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African Crop Science Journal
African Crop Science Society
ISSN: 1021-9730 EISSN: 2072-6589
Vol. 7, Num. 1, 1999, pp. 1-7
African Crop Science Journal,

African Crop Science Journal,
Vol 7 No. 1 1999 pp.1-7

Genetic And Cropping System Effects On Yield And Postharvest Characteristics Of Musa Species In Southeastern Nigeria

K. P. BAIYERI1, A. TENKOUANO, B.N. MBAH1 and J.S.C. MBAGWU1

Plantain and Banana Improvement Program, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Oyo Road, PMB 5320, Ibadan, Nigeria
1Faculty of Agriculture, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

(Received 12 July, 1998; accepted 4 January, 1999 )

Code Number: CS99001

ABSTRACT

Post-harvest characteristics of 36 Musa genotypes were evaluated under two cropping systems. Genotypes included AAA x AA, AAB x AA and ABB x AA (or BB) and their landraces AAA, AAB and ABB grown under monocropping and in the alleys of natural multi-species hedgerows. Significant differences (P < 0.01) were found among genomic groups for bunch and fruit weights, pulp yield, dry matter content, pulp firmness, shelf-life, and market potential index. Cropping systems were also significant for all traits except for pulp firmness and shelf-life. Significant interactions between genotypes and cropping systems were found for all traits except dry matter content and pulp firmness. Tetraploid hybrids had lower pulp firmness but higher shelf-life and market potential index than the triploid genotypes. Among the triploid landraces, AAA genotypes had longer shelf-life but expressed the lowest market potential index due to their lower pulp yield and dry matter content. The AAB x AA hybrids consistently expressed higher pulp firmness, shelf-life and market potential index than other tetraploid hybrids. The alley-cropping system resulted in higher values for most post-harvest characteristics than the monocropping system.

Key Words: Bananas, biological value, market potential index, ploidy shift, posthavest traits

RÉSUMÉ

Nous avons évalué les caractéristiques post-récolte de 36 génotypes de Musa comprenant des écotypes AAA, AAB et ABB et des hybrides AAA x AA, AAB x AA et ABB x AA (ou BB) dans deux systèmes culturaux: monoculture et culture intercalaire. Des différences significatives (P < 0.01) ont été observées entre les génotypes pour le poids du régime, le poids des fruits, le rendement en pulpe, la teneur en matière sèche, la consistance de la pulpe, la durée de vie verte et l'indice de marché. On a également observé un effet siginificatif des systèmes culturaux pour tous les traits sauf la consistance de la pulpe et la durée de vie verte. De màme, l'interaction entre génotypes et systèmes culturaux était significative pour tous les caractères observés, hormis la teneur en matière sèche et la consistance de la pulpe. Par rapport aux génotypes triploïdes, les hybrides tétraploïdes ont exprimé une durée de vie verte plus longue et un indice de marché plus grand, mais leur pulpe était moins consistante que celle des triploïdes. Parmi les cultivars triploïdes, les types AAA ont exprimé la meilleure durée de vie verte mais aussi l'indice de marché le moins bon, à cause de leur faible rendement en pulpe et de leur faible teneur en matière sèche. Les hybrides AAB x AA ont invariablement présenté une meilleure consistance de la pulpe, une meilleure durée de vie verte et un meilleur indice de marché que les autres hybrides tétraploïdes. On a obtenu en général de meilleures caractéristiques post-récolte en culture intercalaire plutôt qu'en monoculture.

Mots Clés: Banane, valeur biologique, indice de marché, changement de niveau de ploïdie, caractéristiques post-récolte

INTRODUCTION

Bananas and plantains (Musa spp.) are important cash and subsistence crops in the developing world (Dadzie and Orchard, 1996; Robinson, 1996). In recent years, increasing pest and disease pressures have impelled genetic improvement of the species. High-yielding, pest and disease resistant tetraploid hybrids were obtained from inter-specific crosses between triploid and diploid accessions (Rowe and Rosales 1993; Robinson, 1996; Vuylsteke et al., 1997). However, post-harvest characteristics, particularly dry matter content and storability, may have been altered as a consequence of introgression of genes from wild diploid germplasm into the triploid landraces and the resultant change in ploidy level (Vuylsteke et al., 1997).

The concept of marketable yield has been used by potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) breeders to designate the fraction of the production that is accounted for by tubers that are suitable for consumers based on a weight criterion (Ortiz et al., 1988). Market potential of plantains and bananas may be defined, following Bressani's (1976) approach, as the utilisable fraction of the yield which is a function of pulp weight of the harvested fruit, dry matter content of the pulp, and shelf-life of the fruit.

Dry matter content has been considered as an indicator of cooking quality of bananas and plantains (Dadzie and Orchard, 1996), and may be positively correlated with storability (Ferris et al., 1996). Dry matter content determines the fraction of a harvested crop that is available for processing into food products (Sanchez et al., 1968), i.e., the biological value of the crop. However, shelf-life may determine the market potential of the crop, since it dictates processing options and the array of food products that can be derived from the crop.

The extent to which ploidy shift and introgressed alien genes, and their interaction with the crop production environment, affect biological and marketable yield of plantain and banana have not been investigated. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of cropping systems, and inter- and intra-genomic variability on biological value and market potential of Musa hybrids and landraces.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Thirty six genotype representatives of Musa spp. Subgroups (Table 1) were evaluated under sole cropping and alley cropping, with multiple species hedgerows, at the Onne Research Station (4° 43'N, 7° 01'E, 10 m a.s.l.) Of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), in southeastern Nigeria. The station is located in a degraded rain forest swamp, characterised by an Ultisol derived from coastal sediments and 2400 mm unimodal annual rainfall (Ortiz et al., 1997). Daily temperature and solar radiation average 27° C and 14 MJ m-2, respectively, resulting in high relative air humidity (Ortiz et al., 1997).

TABLE 1. List of genotypes used in the study

Genome

Ploidy level

Genotypes

AAA

3x

KM5, Pisang Ceylan, Valery

AAB

3x

Agbagba, Obino L'Ewai, UNN.DB

ABB

3x

Bluggoe, Cardaba, Fougamou, Pelipita, Saba

AAA * AA

4x

FHIA-1, FHIA-2, FHIA23, SH3436-9, SH3640, EMB 402, EMB 403, EMC 602

AAB * AA

4x

PITA-1, PITA-2, PITA-3, PITA-5, PITA-7, PITA-8, PITA-9, PITA-11, PITA12, PITA-14, PITA-16, FHIA-21, FHIA-22

ABB * AA (or BB)

4x

BITA-1, BITA-2, BITA-3, FHIA-3

FHIA and SH series are hybrids from Fundaçion Hondureña de Investigacion Agricóla, Honduras; PITA and BITA series are hybrids from the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Nigeria; EMB and EMC hybrids are from EMBRAPA and EMCAPA in Brazil respectively, others are landraces

Planting was done on 19 and 20 June 1995 utilising a 6 x 6 simple lattice design. Each genotype was grown in a single-row-plot of five plants per replication. Cultural practices used were those described by Swennen (1990). At maturity, banana bunches were harvested and weighed. Total fruit weight per plant was also measured after removal of the peduncle; fruits were separated into two samples. Fruit firmness was measured from one sample using a digital force gauge (Lloyd Instruments, model DFS 250) and fresh pulp weight measured after removal of the fruit peel. The pulp was oven-dried (50° C, 72 hours) and dry matter content was determined as the ratio of dry to fresh weight.

Fruit ripening was monitored using the second sample under laboratory conditions. In this study, three ripening stages were defined: Stage 1 was the phase from complete greenness (unripe fruits) to yellowing of fruit tip, Stage 2 was the early ripening phase with up to 60% yellowing of the fruit, and Stage 3 was reached when fruits were fully ripe with 100% yellowing of the peel. In some West African countries, the market price of ripe fruits is higher than that of the green (Ahenkora et al., 1996). However, there are more food processing options with green fruits as opposed to ripe ones. For example, Stage 1 plantain fruits may be processed into flour, chips and fried products. However, processing into flour is no longer feasible with fruits that have reached the second stage, while fried and/or boiled products are the only options for fruits in the third stage. Therefore, the duration of each stage was recorded for all genotypes, the sum of which was considered as the shelf-life. Market potential index was then estimated from biological yield components and the number of days in each ripening stage using the following formula:

Ui( j ) = Piå j (Sij.Vj) [Eqn. 1]

Where Ui( j ) is the estimated market potential index of the ith genotype, Pi is the dry pulp yield of the ith genotype, Sij is the number of days spent in the jth ripening stage by the ith genotype, and Vj is a subjective index value attributed to the jth stage. In this study, an index of 1 was given to Stage 1, 0.75 to Stage 2, and 0.5 to Stage 3. Clearly, the value attributed to each stage will vary with cultural and socio-economic contexts. Consideration of such aspects could allow construction of an aggregate market potential index for Musa genotypes. For the present study, a single socio-economic context was assumed.

Statistical analysis was carried out on plot means basis due to unequal number of observations per plot (Piepho, 1997). Due to missing values the statistical model used for the analysis was that of randomized complete block design instead of lattice design. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and separation of means using the GLM procedure in SAS (SAS Institute, 1992).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Ploidy and genomic group effect. Significant differences were found among genotypes, both within and across genomic groups, for all traits (Table 2). Intra-genomic differences accounted for a larger proportion of variation in all traits compared to inter-genomic differences.

Cooking bananas (ABB) produced the highest bunch and fruit weight compared to dessert bananas (AAA) and plantains (AAB). Similarly, cooking banana hybrids expressed higher bunch and fruit weight than other hybrids (Table 3). Higher yield was associated with a larger number of hands and fruits per bunch in both triploid and tetraploid backgrounds. The triploid genotypes had higher dry matter content (DMC) than the tetraploid hybrids. More specifically, DMC was highest in plantains (34.5%) and lowest in AAA x AA hybrids (23.7%). Similarly, pulp firmness was greater in triploid landraces compared with tetraploid hybrids. However, bunch and fruit weight of tetraploid hybrids were higher than those of the triploid genotypes.

The shelf-life and market potential index of tetraploid hybrids were greater than those of the triploid landraces. However, significant intra-ploidy variation was also observed for these traits. Duration of Stages 1 and 2 was longer for plantain and dessert banana hybrids than for the cooking banana hybrids and triploid genotypes (Fig. 1). On the other hand, duration of Stage 3 was similar irrespective of ploidy level (Fig. 1). Plantain hybrids (AAB x AA) had a longer shelf-life at each ripening stage, portraying a longer time for processing options at each of those stages than the other tetraploid and triploid genotypes. Shelf-life of triploid genotypes varied from 12 days for the plantains to 15 days for the dessert bananas (Table 3). However, dessert bananas had the lowest market potential index, due to their low pulp yield, pulp firmness and dry matter content. Among the tetraploid genotypes, the AAB x AA hybrids consistently expressed higher pulp firmness, shelf-life and market potential index (Table 3) which contrasted with the low market potential index of the AAB progenitors.

TABLE 2. Mean squares from analysis of variance of post-harvest traits of 36 Musa genotypes grown under two cropping systems in Nigeria

Source

df

Traitsa

BWT

FWT

DMC

PYD

PUF

SHL

MPI

Cropping systems (CS)

1

476.29***

388.22***

48.56***

10.10***

26.81

5.82

562.14***

Reps within CS

2

10.18

8.80

17.21**

0.23

4.90

6.39

20.68

Genotypes (G)

35

32.46***

26.01***

70.00***

0.63***

221.87***

24.31***

54.38***

Between groups

5

19.42***

14.79**

355.73***

0.94***

764.61***

58.35***

75.42***

Within groups

30

34.57***

27.89***

18.47***

0.58***

114.28***

14.83***

44.60***

G * CS

33

12.29***

10.44***

5.05

0.33***

17.96

4.29***

29.89***

Between groups

5

15.80***

13.23*

5.62

0.46*

32.93*

1.27

24.55*

Within groups

28

11.65***

9.96**

5.09

0.31**

14.69

4.95*

31.86***

Residual

61

4.49

4.05

3.84

0.16

11.21

2.08

8.54

aBWT=bunch weight (kg plant-1); FWT= fruit weight (kg plant-1); DMC=dry matter content of pulp (%);PYD=dry weight of pulp (kg plant-1); PUF=pulp firmness (Newton); SHL=shelf-life (days); MPI=market potential index
*,**,***: Significance at 5%, 1%, and 0.1% probability levels, respectively

TABLE 3. Means and standard errors of post-harvest traits as influenced by cropping systems and ploidy level of Musa spp.

Genome

Number of genotypes

Cropping systems

BWTa (kg plant-1)

FWT (kg plant-1)

DMC (%)

PYD (kg plant-1)

PUF(N)

SHL (d)

MPI

AAA.

3.

AC

7.2± 1.5

6.3± 1.4

25.3± 1.3

0.9± 0.2

23.4± 1.4

15.3± 1.8

11.2 ± 3.0

MC

6.0± 1.3

5.4± 1.2

23.7± 1.2

0.9± 0.3

24.4± 2.1

15.4± 1.2

7.8± 2.3

AAB.

3.

AC

9.6± 1.4

9.0± 1.4

36.0± 1.2

1.8± 0.3

36.9± 3.3

_

_

MC

5.6± 0.5

5.3± 0.5

33.5± 1.1

1.0± 0.1

32.3± 2.4

12.2± 0.7

8.2± 1.8

ABB.

5.

AC

11.4± 1.4

10.5± 1.3

31.2± 1.2

2.0± 0.3

29.1± 1.9

12.4± 0.2

15.8± 1.6

MC

6.6± 0.6

6.1± 0.5

30.2± 1.0

1.1± 0.1

31.7± 3.3

13.5± 0.5

9.0± 1.3

AAA * AA.

8.

AC

12.2± 1.7

10.9± 1.5

24.7± 0.8

1.5± 0.2

19.4± 0.7

16.5± 0.6

16.1± 1.6

MC

5.9± 0.9

5.3± 0.8

22.9± 0.7

0.7± 0.1

18.8± 0.9

15.7± 1.1

7.4± 1.3

AAB * AA.

13.

AC

9.5± 0.8

8.9± 0.8

32.5± 0.5

1.6± 0.1

31.6± 1.7

18.8± 0.9

20.2± 2.4

MC

6.6± 0.3

6.2± 0.3

32.0± 0.5

1.2± 0.1

33.5± 1.2

17.9± 0.8

14.3± 1.0

ABB * AA (or BB).

4.

AC

11.8± 2.1

10.7± 1.8

30.5± 1.4

1.6± 0.3

25.5± 3.5

13.4± 1.0

17.9± 2.6

MC

7.5± 1.2

6.8± 1.0

27.8± 0.9

1.0± 0.1

22.1± 3.2

12.9± 0.4

9.8± 1.2

aBWT=bunch weight; FWT= fruit weight; DMC=dry matter content of pulp; PYD=dry weight of pulp; PUF=pulp firmness; SHL=shelf-life; MPI=market potential index, AC=alley cropping; MC=monocropping

Figure 1: Shelf-life of Musa fruit at different ripening stages as influenced by genomic/ploidy level. Stage 1: complete greenness; Stage 2: early ripening phase with up to 60% yellowing of the peel; Stage 3: completely yellow peel.

Cropping system effect. Significant differences were found between cropping systems for all traits except pulp firmness and fruit shelf-life (Table 2). Plants grown under alley-cropping generally expressed higher values for most post-harvest characteristics compared to plants grown under monocropping (Table 3). This is because the alley-cropping system represents a more resource rich environment due to high soil organic matter build-up, and soil moisture and nutrient retention compared to the monocrop (Ruhigwa et al., 1992). Cropping systems had little effect on the performance of dessert bananas (AAA genotypes). The yield advantage due to alley cropping was approximately 20% for bunch and fruit weight and less than 10% for pulp yield. In contrast, alley cropping induced gains greater than 70% in other triploid genotypes for bunch weight, fruit weight and pulp weight (Table 3). The most responsive genotypes were the dessert banana hybrids (AAA x AA) with average superiority of more than 100% for most traits in alley cropping versus monocropping. Cooking banana and plantain hybrids also showed positive response to cropping system (< 50% superiority for plantain hybrids, but > 50% for cooking banana hybrids) (Table 3).

Interaction effect. Genotype x cropping system interactions were significant for all the traits except dry matter content and pulp firmness (Table 2). There was a cross-over interaction within the triploid landraces and tetraploid hybrids for bunch and fruit weight (Table 3). The plantain (AAB) genotypes ranked second among the triploid landraces under alley-cropping, but expressed the lowest bunch and fruit weight under monocropping. Similarly, the dessert banana hybrids (AAA x AA) exhibited the highest bunch and fruit weights under alley cropping and the lowest values under monocropping, indicating their poor adaptation to monocropping.

The interaction pattern for pulp yield and market potential index among the triploids was a non-cross-over (ABB > AAB > AAA) interaction (Table 3). Among the tetraploid hybrids, however, there was cross-over between AAA x AA and ABB x AA. The AAB x AA hybrids consistently had the highest market potential index.

Interaction patterns suggested that cooking banana landraces and hybrids had average stability with relatively high biological yield and market potential index. Therefore, they are likely to provide higher returns than other materials when grown under either cropping system, although the alley-cropping system may ensure greater profit margins. The dessert banana landraces (AAA) and hybrids (AAA x AA) were poorly adapted to monocropping, but exhibited a high productive potential in the alley-cropping environment. Plantains have a long history of cultivation in West and Central Africa (De Langhe, 1964), which may account for their average performance under both cropping systems. The alley-cropping system was, however, a better management alternative for the AAB x AA hybrids.

Market potential index of Musa genotypes under monocropping was significantly correlated with bunch weight (r = 0.62***), fruit weight (r = 0.65***), dry pulp yield (r = 0.82***), pulp firmness (r = 0.34*) and fruit shelf-life (r = 0.50***) but, in the alley-cropping system, market potential index was significantly correlated only with bunch weight (r = 0.67***), fruit weight (r = 0.70***) and dry pulp yield (r = 0.79***). Irrespective of cropping environment, dry pulp yield was a major determinant of market potential index (Eqn. 1). In this study dry pulp yield was highly correlated with market potential index, a trait which was positively correlated with the fruit weight per plant (Table 4). Thus, high fruit weight and dry matter content will enhance the market potential index of Musa genotypes.

TABLE 4. Correlations among post-harvest traits in 36 Musa genotypes grown under an alley cropping system (above diagonal) and a monocropping system (below diagonal)

BWT

FWT

DMC

PYD

PUF

SHL

MPI

Bunch weight (BWT)

-

1.00***

-0.19

0.85***

-0.19

-0.33

0.67***

Fruit weight (FWT)

1.00***

-

-0.15

0.87***

-0.16

-0.32

0.70***

Dry matter content (DMC)

0.15

0.19

-

0.25*

0.71***

0.04

0.19

Dry pulp yield (PYD)

0.84***

0.87***

0.58***

-

0.18

-0.34*

0.79***

Pulp firmness (PUF)

-0.04

-0.01

0.72***

0.37***

-

0.10

0.28

Shelf-life (SHL)

-0.13

-0.12

-0.03

-0.02

0.09

-

0.25

Market potential index (MPI)

0.62***

0.65***

0.49***

0.82***

0.34*

0.50***

-

*,**,*** : Significant at 5%, 1%, and 0.1% probability levels, respectively
See TABLE 2 for trait definitions

CONCLUSION

Agronomic evaluation of bananas and plantains is mostly based on biological yield, especially bunch weight and fruit physical characteristics. However, high biological yield does not necessarily portray high market potential. This is because genotypes producing high biological yield may be low in dry matter and have a short shelf-life. The short shelf-life compels consumption of such genotypes within a limited period. Furthermore, short shelf-life and low dry matter content reduce genotype utilisation options and, consequently, market potential. Therefore, the use of market potential index as a selection criterion is suggested alongside other traits used to evaluate productivity and fruit quality. Market potential index will ensure appropriate genotype recommendation for specific population groups since it considers different socio-economic uses for which banana and plantain can be put.

REFERENCES

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Copyright 1999, African Crop Science Society


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