicate
this (for example, 1 234.56)
Preparation of the Manuscript
Title page. The first page of the manuscript should include
the title, names of the authors, institutions to which
they belong and complete postal address. The institutional
ranks and academic degrees of the authors should not be included.
In the title of the manuscript only the first letter of
each word should be capitalized, except conjunctions and
prepositions. The title should be brief and descriptive and
not contain abbreviations. The supplementary information
that it is wished to include (present address of the author or
coauthors, acknowledgements, etc.) should be placed in a
footnote on the first page. The trademarks of equipment and
products used and the names of manufacturers which are
mentioned in the text of the publication should be included
between parentheses in the text rather than in footnote.
Subtitles. In the text of the manuscript three types of
subtitles are permitted.
Principal subtitles. These subtitles (Introduction, Experimental
Procedures [or Materials and Methods], Results,
Discussion [or Results and Discussion] and Literature
Cited) should be located in the center of the corresponding
lines, with the first letter of the principal words capitalized.
The subtitles of review articles may depart form this general
Secondary subtitles. These are located at the left margin
in a separate line and in italics (or underlined) and without
final punctuation. These subtitles are used to designate
certain sections consisting of several paragraphs grouped
together under the same principal title, especially if the
paragraphs begin with tertiary subtitles.
Tertiary Subtitles. These subtitles are located at the beginning
of the first line of the paragraph. They should be indented,
written in italics and followed by a period. They can
be used, with or without secondary subtitles, to introduce
independent sections of two or three paragraphs, under the
same principal subtitle.
Abstract and Resumen. The abstract, limited to 250
words in a single paragraph, should appear at the beginning
of the manuscript. The abstract or resumen should be written
in the same language as the manuscript and should indicate
the objectives, general procedures and pertinent results
in a clear and concise form. Not permitted are biographical
citations or abbreviations that have not been previously
identified nor appear in the list of common abbreviations to
be mentioned subsequently.
All articles written in Spanish or Portuguese should include
an abstract in English. Articles written in English
should include a resumen in either Spanish or Portuguese.
Key words. At the end of the abstract, a total of up to six
key words that describe the research, should be cited. It is
suggested that the species be included (when applicable)
and the response variable(s) of greatest importance. The
first letter of each key word should be capitalized and the
key words separated by commas. The key words will serve
as the basis for producing the index of each volume of the
Introduction. The introduction follows the abstract and
resumen and should be short (200 to 250 words). It is to be
used to justify the research and specify the objectives or the
hypotheses that are to be tested. The discussion of relevant
literature should be included in discussing the results and
not in the introduction. In order to not lengthen the manuscript
unnecessarily and avoid redundancy, it is suggested
that three or four references are enough to support any concept
or idea presented.
Experimental Procedure or Materials and Methods.It is necessary to include
a clear description of all the biological, chemical and statistical procedures
used, or indicate
the bibliographical citation where these can be found.
Any modification of the original procedures should be explained
clearly and in detail. A detailed description should also be given of the diets,
animals (breed, sex, age and weight), conditions of weighing (with or without
of feed and/or water), surgical methods, measurements
taken and experiment design.
Emphasis should always be placed on biological responses.
However, the use of incorrect or inadequate statistical
methods to analyze and interpret the results will not be
accepted. When the statistical methods employed are those
that are generalized and in common use, there is no need to
describe them in detail, both the references consulted
should be cited. The statistical model, classification variables
and experimental units should be clearly defined. A
simple citation of the statistical package, without mention
of the sources of variation or other characteristics of the
analysis employed (for example, covariance), is not acceptable.
To the extent possible, the results of similar experiments
should be analyzed jointly.
The experimental unit is the smallest unit to which a
treatment is applied. When animals are fed in groups, the
group of animals in a corral or paddock is the experimental
unit. If the authors wish to consider each individual animal
within such groups as an independent experimental unit,
justification for this should be included. Likewise, measurements
that are taken of the same experimental unit over
time are not independent and should not be considered as
The basic assumptions of most statistical models are that
the errors are normally and independently distributed and
that the variance is constant. Also, most statistical procedures
are based on the assumption that the experimental units have been assigned
randomly to the treatments. If the
animals were stratified by weight or if some other initial
measure is to be taken into account, the model should include
the variable used to form the blocks or the initial
measure should be included as a covariable. The term parameter
is not appropriate to describe a variable of response,
observation, characteristic or measure that is affected
during the course of the experiment.
The common designs can easily be described by their
name and size (for example, “a complete blocks design with
five treatments and four blocks”). When referring to factorial
arrangements an adequate description could be: “protein
at 12 or 14%and lysine at 0.8, 1.0 and 1.2% (dry basis),
in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments under a randomized
complete blocks (five) design, using age as the
factor for blocking”. Note that the factorial arrangement is
not a design. The term design refers to the method of distributing
the experimental units in groups or blocks (i.e. the
form of restricting the randomization).
The standard deviation refers to the variability of a population
or of a sample. The standard error, that is calculated
from the error variance, represents the estimated sampling
error of a statistic, such as the mean. When presenting the
standard deviation or the standard error, the number of degrees
of freedom associated with the same should be indicated.
Likewise upon presenting some statistical value (a
mean or difference between means) the standard error or
confidence internal should be included. The fact that given
differences are not “statistically significant” is not reason
for not presenting the standard error. In most cases it is sufficient
to present the number of observations, the treatment
means and some estimate of the experimental error, preferably
the pooled standard error of the means. It usually is
not necessary to present the standard error of each mean
separately, unless these are based on different numbers of
observations or it is desired to emphasize the heterogeneity
of the variance.
In the case of more complicated experiments the inclusion
of tables containing the subclass means and the analysis
of variance or covariance is permitted. When the analysis
of variance involves more than one error term, as is the
case with split-plot designs or factorial arrangements in
time, it should be clearly indicated in the text which mean
square was used as the denominator in calculating the value
of F. In case of unbalanced designs the method of analysis
used and the means of calculating the statistical parameters
should be specified.
It is recommended that, in order to pass judgement on
the hypothesis set forth upon designing the experiment and
for the comparison of treatment means, use be made of contrasts,
preferably orthogonal ones. Multiple range tests are
not appropriate when the treatments have an orthogonal arrangement
and should only be used to compare the means
of treatments that are unstructured and unrelated. Adjusted
means should not be used, except when the design is unbalanced,
part of the data have been lost or a covariable has been employed. When factorial
arrangements are used,
means of the principal effects are to be included only if
there are no important interactions. The means of the combinations
of factors should be included in the text or in tabular
The terms significant and highly significant are
reserved for P < .05 and P < .0l, respectively. It is permissible
to use other levels of significance if these are properly designated,
but the words significant and highly significant
should be omitted so as not to confuse the readers. If the exact
level of probability (alfa) is known it should be included,
instead of P < .05 or P < .0l, leaving it to the reader
to decide what to accept and what not. Independent of the
probability level used by the authors, the acceptance or rejection
of the hypothesis should be based on the relative
consequences of committing a Type I or Type II error.A not
significant relationship or effect does not always imply the
absence of such a relationship or effect. A limited number
of experimental units or inadequate control of the variability
may seriously reduce the effectiveness of detecting such
relationships. The use of P > .05 to indicate nonsignificance
should be avoided, since this can be interpreted as the possibility
of a beta type rather than an alpha type error.
The numerical data included should be logical and undisputable.
A practical rule is to round the values in such a
way that the change produced by rounding is inferior to
10% of the standard error. This rounding increases the variance
of the informed value by less than 1%, so that less than
1% of the relevant information contained in the data is sacrificed.
In most cases two or three significant figures (not
decimal places) are sufficient.
Results. The results may be presented alone or in combination
with the discussion. To the extent possible, they
should be presented in tabular form. In the text it is appropriate
to explain and deepen the insights presented in the results,
rather than merely repeating unnecessarily numerical
data that appear in the tables. A sufficient quantity of information
should be included to enable the reader to interpret
the results of the experiment. The use of standardized abbreviations
is discussed subsequently.
Discussion. The discussion, which may be presented in
combination with the results, should interpret the results in
a clear and concise manner in terms of underlying biological
mechanisms, integrating information published in the
scientific literature. This permits the reader to interpret the
results of the experiment and to possess an ample basis on
which to accept or reject the hypotheses that were set forth.
At the end of the discussion a small paragraph should be included,
giving the principal conclusions to be derived from
the research and, if warranted, some recommendations or
Appendices. It is Permissible to include appendices for
the purpose of illuminating the reader with a numerical example
that helps to clarify a procedure or analytical method
that was used, provided that the same is new or uncommon.
However, if the supplementary information is of interest to only a limited
number of readers, it is preferable to indicate
that the supplementary material is available upon request of
the interested party rather than to include an appendix. In
the manuscript, the appendix such be placed after Literature
Cited, headed by a principal subtitle. Bibliographic citations.
In the text. The published literature to which reference
is made in the text can be included in two different
ways: 1) “Stobbs (1975) and Lascano et al. (1985) have
shown that during the dry season the gain in weight of animals
grazing associations is greater”. 2)"The gain in weight
of animals grazing associations is greater, particularly during
the dry season" (Stobbs, 1975; Lascano et al., 1985).
When two or more citations are included in the same sentence,
the citations are arranged in chronological order. Citations
that have the same year of publication are arranged in
alphabetical order. When the citation has only one or two
authors, the surname(s) and year of publication are included.
If there are three or more authors of the publication cited,
only the surname of the first author is included followed by et
al. and the year (for example, Lascano et al., 1985). If the
same author(s) have more than one publication with different
dates, these can be cited together in the text (Jones, 1984,
1986). If two different bibliographical citations are abbreviated
in the same way in the text, a letter should be placed after
the date in order to distinguish between them, both in the text
and in the Literature Cited. Unpublished literature is cited in
the text only, in the following manner: ... according to M.
Ruiz (personal communication);... (M. Ruiz, personal communication).
Literature Cited. It is recommended that a minimum
number of references be included in the manuscript, selecting
only those that are most pertinent and most recent. Generally, three references
are more than enough to document one specific concept. The bibliographical
are cited in strict alphabetical order, beginning with the surname
of the first author followed by the initial(s) of his
name(s). If all the authors are identical in two or more references,
the date of publication will decide their ordering in
the final list. If it should happen that there are two or more
articles by the same authors and published in the same year,
they will be included in the list of references according to
alphabetical order of the titles of the articles, adding a small
case letter as suffix (for example, 1991a).In the titles of scientific
articles, only the first letter and proper names are
capitalized and only the number of the first page is indicated.
If the pages of the scientific journal in which it is published
are numbered separately in each number instead of
per volume, the identity of the number should be indicated
(or the month of publication) in parentheses following the
number of the volume. When books are cited, the first letter
of the principal words are capitalized and the number of
pages is not included. When only one chapter or one section
of a book is cited, the number of the first page should be included.
When an abstract or resumen is cited this should always
be indicated. Articles that have been submitted for
publication but have not yet been accepted may not be cited.
Manuscripts that have been accepted for publication may be included in the
list of references, indicating the journal in
which they are to appear followed by the words “in press”
in parentheses. Articles published in magazines that are not
considered scientific or have no editorial board should not
be included as references. Several examples are given as
- AOAC. 1990. Official Methods of Analyses (15th. Ed.).
Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Arlington, Virginia.
- Goering, H. K., and P. J. Van Soest. 1970. Forage fiber
analyses (apparatus, reagents, procedures and some
applications). Agric. Handbook No. 379 ARS, USDA,
- Herrera, R. S. 1983. La Calidad de los Pastos. En: Ugarte,
- J., R. S. Herrera, R. RuÍz, R. García, C. M. Márquez
- A. Senra (Ed.). Los Pastos de Cuba, Tomo 11. Instituto
de Ciencia Animal. La Habana, Cuba. p. 59.
- Klopfenstein, T. 1978. Chemical treatment of crop residues.
J. Anim. Sci. 46:841.
- NRC. 1988. Nutrient Requirements of Swine (9th. Ed.).
National Academy Press. Washington, D.C.
- Owen, E. 1978. Processing of roughages. In: Haresign,
W., and D. Lewis (Ed.).Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition.
- Quiroga, E. J. y J. M. Farías. 1983. Efecto del estado de
madurez al corte sobre la cantidad de proteína lignificada
de los forrajes. ALPA Mem. 20:161 (Resumen).
- Riquelme, E., and G. Rojas. 1980. In vitro digestibility
of sesame straw as affected by chemical treatment and
protein levels and/or sources. J. Anim. Sci. 5t (Supplement
- SAS. 1988. SAS/STAT User’s Guide (Release 6.03).
SAS Inst., Inc., Cary, North Carolina. •
Suárez, M., J. Herrera, A. Pró y M. Cuca. 1985. Interacción
genotipo x ambiente en líneas comerciales de pollosde engorda. ALPA
- Steel, R. G. D. and J. H. Torrie. 1980. Principles and Procedures
of Statistics: A Biometrical Approach (2nd.
Ed.). McGraw Hill Book Co., New York.
- Tilley, J. M. A. and R. A. Terry. 1963. A two stage technique
for the in vitro digestion of forage crops. J. Br.
Grassl. Soc. 18:104.
Abbreviations of Scientific Journals Frequently Cited.
Acta Agric. Scand.
Adv. Appl. Microbiol.
Adv. Lipid Res.
Adv. Protein Chem.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
Am. J. Pathol.
Am. J. Physiol.
Am. J. Vet. Res.
Anim. Breed. Abstr.
Anim. Feed Sci. Technol.
Annu. Rev. Biochem.
Annu. Rev. Pharmac. Toxicol.
Annu. Rev. Physiol.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
Arch. Biochem. Biophys.
Arch. Latinoam. Nutr.
Arch. Latinoam. Prod. Anim.
Aust. J. Agric. Res.
Aust. J. Biol. Sci.
Aust. J. Exp. Agric. Anim. Husb.
Bochem. Biophys. Acta
Br. J. Nutr.
Br. Vet. J.
Can. J. Anim. Sci.
Comp. Biochem. Physiol.
Domest. Anim. Endocrinol.
Eur. Assoc. Anim. Prod. Publ.
Horm. Behav. Immunology
Ir. J. Agric. Res.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
J. Agric. Sci.
J. Agric. Univ. P. R.
J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc.
J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr.
J. Anim. Sci.
J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem.
J. Br. Grassi. Soc.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
J. Dairy Sci.
J. Nutr. Biochem.
J. Physiol. (London)
J. Physiol. (Paris)
J. Range Manage.
J. Reprod. Fertil.
J. Sci. Food Agric.
Livest. Prod. Sci.
N. Engl. J. Med.
N. Z. J. Agric. Res.
Neth. J. Agric. Res.
Nutr. Abstr. Rev.
Nutr. Rep. Int.
Proc. N.Z. Grassi. Assoc.
Proc. Nutr. Soc.
Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med.
Proc. West. Sect. Amer. Soc. Anim. Sci.
Q. J. Exp. Physiol.
Rev. Asoc. Mex. Prod. Anim.
Rev. Cubana Cienc. Agric.
S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
Vet. Res. Commun.
World Anim. Rev.
Exp. Experimento, Experimental
Abbreviations of Words. It is to be preferred that
authors not use abbreviations or acronyms of their own invention.
In case their use is necessary, all those abbreviations
that do not appear in the list to follow, should be defined
in the abstract and again the first time that they are
used in the text. Abbreviations are not permitted in the titles,
table headings or subtitles. A sentence may not begin
with an abbreviation, symbol or acronym. It is not necessary
to define the symbols of the chemical elements.
The abbreviations of units of measure are permitted when
used immediately after a number. Units of measure are not abbreviated
when they follow a quantity that is written out completely
or at the beginning of a sentence. All abbreviations of
units of measure are written in the singular, eventhough they
refer to a plural (for example, kcal not kcals). The form (plural
or singular) is indicated by the verb used.
The following is a list of abbreviations that need not be
defined in the text:
°C degrees Celsius
dpm Disintegrations per minute
M molar (concentration)
N normal (concentration)
n number (of observations)
ppm parts per million
T ton (metric)
G giga (x 109)
m mega (x 106)
K kilo (x 103)
H hecto (x 102)
D deca (x 10)
d deci (x 10-1)
c centi (x 10-2)
m mili (x 10-3)
micro (x 10-6)
n nano (x 10-9)
p Pico (x 10-12)
f femto (x 10-15)
Units of Time.
AA amino acids
IAA indispensable amino acids
ADIA acid detergent insoluble ash
ADF acid detergent ‘ fiber
ADIN acid detergent insoluble nitrogen
ANOVA analysis of variance
IFA indispensable fatty acids
VFA volatile fatty acids
NEFA nonesterified fatty acids
USFA unsaturated fatty acids
ATP adenosine triphosphate
BSA bovine serum albumin
DMI dry matter intake
cv coefficient de variation
e. d. external diameter
i.d. internal diameter
IVDMD in vitro dry matter digestibility
DMD dry matter digestibility
msd minimum significant difference
DNA desoxyribonucleic acid
GE gross energy
EBV estimated breeding value
DE digestible energy
EDTA ethylene diamin tetra
EE ether extract
ME metabolizable energy
MEn, metabolizable energy corrected
for nitrogen balance
NE net energy
NEg net energy for weight gain
NEl net energy for lactation
NEm net energy for maintenance
NEP net energy for production
NE(m+P) net energy for maintenance
Exp. experiment (should always be
followed by a number)
CF crude fiber
FSH follicle stimulating hormone
GLC gas-liquid chromatography
GLM general linear model
GNRH gonadotrophin releasing hormone
HCG human chorionic gonadotrophin
HPLC high pressure liquid chromatography
LD50 lethal dose (50%)
LH luteinizing hormone
DM dry matter
OM organic matter
PAGE polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
CP crude protein
PBS phosphate buffer solution
DP digestible protein
BW body weight
W0.75 metabolic weight
r coefficient of correlation
RIA radio immunoassay
RNA ribonucleic acid
rpm revolutions per minute
S. C. subcutaneous
SD standard deviation
SDS sodium dodecil (lauryl) sulphate
SE standard error
SEM standard error of the means
TLC thin layer chromatography
vis visible spectrum
* multiplied by or crossed with
Tables. As far as possible the tables should be designed
to fit within the width of the page without the need of
changing to lengthwise orientation. Each table should occupy
an individual page, should be numbered consecutively
with Arabic numerals and inserted into the manuscript immediately
after Literature Cited.
The titles of the tables should be concise but descriptive
of the contents. Except for proper names and abbreviations
and acronyms (in parentheses) which are normally written
with capitals, only the first letter of table and the title are
capitalized. A period should not be placed at the end of the
title. The body of the table should be double spaced. Each
column should be identified and only the first letter of the
In the body of the table a zero should not be placed to the
left of the decimal point. If a datum was not obtained, a
dash, should be put in its place. It is also permissible to use
ND (not determined) and a brief explanation at the foot of
the table. If reference is made to an explanation that is
placed at the foot of the table, said reference(s) will be referred
to by means of numerical superscripts in the following
order: (1) title, (2) column headings, (3) row headings,
and (4) body of the table. The superindicators *, **, and ***
do not require explanation and will be used exclusively to
indicate the level of significance (P < .05, P < .01 and
P < .001, respectively). Vertical lines are not to be used in
the tables unless their use is indispensable to avoid confusing
regarding what the data represent.
It is recommended that a column giving the standard error
of the means be included. If the variances are not homogeneous
(experiments not balanced or with different numbers
of observations per mean), the mean can be given
along with its standard deviation preceded by the sign ±.
When a system comparing individual means is used, the
preferred explanation at the foot of the table is “Means in
the same column (row) not having a superscript in common
are different (P < .05)”; it being permissible to specify another
value of P.
Figures. The figures should be prepared with thick lines
and the text and legends should be written in indelible ink or
same other medium such that the original or a photograph
of the original can be clearly reproduced. The use of graphs
and figures made by computer is permitted provided that a
laser printer is used. Since most of the figures will have to
be photo reduced to make them fit the size of the journal, the
authors should make sure that the thickness of the lines as
well as the size of the letters permit such reduction without
loss of legibility.
In preparing the figures, symbols and lines that are
clearly discernible should be used. The symbols and abbreviations
used in the figures should be explained in the figure
itself or in its legend. All abbreviations should follow the
same style as in the text and in the tables. A zero should not
be placed to the left of the decimal point. The units on the
axes should not be within parentheses. When the units are
included after some word or phrase, they should be proceeded
by a comma. It is not permissible to include typed
text in the figures and color photographs can not be accepted.
if microphotographs are included the number of
times of magnification should be indicated (including the
enlargement form the negative to the final photograph). The
photographs that are submitted should be in black and white
and printed on glossy paper of high contrast. If two or more
figures or photographs are presented together, they should
be positioned carefully and identified (1a, 1b, 1c, etc.).
With respect to both figures and photographs the acceptable
dimensions are 7.5 x 5 cm and 16 x 10.5 cm.
Each figure should be identified on the back with the
number of the figure and the surname of the first author of the
publication. The legends of the figures should be written on a
separate page, indicating clearly to which figure they belong.
1. The decimal metric system is to be used exclusively.
The period has been adopted to separate the whole
numbers and the decimals.
2. When making reference to percentages, the symbol
(%) is used after a number and is proceeded by a space.
If the number comes at the beginning of a sentence and
must be written in words, the word percent should also
be written instead of using the symbol. The word percent
always follows a number. When there is no proceeding
number, the words to use are “percentage of”.
3. In the text, the words “Table” and “Figure” begin
a capital letter only when reference is made to one of
them in particular. Arabic numerals should be used to
designate tables, figures, experiments, diets, etc.
Terms such as experiment, group, diet, treatment, etc.
are capitalized and followed by an Arabic numeral
when reference is made to one of them in particular.
The word “experiment” should be abbreviated (Exp.)
when it proceeds a number, except intitles, subtitles
and at the beginning of a sentence.
4. Redundancy should be avoided when pointing out significant
differences. That means that the word significant
should not be used together with the level of probability.
5. In nutrition experiments, the preferred measure of efficiency
is the quotient of gain in weight over feed consumed
(gain/intake). This method of expressing efficiency
avoids values of infinity (positive or negative)
when there is no weight gain or when the gain is negative.
Since the efficiency (gain/intake) depends on the
rate of gain, the slope of the regression (increment in
weight gain, additional unit of feed) can be included in
addition to the value of efficiency. To avoid decimal figures,
the value of gain/intake can be expressed as gain
6. A sentence should not begin with a number. Another
expression should be used or the number, and its corresponding
unitage, spelled out.
7. Each time a number less than 10 and not followed by a
unit of measure is mentioned, the number should be
spelled out (for example: four animals, 14 diets, two
seasons, etc.) If a series of similar elements, that includes
numbers both larger and smaller than 10, is mentioned,
all should be in the form of numerals.
8. The units of measure that proceed or follow a numerical
value should always be abbreviated, except when
they begin a sentence.
9. It is not acceptable to use more than one oblique line (/)
to indicate division (g/d, mg/(gd) or mg g-1d-1).
10. The term md/dl should be used instead of mg%.
11. The time of day should be indicated in terms of 24h
(14: 10 instead of 2: 10 P. M.).
12. When tabulating data on growth or feed consumption,
the values should be expressed on the basis of daily
mean per animal.
13. Use of the term monogastric is not permitted. The accepted
term is “nonruminant”.
14. The scientific names of plants and animals should be in
italics or underlined.
15. The word diet refers to some feed or mixture of feeds.
The word ration refers to the daily amount provided.
16. The use of phrases that add nothing to the text should
be avoided (examples: “it is interesting to note that”).
Also an effort should be made to avoid the use of strictly
17. In conclusions, the use of personal opinions not
supported by the data presented, should be avoided.
The suggestion or recommendation to continue research
on the subject is not a conclusion.