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Ichthyological Bulletin
J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology
ISSN: 0073-4381
Num. 68, 2000, pp. 1-97
Ichthyological Bulletin

Ichthyological Bulletin, Number 68, June 2000

AN ANNOTATED CHECKLIST OF THE SPECIES OF THE LABROID FISH FAMILIES LABRIDAE AND SCARIDAE

Paolo Parenti1 and John E. Randall2

1 Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente e del Territorio Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, P. zza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano, Italy. E-mail: Paolo.Parenti@unimib.it
2 Bishop Museum, 1525 Bernice Street, Honolulu, HI 96817, U.S.A.

Code Number: fb00001

ABSTRACT

Parenti, Paolo and John E. Randall. 2000. An annotated checklist of the species of the Labroid fish families Labridae and Scaridae. Ichthyological Bulletin of the J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, No. 68, 97 pages.

An annotated checklist of the species of the fish families Labridae and Scaridae is presented; 541 valid species are recognized, including 68 genera and 453 species of labrids and 10 genera and 88 species of scarids. Thirty undescribed species of wrasses and two undescribed parrotfish species are also included. A list of nominal species is given, with their present assignments; nominal species of uncertain status are placed as incertae sedis and listed separately. A list of nomina nuda is also provided. The valid genera and species are listed alphabetically, with their synonyms and distributions. Examination of the original descriptions and type material (when extant) of previously unplaced nominal species of labroid fishes led to identification of 69 new synonyms. The generic names Artisia de Beaufort, 1939 and Emmeekia Jordan & Evermann, 1896 are here recognized as new synonyms of Halichoeres Rüppell, 1835. For the Labridae, 65 new synonyms of valid species are listed. Labrus psittaculus Richardson,1840, a valid species of Pseudolabrus, is a primary homonym of Labrus psittaculus Lacepède, 1801; the next available name for this species is Labrichthys rubicunda Macleay, 1881 and the new combination Pseudolabrus rubicundus is proposed. The following new combinations are included: Pseudojulis inornatus Gilbert, 1890 is a valid species of Pseudojuloides; Xyrichtys perlas Wellington et al., 1994 is a valid species of Novaculichthys. For Scaridae, Sparus abildgaardi Bloch, 1791 is a senior synonym of Sparisoma chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider, 1801), but a request of the International Commission has been made to reject abildgaardi in order to conserve S. chrysopterum; and Scarus visayanus Herre, 1933 is a new synonym of Scarus tricolor Bleeker,1847. Pseudoscarus microcheilos Bleeker, 1861 is a synonym of Chlorurus strongylocephalus (Bleeker, 1854).

Figure 1

INTRODUCTION

Checklists of species are invaluable tools in the fields of natural science. They serve to consolidate our level of knowledge and at the same time reveal areas in need of further investigation. They may take the form of listing species for a geographical area or a compilation of the species of a taxonomic unit such as a family.

Among the vertebrates, fishes represent a class whose genera and species continue to increase every year. Figure 1 shows the increase in the number of nominal species of Labridae since our system of classification began with Linnaeus (1758). Nelson (1994) estimated that the number of described fish species is approaching 70-80% of the total number expected in the world. The sudden rise in the discovery of new species of fishes beginning about 1960 is correlated principally with the widespread use of scuba gear and ichthyocides which enabled ichthyologists to collect specimens that are not readily taken by ordinary fishing methods. Also of importance has been the greater emphasis among ichthyologists in recent years to revise taxa, thus revealing undescribed species long residing unidentified or misidentified on museum shelves.

The valid genera and species in the following checklist of labroid fishes are arranged alphabetically. The family Odacidae is here omitted, as it was recently revised by Gomon and Paxton (1986). Although it is widely accepted that the Labridae, Scaridae and Odacidae represent a monophyletic assemblage, inclusion of these three families into a single family is still a topic of debate. It was first suggested by Gomon and Russell (1981), then proposed by Kaufman and Liem (1982) and followed by some authors (Stiassny & Jensen, 1987; Webb, 1990). Although the Labridae may represent a paraphyletic assemblage (Bellwood, 1994; Gomon, 1997), the conventional family classification is here adopted. Attempts to classify the Labridae and Scaridae into phylogenetically sound subfamilies and tribes have not been satisfactory. Monophyly has not been established for most of these taxa (Westneat, 1993; Nelson, 1994; Gomon, 1997).

We present a brief introduction of general morphology and habitat for each family of labroid fishes. Each valid genus and species is accompanied by its synonyms. Details of subsequent designation of type species for the genera are given by Eschmeyer et al. (1997). The author Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1839 and 1840 is abbreviated as Val., 1839 or 1840. Misidentifications are included only when a later author, upon noting that a misidentification is a new species, named it for the author who made the mis-identification. We have excluded the species named by Curtiss, who privately published in 1938 A Short Zoology of Tahiti, in which 116 new species of fishes were described. Fowler (1949: 127) referred to Curtiss as an untrained novice and placed those Curtiss names that he could recognize in synonymy. He added, "Such a proposal as this author seeks to impose on taxonomic ichthyology hardly invites consideration. However, I have given his references only with the thought of their ultimate disposal rather than they should ever arise to further confuse the nomenclature".

We also summarize the distribution of each species. Definitions are needed for the general terms used in these summaries. "Indo-Pacific" refers to the tropical and subtropical regions of the Indian Ocean and western and central Pacific. For the present checklist, this means that a fish is widespread throughout the region from the east coast of Africa to at least the islands of French Polynesia. Although the Red Sea, Hawaiian Islands, Pitcairn Group, and even remote Easter Island are part of the Indo-Pacific region, they are mentioned when included in the species distribution. Our use of "western Pacific" includes a broad distribution from southern Japan to at least the Great Barrier Reef or coast of Queensland. "Western Indian Ocean" implies a distribution along the coast of Africa from Somalia to Mozambique or South Africa, as well as the islands west of the southern tip of India. "East Indies" refers to the islands of New Guinea, Borneo, Indonesia, and the Philippines (and generally to the Solomon Islands to the east and the Nicobars and Andamans to the northwest, though these areas have not been well collected). If a species' distribution extends from the East Indies to adjacent mainland areas of southeast Asia or northern Australia, the term "Indo-Malayan region" is employed. For many species, these summaries are approximations, as our knowledge of their distributions is still fragmentary.

DIVISION TELEOSTEI Müller, 1846
ORDER PERCIFORMES Bleeker, 1859
SUBORDER LABROIDEI Bleeker, 1859

Family LABRIDAE Cuvier, 1816
(Wrasses)

Wrasses occur worldwide in tropical, subtropical, and temperate seas. Most species (82 %) are found in the Indo-Pacific region, with Australia having the largest labrid fish fauna (about 33% of the species and 70% of the genera). The species of Labridae vary greatly in shape, from slender to moderately deep-bodied, from long-snouted to short-snouted, and with caudal fins from rounded to lunate.

Characters that define the family are as follows: Mouth usually terminal, the jaws protractile, the maxilla not exposed when mouth is closed. Teeth in jaws usually conical and separate, those at front generally canines that often protrude; no teeth on roof of mouth except a few in some species of Bodianus; pharyngeal bones united, typically with strong nodular to molariform teeth. Lips often thick. Scales cycloid, usually 24-80 in longitudinal series (species of Hologymnosus with more than 100 scale series); head never fully scaled; lateral line continuous or interrupted. Vertebrae usually 23-42. Dorsal fin contin-uous, without a notch between spinous and soft portions (though soft-rayed part may be higher), with 8-21 spines (usually fewer than 15) and 6-21 soft rays; anal fin with 2-6 spines (usually 3) and 7-18 rays. The species of Labridae vary greatly in size from 5 to 230 cm total length.

Wrasses are diurnal, and although most species bury in sand at night to sleep, many wrasses merely take shelter at night. Most species occur on shallow coral reefs or rocky bottom, though some species of Bodianus, Polylepion and Decodon are found in depths of 200 m or more. Razorfishes (Xyrichtys and Cymolutes) occur over open stretches of sand into which they dive with the approach of danger.

All labrids are carnivorous; most feed mainly on a variety of small and large invertebrates, especially hard-shelled molluscs and crustaceans, which they crush with their pharyngeal teeth. A few species prey primarily upon small fishes, while others such as species of Cirrhilabrus, Paracheilinus and Pseudocoris feed on zooplankton. The species of Labroides and the young of some others feed on crustacean ectoparasites and mucus of fishes. Adults of the species of Labrichthys, Labropsis, and Diproctacanthus feed mainly on coral polyps.

The colour pattern may differ dramatically from juvenile to adult and with sex. The reproductive biology involves sex reversal: adults in the initial stage are usually female and generally less colourful. Some species have both females and males in the drab initial phase. Many terminal males are territorial and maintain an harem of females with which they spawn individually. The majority of wrasses have pelagic eggs, but some temperate species build nests of seaweed.

TAXONOMY

The Labridae is a very large family, third in number of species after Gobiidae and Serranidae. Nelson (1994) estimated the number of valid labrid species as 500 in about 60 genera. Our checklist includes 68 genera and 452 valid species (Fig. 1). An additional 29 undescribed species are also included by generic name. Doubtful genera and species are listed separately. Corrections are expected since some large genera such as Coris (under study by the second author), Halichoeres and Xyrichtys have not been revised. Examination of the original descriptions and type material of previously unplaced nominal species of labrid fishes led to identification of 65 new synonyms.

Although Russell (1980) identified six tribes, Hypsigenyini, Labrini, Cheilinini, Labrichthyini, Julidini and Novaculini, only Cheilinini (Westneat, 1993) and Hypsigenyini (Gomon, 1997) have been recognized as monophyletic. Cheilinini includes ten genera grouped in two lineages: the genera Cheilinus, Doratonotus, Epibulus, Oxycheilinus and Wetmorella form the "cheiline" lineage, and the genera Cirrhilabrus, Paracheilinus, Pseudocheilinus, Pseudocheilinops and Pteragogus form the "pseudocheiline" lineage. Randall (1999a) recognises the two cheiline lineages as two distinct tribes: Cheilinini and Cirrhilabrini, respectively. The Tribe Cirrhilabrini is diagnosed and expanded to include the genus Conniella.

The tribe Hypsigenyini comprises at least eight genera: Achoerodus, Bodianus, Choerodon, Clepticus, Decodon, Polylepion, Semicossyphus and Xiphocheilus (Gomon, 1997). The position of Anchichoerops within the Hypsigenyini is regarded as provisional. Finally, monophyly has been demonstrated for the pseudolabrines, a group of six labrid genera (Austrolabrus, Dotalabrus, Eupetrichthys, Notolabrus, Pictilabrus and Pseudolabrus) conventionally placed within the Julidini (Russell, 1988).

Genus AcantholabrusValenciennes

Acantholabrus Val., 1839: 242 (type-species, Lutjanus exoletus (not of Linnaeus) Risso, (= Lutjanus palloni Risso, 1810) by subsequent designation).

One species (Bauchot & Quignard, 1973).

Acantholabrus palloni (Risso)

Lutjanus palloni Risso, 1810: 263 (Nice, France).
Labrus pallidus Nardo, 1824b: 252 (Adriatic Sea).
Acantholabrus imbricatus Lowe, 1839: 86 (Madeira).
Acantholabrus couchii Val., 1839: 248 (Cornwall, England).

Remarks: there is no type material for Labrus pallidus Nardo; however the species is described with enough details to identify it as Acantholabrus palloni.
Distribution: Norway south to Cape Lopez, Gabon; Madeira, Azores, Canary Ids, and Mediterranean.

Genus Achoerodus Gill

Achoerodus Gill, 1863: 222 (type-species, Labrus gouldii Richardson, by original designation).
Heterochoerops Steindachner, 1866d: 52 (type-species, H. viridis Steindachner, by monotypy).
Platychoerops Klunzinger, 1880: 399 (type-species, P. muelleri Klunzinger, by original designation, preoccupied by Charlesworth, 1855 in Mammalia [not replaced; reported as synonym by McCulloch, 1929]).

Two species (Gomon, 1997); southern Australia.

Achoerodus gouldii (Richardson)

Labrus gouldii Richardson, 1843b: 353 (Western Australia).
Trochocopus unicolor Günther, 1876: 398 (Sydney, New South Wales, Australia).
Platychoerops muelleri Klunzinger, 1880: 399 [75], pl. 8, fig. 2 ( King George Sound, Western Australia).
Platychoerops badius Ogilby, 1893: 134 (Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia).

Distribution: South Australia to Lancelin, Western Australia.

Achoerodus viridis (Steindachner)

Heterochoerops viridis Steindachner, 1866d: 52 (Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia).

Distribution: Queensland to Victoria.

Genus Ammolabrus Randall & Carlson

Ammolabrus Randall & Carlson, 1997: 30 (type-species, A. dicrus Randall & Carlson, by original designation).

One species.

Ammolabrus dicrus Randall & Carlson

Ammolabrus dicrus Randall & Carlson, 1997: 32 (Oahu, Makaha, Hawaiian Ids).

Distribution: Hawaiian Ids.

Genus Anampses Quoy & Gaimard

Anampses Quoy & Gaimard, 1824: 276 (type-species, A. cuvier Quoy & Gaimard, by monotypy).
Pseudanampses, Bleeker, 1862d: 101 (type-species, Anampses pterophthalmus Bleeker, by subsequent designation).
Anampsodax Bleeker, 1875: 82 (type-species, A. lienardi Bleeker [Appeared as "Gen? Anampsodax Lienardi Blkr"]).
Ampheces Jordan & Snyder, 1902: 628 (type-species, Anampses geographicus Valenciennes, by original designation).

Genus revised by Randall (1972); 13 species; Indo-Pacific.

Anampses caeruleopunctatus Rüppell

Anampses caeruleopunctatus Rüppell, 1829: 42, pl. 10, fig. 1 (El Tur, Sinai coast, Egypt, Gulf of Suez).
Anampses diadematus Rüppell, 1835: 21, pl. 6, fig. 3 (El Tur, Sinai coast, Egypt, Gulf of Suez).
Anampses lineolatus Bennett, 1836: 208 (Mauritius).
Anampses chlorostigma Val., 1840: 9 (Red Sea).
Anampses coeruleomaculatus Günther, 1881: pl. 138 (error for caeruleopunctatus).
Anampses taeniatus Liénard in Sauvage, 1891: 457 (Mauritius).
Anampses pulcher Regan, 1913: 371, pl.58, fig. 3; pl. 59 (Easter Id, southeastern Pacific).
Anampses tinkhami Fowler, 1946: 162, fig. 30 (Aguni Shima, Ryukyu Ids, Japan).

Distribution: Indo-Pacific, including Red Sea, South Africa, Easter Id and Line Ids.

Anampses chrysocephalus Randall

Anampses chrysocephalus Randall, 1958a: 100, fig. 3 (Oahu, Hawaiian Ids).
Anampses rubrocaudatus Randall, 1958a: 103, fig. 4 (Hawaiian Ids).

Distribution: Hawaiian Ids.

Anampses cuvier Quoy & Gaimard

Anampses cuvier Quoy & Gaimard, 1824: 276, pl. 55, fig.1 ( Maui, Hawaiian Ids).
Anampses godeffroyi Günther, 1881: 252, pl. 140 (Hawaiian Ids).
Anampses evermanni Jenkins, 1901: 57, fig. 14 (Honolulu).

Distribution: Hawaiian Ids.

Anampses elegans Ogilby

Anampses elegans Ogilby, 1889: 67 (Lord Howe Id).
Anampses variolatus Ogilby, 1889: 67 (Lord Howe Id).

Distribution: New Zealand, Lord Howe Id, and New South Wales, Australia.

Anampses femininus Randall

Anampses femininus Randall, 1972: 176, pl. 3, figs. a-b (Hanga Piko, Easter Id, southeastern Pacific).

Distribution: Easter Id to New South Wales and southern Great Barrier Reef.

Anampses geographicus Valenciennes

Anampses geographicus Val., 1840: 10, pl. 389 (Indian Ocean).
Anampses pterophthalmus Bleeker, 1857c: 81 (Ambon Id, Moluccas Ids, Indonesia).
Anampsodax lienardi Bleeker, 1875: 83 (Mauritius).

Distribution: Mauritius to Western Australia, western Pacific, Tonga, Fiji, and Caroline Ids.

Anampses lennardi Scott

Anampses lennardi Scott, 1959: 86, fig. 6 (Point Samson, Western Australia, 20°38'S, 117°12'E).

Distribution: northwestern Australia.

Anampses lineatus Randall

Anampses melanurus lineatus, Randall, 1972: 172, fig. 7 (Eilat, Israel, Gulf of Aqaba).

Distribution: Red Sea and Indian Ocean to Indonesia.

Anampses melanurus Bleeker

Anampses melanurus Bleeker, 1857c: 79 (Ambon Id, Moluccas Ids, Indonesia).

Distribution: South Africa and Japan to East Indies and French Polynesia.

Anampses meleagrides Valenciennes

Anampses meleagrides Val., 1840: 12 (Mauritius).
Anampses, amboinensis Bleeker, 1857c: 80 (Ambon Id, Moluccas Ids, Indonesia).
Anampses meleagris Günther, 1862: 135 (unjustified emendation of Anampses meleagrides Valenciennes).
Anampses lunatus Sauvage (ex Liénard), 1891: 459 (Amboine; Zanzibar; Mauritius).
Anampses ikedai Tanaka, 1908: 32, pl. 1, fig. 2 (Kagoshima Pref., Japan).
Anampses nagayoi Tanaka, 1908: 34, pl. 1, fig. 3 (Kagoshima Pref., Japan).

Distribution: Red Sea to South Africa, Samoa and Caroline Ids.

Anampses neoguinaicus Bleeker

Anampses neoguinaicus Bleeker, 1878: 57, pl. 3, fig. 4 (New Guinea).
Anampses fidjensis Sauvage, 1880: 224 (Fiji Ids).

Distribution: western Pacific to Fiji.

Anampses twistii Bleeker

Anampses twistii Bleeker, 1856a: 56 (Ambon , Indonesia).

Distribution: Indo-Pacific, including Red Sea.

Anampses viridis Valenciennes

Anampses viridis Val., 1840: (Mauritius).
Anampses rubroviridis Liénard in Sauvage, 1891: 458 (Mauritius).

Distribution: Mauritius.

Genus Anchichoerops Barnard

Anchichoerops Barnard 1927: 746 (type-species, Choerops natalensis Gilchrist & Thompson, by monotypy).

One species.

Anchichoerops natalensis (Gilchrist & Thompson)

Choerops natalensis Gilchrist & Thompson, 1909: 259 (Natal, South Africa).

Distribution: KwaZulu-Natal to Port St Johns, South Africa.

Genus Austrolabrus Steindachner

Austrolabrus Steindachner, 1884: 1100 (type-species, Labrichthys maculata Macleay, by monotypy).

One species.

Austrolabrus maculatus (Macleay)

Labrichthys maculata Macleay, 1881: 89 (King George Sound, Western Australia).

Distribution: southern Australia: central New South Wales and between Kangaroo Id and Shark Bay.,

Genus Bodianus Bloch

Bodianus Bloch, 1790: 33 (type-species, Bodianus bodianus Bloch, by absolute tautonymy).
Harpe Lacepède, 1802: 426 (type-species, Harpe caeruleoaureus Lacepède, by monotypy).
Diastodon Bowdich, 1825: xii, 238 (type-species, Diastodon speciosus Bowdich, by monotypy).
Cossyphus Val., 1839: 102 (type-species, Bodianus bodianus Bloch, by subsequent designation; preoccupied by Olivier 1791 in Coleoptera and by Rafinesque 1815 and Dumont 1823 in Aves).
Ronchifex Gistel, 1848: viii (type-species, Bodianus bodianus Bloch, replacement name for Cossyphus Valenciennes).
Lepidaplois Gill, 1862: 140 (type-species, Cossyphus axillaris Valenciennes, by monotypy).
Trochocopus Günther, 1862: 100 (type-species, Trochocopus opercularis Günther, by monotypy).
Cheiliopsis Steindachner, 1863a: 1113 (type-species, Cheiliopsis bivittatus Steindachner, by monotypy).
Euhypsocara Gill, 1863: 222 (type-species, Cossyphus anthioides of Günther, by original designation).
Gymnopropoma Gill, 1863: 222 (type-species, Labrus bilunulatus Lacepède, by original designation).
Verreo Jordan & Snyder, 1902: 619 (type-species, Cossyphus oxycephalus Bleeker, by original designation).
Verriculus Jordan & Evermann, 1903: 191 (type-species, V. sanguineus Jordan & Evermann, by original designation).
Chaeropsodes Gilchrist & Thompson, 1909: 260 (type-species, C. pictus Gilchrist & Thompson, by monotypy).
Pseudolepidaplois Blanchot & Blanc, 1961: 53 (type-species, P. pfaffi Bauchot & Blanc, by monotypy).

The genus is currently under revision by M. Gomon; 38 species (6 undescribed) are listed here. Mostly Indo-Pacific; 2 species in eastern Pacific and 6 in Atlantic.

Bodianus anthioides (Bennett)

Crenilabrus anthioides, Bennett, 1832a: 167 (Mauritius).
Cossyphus zosterophorus Bleeker, 1857c: 75 (Ambon Id, Moluccas Ids, Indonesia).
Cossyphus boutoni Liénard in Sauvage, 1891: 452 (Mauritius).
Cossyphus bicolor Liénard in Sauvage, 1891: 453 (Mauritius).

Distribution: Indo-Pacific, Red Sea to South Africa, Japan, Australia and Pitcairn Group.

Bodianus axillaris (Bennett)

Labrus axillaris Bennett, 1832a: 167 (Mauritius).
Cossyphus axillaris Val., 1839: 131, pl. 371 (Mauritius).
Cossyphus octomaculatus Liénard in Sauvage, 1891: 454 (Mauritius).
Lepidaplois albomaculatus Smith, 1957a: 101, fig. 1 (Mauritius).

Distribution: Indo-Pacific, Red Sea to South Africa, Japan, Australia and Pitcairn Group.

Bodianus bilunulatus (Lacepède)

Labrus bilunulatus Lacepède, 1801: 454, 526, pl. 31, fig. 2 (Great Equatorial Ocean [Mauritius]).
Cossyphus albotaeniatus Val., 1839: 141 (Hawaiian Ids).
Crenilabrus modestus Garrett, 1864: 106 (Honolulu fish market, Oahu Id, Hawaiian Ids).
Lepidaplois strophodes Jordan & Evermann, 1903: 103 (Honolulu, Oahu Id, Hawaiian Ids).
Lepidaplois richardsoni Fowler, 1908: 433, fig. 7 (Victoria, Australia).
Lepidaplois atrorubens Jordan [E.K.], 1925: 23, pl. 1, fig. 3 (Honolulu fish market, Oahu Id, Hawaiian Ids).

Distribution: Indo-Pacific. Three subspecies: Bodianus bilunulatus albotaeniatus: Hawaiian Ids; Bodianus bilunulatus bilunulatus: Indian Ocean and western Pacific; and Bodianus bilunulatus new subspecies, eastern central Pacific (M. Gomon, pers. comm.).

Bodianus bimaculatus Allen

Bodianus bimaculatus Allen, 1973: 386, fig. 1 ( Bairakaseru Id, Ngemelis Ids, Palau Archipelago, Philippine Sea).

Distribution: South Africa, Mauritius and Maldives to western Pacific.

Bodianus cylindriatus (Tanaka)

Verreo cylindriatus Tanaka, 1930: 941, pl. 187, fig. 513 (Tokyo fish market, Japan).

Distribution: Japan, Taiwan, New Caledonia, and northwestern Hawaiian Ids.

Bodianus diana (Lacepède)

Labrus diana Lacepède, 1801: 450, 522, pl. 32, fig. 1 (Indo-Pacific Ocean).
Cossyphus spilotes Guichenot, 1865: 13 (Réunion Id).
Lepidaplois aldabrensis Smith, 1955: 932, pl. 24 (Aldabra Id).

Distribution: Indo-Pacific, Red Sea to South Africa, Japan, Australia, Samoa and Marshall Ids.

Bodianus diplotaenia (Gill)

Harpe diplotaenia Gill, 1862: 140 (Cape San Lucas, Baja California, Mexico).
Harpe pectorallis Gill, 1862: 141 (Cape San Lucas, Baja California, Mexico).

Distribution: Baja California to Peru; records from Chile are questionable (M. Protti, pers. comm.).

Bodianus eclancheri (Valenciennes)

Cossyphus eclancheri Valenciennes, 1846:, pl. 8, fig. 2 (Galápagos Ids); the species name dates to publication of the plate; the corresponding text was published later (Valenciennes, 1855: 340).

Distribution: Ecuador to Chile, Galápagos Ids.

Bodianus frenchii (Klunzinger)

Cossyphus frenchii Klunzinger, 1880: 400 (King George Sound, Western Australia).
Trochocopus rufus Macleay, 1878b: 35, pl. 5, fig. 3 (King George Sound, Western Australia).

Distribution: southeastern and southwestern Australia.

Bodianus insularis Gomon & Lubbock

Bodianus insularis Gomon & Lubbock, 1980: 106, figs. 1-3 (English Bay, Ascension Id).

Distribution: Ascension, St. Helena and St. Paul's Rocks.

Bodianus izuensis Araga & Yoshino

Bodianus izuensis Araga & Yoshino in Masuda, Araga & Yoshino, 1975: 296, pl. 103, fig. G (off Izu Oceanic Park, Shizuoka Pref., Japan).

Distribution: Japan, Taiwan, New Caledonia, and eastern Australia.

Bodianus leucosticticus (Bennett)

Labrus leucosticticus Bennett, 1832a: 166 (Mauritius).
Lepidaplois bourbon Fourmanoir & Guézé, 1961: 7, fig. 1 (Réunion Id).

Distribution: Madagascar, Mauritius, Réunion, Comores, Indonesia, Taiwan, and southern Japan.

Remarks: the specific name was misspelled as leucostictus by Smith (1957a), Randall (1986a), and Shen (1993).

Bodianus loxozonus (Snyder)

Lepidaplois loxozonus Snyder, 1908: 95 (Okinawa, Japan).
Lepidaplois trotteri Fowler & Bean, 1923: 20 (Tuamotu Ids).

Distribution: two subspecies: B. loxozonus, loxozonus: western Pacific to Mariana and Marshall Ids, and B. loxozonus trotteri Line Ids to French Polynesia (Myers, 1989).

Bodianus macrognathos (Morris)

Lepidaplois macrognathos Morris, 1974: 632, figs. 1-2 (off Kanyika Id, Kenya, 2°27'S, 40°52'E, 65 m.).

Distribution: Kenya and Oman.

Bodianus macrourus (Lacepède)

Labrus macrourus Lacepède, 1801: 438, 493, pl. 9, fig. 3 (Indo-Pacific Ocean).
Labrus hirsutus Lacepède, 1801: 429, 473, pl. 20, fig. 1 (Great Gulf of India).
Labrus rubrolineatus Lacepède, 1801: 433, 480 (Madagascar and Réunion Id).
Crenilabrus croceus Lesson, 1828: 407 (Mauritius).
Crenilabrus chabrolii Lesson, 1830: 133, pl. 38 (Mauritius).
Labrus spilonotus Bennett, 1836: 207 (Mauritius).
Cossyphus maldat Val., 1839: 114 (Mauritius).
Cossyphus macrurus Günther, 1862: 104 (unjustified emendation of Labrus macrourus, Lacepède).

Distribution: western Indian Ocean.

Bodianus masudai Araga & Yoshino

Bodianus masudai, Araga & Yoshino in Masuda, Araga & Yoshino, 1975: 297, pl. 103, fig. H (off Izu Oceanic Park, Shizuoka Pref., Japan).

Distribution: Japan, Taiwan, and New Caledonia.

Bodianus mesothorax (Bloch & Schneider)

Labrus mesothorax Bloch & Schneider, 1801: 254 (East Indies).
Scarus mordax Gronow in Gray, 1854: 64 (Indian Ocean).

Distribution: western Pacific to Christmas Id (eastern Indian Ocean).

Bodianus neilli (Day)

Cossyphus neilli Day, 1867b: 560 (Madras, India).

Distribution: India and Sri Lanka.

Bodianus opercularis (Guichenot)

Cossyphus opercularis Guichenot, 1847: 283 (Madagascar).
Trochocopus opercularis Günther, 1862: 100 (Mauritius?).
Cheiliopsis bivittatus Steindachner, 1863a: 1113, pl. 24, fig. 1-1c (Mauritius).

Distribution: Red Sea and Indian Ocean to Indonesia.

Bodianus oxycephalus (Bleeker)

Cossyphus oxycephalus Bleeker, 1862d: 129 (Japan).

Distribution: Japan.

Bodianus perditio (Quoy & Gaimard)

Labrus perditio Quoy & Gaimard, 1834: 702, pl. 20, fig. 4 (Tongatabu, Tonga Ids).
Cossyphus atrolumbus Val., 1839: 123 (Mauritius).
Trochocopus sanguinolentus De Vis, 1883: 287 (Cape Moreton, Queensland, Australia).
Cossyphus aurifer De Vis, 1884: 146 (Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia).
Cossyphus latro De Vis, 1885: 878 (Moreton Bay).
Cossyphus nigromaculatus Gilchrist & Thompson, 1908: 197 (off Durban harbor, South Africa).
Chaeropsodes pictus Gilchrist & Thompson, 1909: 260 (Durban market, South Africa).

Distribution: Indo-Pacific; anti-equatorial: southern Africa to the islands of southern Oceania and from Taiwan to southern Japan.

Bodianus prognathus Lobel

Bodianus prognathus Lobel, 1981: 45, figs. 1-4 (Fanning Id, Line Ids).

Distribution: Line Ids, central Pacific.

Bodianus pulchellus (Poey)

Cossyphus pulchellus Poey, 1860: 208 (Cuba).
Harpe naevius Eigenmann, 1894: 630 (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil).

Distribution: Bermuda, North Carolina to Florida, Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean and West Indies to Venezuela.

Bodianus rufus (Linnaeus)

Labrus rufus Linnaeus, 1758: 284 (America).
Bodianus bodianus Bloch, 1790: 33, pl. 223 (Brazil).
Lutjanus verres Bloch, 1791: 9, pl. 255 ("Japan"; evidently erroneous).
Sparus falcatus Bloch, 1791: 20, pl. 258 (Martinique Id)
Labrus semiruber Lacepède, 1801: 428, 473 (Brazil).
Bodianus blochii Lacepède, 1802: 279, 287 (Brazil).
Harpe caeruleoaureus Lacepède, 1802: 426, 427, pl. 8, fig. 2 (Martinique Id, West Indies).
Bodianus brachyrhynus Miranda-Ribeiro, 1918: 787 (Estado de Bahia, Brazil).

Distribution: Bermuda, North Carolina to Florida, Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean and West Indies to southern Brazil.

Remarks: Bodianus brachyrhynus is a synonym according to Luiz Alves Rocha (pers. comm.).

Bodianus sanguineus (Jordan & Evermann)

Verriculus sanguineus Jordan & Evermann, 1903: 191 (Hilo, Hawaiian Ids).

Distribution: Hawaiian Ids.

Bodianus scrofa (Valenciennes)

Labrus scrofa Val., 1839: 93 (Cape Verde Ids and Madeira).
Crenilabrus caninus Lowe, 1839: 84 (off Madeira).
Pseudolepidaplois pfaffi Bauchot & Blanc, 1961: 54, fig. 4 (Santa Cruz, Tenerife, Canary Ids).

Distribution: eastern tropical Atlantic.

Bodianus speciosus (Bowdich)

Diastodon speciosus Bowdich, 1825: 238, fig. 41 (St Jago Id, Madeira).
Labrus iagonensis Bowdich, 1825: 234, fig. 47 ( St Jago Id, Madeira and River Gambia, West Africa).
Cossyphus tredecimspinosus Günther, 1862: 107 (no locality).
Cossyphus jagonensis Troschel, 1866: 229 (emendation of Labrus iagonensis Bowdich).

Distribution: eastern tropical Atlantic.

Bodianus tanyokidus Gomon & Madden

Bodianus tanyokidus Gomon & Madden, 1981: 122, figs. 2-3 (Mauritius).

Distribution: Comoro Ids, Mauritius, southern Japan, southern Marianas.

Bodianus thoracotaeniatus Yamamoto

Bodianus thoracotaeniatus Yamamoto, in Amaoka et al., 1982: 245, pl. 170 (Kita Koho Seamount, Kyushu-Palau Ridge, W. Pacific, 26°45 'N, 135°22' E; 345 m).

Distribution: southern Japan and Taiwan.

Bodianus trilineatus (Fowler)

Lepidaplois trilineatus Fowler, 1934: 492, fig. 47 (Natal coast, South Africa).
Lepidaplois luteopunctatus Smith, 1957a: 102, pl. 1, fig. A (off Delagoa Bay, Mozambique).

Distribution: Gulf of Aden to South Africa.

Bodianus unimaculatus (Günther)

Cossyphus unimaculatus Günther, 1862: 109, 506 (Australia).
Cossyphus bellis Ramsay & Ogilby, 1887c: 561 (Shoalhaven, New South Wales, Australia).

Distribution: southeastern Australia, New Zealand, Lord Howe Id, and Norfolk Id to Easter Id.

Bodianus vulpinus (Richardson)

Cossyphus vulpinus Richardson, 1850: 71 (Australia).

Distribution: western Australia.

Bodianus sp 1

Distribution: Western Australia.

Bodianus sp 2

Distribution: southeastern Australia and New Zealand.

Bodianus sp 3

Distribution: New Caledonia and eastern Australia.

Bodianus sp 4

Distribution: Cook Ids, Papua New Guinea, New Caledonia and Palau.

Bodianus sp 5

Distribution: Hawaiian Ids.

Bodianus sp 6

Distribution: Line Ids, central Pacific.

Genus Centrolabrus Günther

Centrolabrus Günther, 1861: 303 (type-species, Labrus exoletus Linnaeus, by subsequent designation).

Three species; eastern Atlantic.

Centrolabrus caeruleus Azevedo

Centrolabrus caeruleus Azevedo, 1999: 3, fig. 1, a-b (Ponta Delgada, São Miguel Id, Azores).

Distribution: Azores Ids.

Centrolabrus exoletus (Linnaeus)

Labrus exoletus Linnaeus, 1758: 287 (Atlantic Ocean).
Labrus chinensis Linnaeus, 1758: 287 ("Asia" [probably Europe]).
Labrus pentacanthus Lacepède, 1801: 441, 503 (between Norway and Greenland).
Crenilabrus microstoma Thompson (ex Couch), 1837: 55 (Cornwall, England).

Distribution: northeastern Atlantic from Greenland and Norway to Portugal.

Remarks: synonymy from Bauchot (1963) and Bauchot and Quignard (1973). Lönnberg (1896) regarded Labrus chinensis as a synonym of Labrus exoletus. The diagnosis of L.chinensis is concise, but the anal-fin ray count of five spines in a total of 12 elements suggests that it may represent C. exoletus. Wheeler (1991: 178) examined the Linnean fish collection at Uppsala and concluded that the specimen labelled Centrolabus exoletus, (ZIU 194) is apparently the type of L. chinensis. The type of Labrus exoletus is no longer extant. As stated by Wheeler, "if it became necessary in a revisionary study to designate a neotype for L. exoletus, it might be desirable to designate this specimen".

Centrolabrus trutta (Lowe)

Crenilabrus trutta Lowe, 1834: 143 (off Madeira).
Crenilabrus trutta var. unicolor Lowe, 1838: 187 (Madeira).
Acantholabrus viridis Val., 1839: 252 (Canary Ids).
Acantholabrus romeritus Valenciennes, 1843: 64 (Canary Ids).
Acantholabrus romerus Valenciennes, 1843: 64 (Lanzarote, Canary Ids).

Distribution: Azores, Madeira, and Canary Ids.

Remarks: synonymy from Gomon and Forsyth (1990).

Genus Cheilinus Lacepède

Cheilinus Lacepède, 1801: 529 (type-species, Cheilinus trilobatus Lacepède, by subsequent designation; Chilinus is a misspelling).
Crassilabrus Swainson, 1839: 172, 225 (type-species, Cheilinus undulatus Rüppell, by monotypy; proposed as subgenus).
Thalliurus Swainson, 1839: 230 (type-species, Thalliurus blochii Swainson, by monotypy; proposed as subgenus).
Urichthys Swainson, 1839: 172, 225 (type-species, Labrus lunulatus Forsskål, by subsequent designation; proposed as subgenus).

Seven species; Indo-Pacific. The genus is currently under revision by M.W. Westneat, J.E. Randall, and M.F. Gomon; synonymies should be considered provisional.

Cheilinus abudjubbe (Rüppell)

Cheilinus abudjubbe Rüppell, 1835: 18 (Red Sea).

Distribution: Red Sea.

Cheilinus chlorourus (Bloch)

Sparus chlorourus Bloch, 1791: 24, pl. 260 (Japan).
Thalliurus blochii Swainson, 1839: 230 (no locality).
Cheilinus punctatus Bennett, 1832a: 167 (Mauritius).
Cheilinus punctulatus Val., 1840: 87, pl. 396 (Seychelles).
Cheilinus blochii Val., 1840: 108 (Japan).
Cheilinus guttatus Bleeker, 1847: 161 (Jakarta, Indonesia).
Cheilinus decacanthus Bleeker, 1851b: 256 (Indonesia).

Distribution: Indo-Pacific, from South Africa to Japan, Australia and central Pacific.

Cheilinus fasciatus (Bloch)

Sparus fasciatus, Bloch, 1791: 18, pl. 257 (Japan).
Labrus enneacanthus Lacepède, 1801: 433, 480 (no locality).
Sparus bandatus Perry, 1811: no page (Eastern Ocean).
Cheilinus quinquecinctus Rüppell, 1835: 19, pl. 6, fig. 1 (Jidda [Jeddah], Saudi Arabia, Red Sea).

Distribution: Red Sea to Mozambique, Samoa and Marshall Ids.

Remarks: Sparus bandatus is a synonym according to Whitley (1931b).

Cheilinus lunulatus (Forsskål)

Labrus lunulatus Forsskål, 1775: 37 (Jeddah, Red Sea).
Cheilinus lunifer Nichols, 1923: 3, fig. 3 (Djibouti).

Distribution: Red Sea to Persian Gulf.

Cheilinus oxycephalus (Bleeker)

Cheilinus ketlitzii Val., 1840: 105 (Ulea, Caroline Ids).
Cheilinus sanguineus Val., 1840: 106 (Ulea, Caroline Ids).
Cheilinus oxycephalus Bleeker, 1853h: 349 (Indonesia).
Cheilinus calophthalmus Playfair & Günther, 1867: 90, pl. 11, fig. 4 (Zanzibar).

Distribution: Indo-Pacific, from South Africa to Japan, Australia and central Pacific.

Remarks: Cheilinus ketlitzii, Cheilinus sanguineus, and Cheilinus calophthalmus, are new synonyms of Cheilinus oxycephalus (Mark Westneat, pers. comm.). Fowler (1928: 362) emended Cheilinus ketlitzii to kitlitzii, and regarded it as the valid name for the species presently known as Oxychelinus celebicus (Bleeker). Randall and Parenti (1999) proposed that ketlitzii and sanguineus be suppressed in order to conserve oxycephalus.

Cheilinus trilobatus Lacepède

Cheilinus trilobatus Lacepède, 1801: 529, 537, pl. 31, fig. 3 (type localities, Réunion, Mauritius and Madagascar).
Cheilinus trilobus Schinz, in Cuvier, 1822: 427 (emendation of Cheilinus trilobatus Lacepède).
Cheilinus sinuosus Quoy & Gaimard, 1824: 278 (Madagascar, Hawaiian Ids and Mariana Ids).
Cheilinus rivulatus Val., 1840: 86 (New Ireland Id).
Cheilinus festivus Val., 1840: 104 (Oualan, Caroline Ids).
Cheilinus maculosus Val., 1840: 104 (Oualan Id).
Cheilinus nebulosus Richardson, 1846b: 261 (Sea of China).
Cheilinus tetrazona Bleeker, 1853c: 293 (Indonesia).
Cheilinus fasciatopunctatus Steindachner, 1863a: 1114, pl. 23 (Red Sea).
Cheilinus pulchellus Sauvage, 1880: 224 (Fiji Ids).

Distribution: Indo-Pacific, from South Africa to Japan, Australia and central Pacific.

Remarks: Daget (1968) discussed the status of Cheilinus trilobus.

Cheilinus undulatus (Rüppell)

Cheilinus undulatus Rüppell, 1835: 20, pl. 6, fig. 2 (Jidda [Jeddah], Saudi Arabia, Red Sea).
Cheilinus mertensii Val., 1840: 102 (Guam, Mariana Ids).
Chilinus godeffroyi Günther, 1872a: 666, pl. 66 (Tonga Ids).
Cheilinus rostratus Cartier, 1874: 103 (Cebu, Philippines).

Distribution: Indo-Pacific, Red Sea to South Africa, Japan, Australia and Pitcairn Group.

Genus Cheilio Lacepède

Cheilio Lacepède, 1802: 432 (type-species, C. auratus Lacepède, by subsequent designation).
Micropodus Rafinesque, 1815: 86 (unneeded replacement name for Cheilio Lacepède).
Eupemis Swainson, 1839: 173, 232 (type-species, Labrus fusiformis Rüppell, by monotypy; proposed as subgenus of Julis on p. 173 and as subgenus of Gomphosis on p. 233).

One species.

Cheilio inermis (Forsskål)

Labrus inermis Forsskål, 1775: 34 (Yemen, Red Sea).
Labrus hassek Lacepède, 1801: 444 513 (Arabia, nomen novum, for Labrus inermis Forsskål).
Cheilio auratus Lacepède, 1802: 432, 433 (Mauritius).
Cheilio fuscus Lacepède, 1802: 432, 433 (Mauritius).
Labrus fusiformis Rüppell, 1835: 7, pl. 1, fig. 4 (Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, and Massawa, Eritrea).
Cheilio cyanochloris Val., 1839: 346, pl. 382 (Mauritius).
Cheilio forskalii Val., 1839: 349 (Mauritius and Suez).
Cheilio hemichrysos Val., 1839: 351 (Hawaiian Ids).
Cheilio viridis Val., 1839: 352 (Vanikoro, Santa Cruz Ids).
Cheilio microstoma Val., 1839: 353 (no locality).
Cheilio ramosus Jenyns, 1842: 102 (Japan).
Cheilio bicolor Bianconi, 1857: 100 (Mozambique).
Cheilio udanad Montrouzier, 1857: 470 (Woodlark Id).

Distribution: Indo-Pacific, Red Sea to South Africa, Japan, Hawaiian Ids, Australia and Easter Id.

Remarks: synonymy from Fowler (1928) de Beaufort (1940), and Bauchot (1963).

Genus Choerodon Bleeker,

Choerodon Bleeker, 1849: 10 (type-species, Labrus macrodontus Lacepède, by monotypy).
Choerops Rüppell, 1852: 20 (type-species, Choerops meleagris Rüppell, by monotypy).
Cossyphodes Bleeker, 1860a: 37 (type-species, Labrus macrodontus Lacepède, by monotypy).
Hypsigenys Günther, 1861: 383 (type-species, Labrus macrodontus Lacepède, by monotypy).
Torresia Castelnau, 1875: 36 (type-species, T. australis Sauvage, by monotypy).
Lienardella Fowler & Bean, 1928: 202 (type-species, Lepidaplois mirabilis Snyder, by original designation; proposed as a subgenus).
Macrochoerodon Fowler & Bean, 1928: 200 (type-species, Crenilabrus oligacanthus Bleeker, by original designation).
Peaolopesia Smith, 1949: 370 (type-species, Xiphochilus gymnogenys Günther, by original designation).
Aspiurochilus Fowler, 1956: 176 (type-species, Crenilabrus stejnegeri Ishikawa, by original designation; proposed as a subgenus).
Choerodonoides Kamohara, 1958: 2 (type-species, C. japonicus Kamohara, by original designation).

Twenty-three species plus two undescribed species; Indo- Pacific. We follow Gomon (1974a) in placing Lienardella Fowler & Bean in synonymy. The genus is being revised by M.F. Gomon. Names and synonyms are provisional.

Choerodon anchorago (Bloch)

Sparus anchorago Bloch, 1791: 108, pl. 276 ("Received from the Holland auction").
Labrus macrodontus Lacepède, 1801: 451, 522 (no locality).
Cossyphus macrodon Bleeker, 1849a: 10 (unjustified emendation of Labrus macrodontus Lacepède).
Choerops meleagris Rüppell, 1852: 20 (Mare Javanicum,).
Labrus chlorodus Gray, 1854: 80 (no locality).
Crenilabrus leucozona Bleeker, 1858c: 238 (Indonesia).
Choerops maeander Cartier, 1874: 102 (Cebu, Philippines).
Choerodon weberi Ogilby, 1911: 52 (Aru Ids, Indonesia).

Distribution: Sri Lanka to Ryukyus, French Polynesia and New Caledonia.

Choerodon azurio (Jordan & Snyder)

Labrus japonicus Val., 1839: 99 (Japan; preoccupied by Labrus japonicus Houttuyn, 1782 nomen dubium).
Choerops azurio Jordan & Snyder, 1901: 747 nomen novum for Labrus japonicus Valenciennes.
Crenilabrus stejnegeri Ishikawa, 1904: 13, pl. 6, fig. 2 (Miyako-jima, Ryukyu Ids, Japan).

Distribution: Taiwan, Japan.

Remarks: M.F. Gomon informed us that Crenilabrus stejnegeri is a synonym of C. azurio.

Choerodon cauteroma Gomon & Allen

Choerodon cauteroma Gomon & Allen, 1987: 25 (Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia).

Distribution: western Australia.

Choerodon cephalotes (Castelnau)

Chaerops cephalotes Castelnau, 1875: 39 (Queensland).
Choerops perpulcher De Vis, 1885: 877 (Queensland).
Choerops macleayi Ramsay & Ogilby, 1887: 241 (Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia).
Choerops hodgkinsonii Saville-Kent, 1893: 296, 370, pl. 15, fig. 2 (Port Denison, Queensland, Australia).

Distribution: northern Australia.

Choerodon cyanodus (Richardson)

Labrus cyanodus, Richardson, 1843b: 355 (Black Point, Port Essington, Queensland, Australia).
Chaerops crassus Castelnau, 1875: 39 (Dampier Archipelago, Western Australia).
Choerops albigena De Vis, 1885: 876 (Queensland).
Choerops olivaceus De Vis, 1885: 876 (Queensland).
Choerops unimaculatus De Vis, 1885: 877 (Great Barrier Reef; preoccupied by Choerops unimaculatus Cartier, 1874 [= Choerodon schoenleinii (Valenciennes)]).
?Choerops concolor De Vis, 1885: 878 (Queensland).

Distribution: Indonesia and north coast of Australia.

Remarks: Assignment of the De Vis names from M.F. Gomon (pers. comm.).

Choerodon fasciatus (Günther)

Xiphochilus fasciatus Günther, 1867: 101, pl. 10 (Cape York, Queensland, Australia).
Lepidaplois mirabilis Snyder, 1908: 96 (Okinawa, Japan).
Choerodon balerensis Herre, 1950: 149 (Philippines).

Distribution: western Pacific.

Remarks: Choerodon balerensis is a synonym according to M.F. Gomon (pers. comm.).

Choerodon frenatus Ogilby

Choerodon frenatus Ogilby, 1910b: 99 (north of Double Id Point, Queensland, Australia).

Distribution: northeastern Australia.

Choerodon graphicus (De Vis)

Choerops graphicus De Vis, 1885: 878 (Queensland).
Choerodon transversalis Whitley, 1956: 258, fig. 7 (Heron Id, Capricorn Group, Queensland, Australia).

Distribution: New Caledonia, southern Great Barrier Reef.

Choerodon gymnogenys (Playfair & Günther)

Xiphochilus gymnogenys Playfair & Günther, 1867: 85, pl. 12, fig. 4 (Zanzibar).

Distribution: Tanzania. Kenya? Mozambique?

Choerodon jordani (Snyder)

Choerops jordani Snyder, 1908: 98 (Okinawa Id, Japan).

Distribution: western Pacific.

Choerodon margaritiferus (Fowler & Bean)

Choerodon margaritiferus Fowler & Bean, 1928: 197 (Jolo market, Philippines).

Distribution: New Caledonia, Philippines.

Choerodon melanostigma (Fowler & Bean)

Choerodon melanostigma Fowler & Bean, 1928: 199, pl. 16 (Jolo market, Philippines).

Distribution: Philippines; records from New Caledonia are misidentifications of C. jordani.

Choerodon monostigma (Ogilby)

Choerodon monostigma Ogilby, 1910b: 102 (Queensland).

Distribution: northern Australia and New Guinea.

Choerodon oligacanthus (Bleeker)

Crenilabrus oligacanthus Bleeker, 1851c: 489 (Rio [Rhio or Riouw], Indonesia).
Choerops palawanensis Seale, 1910: 523 (Philippines).

Distribution: Indonesia, Philippines.

Choerodon paynei Whitley

Choerodon paynei Whitley, 1945: 29, fig. 14 (Dirk Hartog Id, Western Australia).

Distribution: western Australia.

Choerodon robustus (Günther)

Xiphochilus robustus Günther, 1862: 98 (Mauritius).
Cossyphus maxillosus Guichenot, 1865: 23 (Réunion Id).
Choerops dodecacanthus Bleeker, 1868: 275 (Réunion Id).
Choerodon pescadorensis Yu, 1968: 10, fig. 4 (Pescadores Ids, Taiwan).

Distribution: Red Sea, Réunion, Mauritius, Taiwan, Japan.

Remarks: Choerodon pescadorensis Yu is a synonym (S.C. Shen, pers. comm.).

Choerodon rubescens (Günther)

Choerops rubescens Günther, 1862: 97 (Houtman Abrolhos, Western Australia).

Distribution: western Australia.

Choerodon schoenleinii (Valenciennes)

Cossyphus schoenleinii Val., 1839: 143 ( Indonesia).
Cossyphus cyanostolus Richardson, 1846b: 256 (China).
Cossyphus ommopterus Richardson, 1846b: 257 (China).
Choerops unimaculatus Cartier, 1874: 102 (Philippines).
Torresia australis Castelnau, 1875: 36 (Queensland).
Torresia lineata De Vis, 1885: 881 (Cardwell, Queensland).
Chaerops notatus Alleyne & Macleay, 1877: 344, pl. 16, fig. 1 (Cape Grenville, Queensland, Australia).
?Choerops nyctemblema Jordan & Evermann, 1902: 353, fig. 21 (Taiwan).
Choerodon rubidus Scott, 1959: 89, fig. 7 (Shark Bay, Western Australia).
Choerodon quadrifasciatus Yu, 1968: 11, fig. 5 (Taiwan).

Distribution: Okinawa to Indonesia and Australia.

Remarks: Synonymy from M.F. Gomon, (pers. comm.).

Choerodon sugillatum Gomon

Choerodon sugillatum Gomon, 1987: 19 (Cape Bedford, Queensland, Australia).

Distribution: Queensland to northwestern Australia.

Choerodon venustus (De Vis)

Choerops venustus De Vis, 1884: 147 (Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia).
Choerodon ambiguus Ogilby, 1910b: 100 (Queensland).

Distribution: Great Barrier Reef to southeastern Australia.

Remarks: Synonymy from M.F. Gomon, (pers. comm.).

Choerodon vitta (Ogilby)

Choerodon vitta Ogilby, 1910a: 13 (Aru Ids, Indonesia).

Distribution: Aru Ids, Papua New Guinea, and northern Australia.

Choerodon zamboangae (Seale & Bean)

Choerops zamboangae Seale & Bean, 1907: 236, fig. 6 (Zamboanga, Philippines).

Distribution: West Pacific.

Choerodon zosterophorus (Bleeker)

Choerops zosterophorus Bleeker, 1868: 273, pl. 12, top fig. (Great Kai Id, Indonesia).
Choerops brenchleyi Günther, 1872b: 424 (Indonesia).

Distribution: East Indies.

Genus Cirrhilabrus Temminck & Schlegel

Cirrhilabrus Temminck & Schlegel, 1845: 167 (type-species, Cirrhilabrus temminckii Bleeker, by subsequent designation).
Cheilinoides Bleeker, 1851a: 71 (type-species, Cheilinoides cyanopleura Bleeker, by monotypy).
Cirrhilabrichthys Klausewitz, 1976: 12 (type-species, C. filamentosus Klausewitz, by original designation).
Neocirrhilabrus Cheng & Wang, 1979: 73 (type-species, N. oxyurus Cheng & Wang, by original designation).

Thirty-six species and 5 undescribed species. Red Sea to Central Pacific.

Cirrhilabrus adornatus Randall & Kunzmann

Cirrhilabrus adornatus Randall & Kunzmann, 1998: 41, figs. 1-4 (Pulau Ular, off Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia).

Distribution: Sumatra and Mentawai Ids.

Cirrhilabrus aurantidorsalis Allen & Kuiter

Cirrhilabrus aurantidorsalis Allen & Kuiter, 1999: 134, figs. 1-3 (Batudaka Id., Togean Islands, Indonesia).

DISTRIBUTION>: Indonesia.

Cirrhilabrus balteatus Randall

Cirrhilabrus balteatus Randall, 1988: 210, pls. 1, figs. c-d, 3, figs. d-f (Eniwetak Atoll, Marshall Ids).

Distribution: Marshall Ids.

Cirrhilabrus blatteus Springer & Randall

Cirrhilabrus blatteus Springer & Randall, 1974: 48, figs. 2-3 (Eilat, Israel, Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea).

Distribution: Red Sea.

Cirrhilabrus condei Allen & Randall

Cirrhilabrus condei Allen & Randall, 1996: 102, figs. 1-2 (Rausch Pass, Madang, Papua New Guinea).

Distribution: Papua New Guinea and Great Barrier Reef.

Cirrhilabrus cyanopleura (Bleeker)

Cheilinoides cyanopleura Bleeker, 1851a: 72, pl.1 (Batavia [Jakarta], Indonesia).
Cirrhilabrus heterodon Bleeker, 1871: 326, fig. 1 (Ambon Id, Moluccas Ids, Indonesia).
Cirrhilabrus lyukyuensis Ishikawa, 1904: 12, pl. 6, fig. 1 (Naha, Okinawa Id, Ryukyu Ids, Japan).

Distribution: western Indonesia to southern Japan.

Remarks: synonymy from Randall & Shen, 1978.

Cirrhilabrus exquisitus Smith

Cirrhilabrus exquisitus Smith, 1957a: 109, fig. 4; pl. 2, fig. E (Pinda, Mozambique).

Distribution: Indo-Pacific.

Cirrhilabrus filamentosus (Klausewitz)

Cirrhilabrichthys filamentosus Klausewitz, 1976: 12, figs. 1-3 (Java Sea, [aquarium import from Indonesia]).

Distribution: Indonesia.

Cirrhilabrus flavidorsalis Randall & Carpenter

Cirrhilabrus flavidorsalis Randall & Carpenter, 1980: 21, figs. 1B, 7-8 (Monthage Id, Sulawesi , Indonesia).

Distribution: Philippines and Indonesia.

Cirrhilabrus johnsoni Randall

Cirrhilabrus johnsoni Randall, 1988: 217, pl. 2, fig. c (Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Ids).

Distribution: Marshall Ids.

Cirrhilabrus jordani Snyder

Cirrhilabrus jordani Snyder, 1904: 529, pl. 10, fig. 18 (between Maui and Lanai islands, Hawaiian Ids).

Distribution: Hawaiian Ids.

Cirrhilabrus katherinae Randall

Cirrhilabrus katherinae Randall, 1992a: 108, pl. 3 B,C (Igaya Bay, Miyake-jima, Izu Ids, Japan).

Distribution: Mariana Ids and Izu Ids.

Cirrhilabrus katoi Senou & Hirata

Cirrhilabrus katoi Senou & Hirata, 2000: 89, fig. 1 (Hachijo-jima Id, Izu Ids, Japan).

Distribution: Izu Ids and Kashiwa-jima Id, Japan.

Cirrhilabrus laboutei Randall & Lubbock

Cirrhilabrus laboutei Randall & Lubbock, 1982: 2, pl. 1, figs A-B (south of Nouméa, New Caledonia).

Distribution: New Caledonia, Loyalty Ids and Great Barrier Reef.

Cirrhilabrus lanceolatus Randall & Masuda

Cirrhilabrus lanceolatus Randall & Masuda, 1991: 57, figs. 6-8 (Okinawa Id, Ryukyu Ids, Japan).

Distribution: Honshu to Ryukyu Ids.

Cirrhilabrus lineatus Randall & Lubbock

Cirrhilabrus lineatus Randall & Lubbock, 1982: 6, pl. 1, fig. C ( Mato Pass, off southern end of New Caledonia).

Distribution: New Caledonia, Loyalty Ids, and Great Barrier Reef.

Cirrhilabrus lubbocki Randall & Carpenter

Cirrhilabrus lubbocki Randall & Carpenter, 1980: 18, figs. 1A, 2-6 ( Mactan Id, Cebu Prov., Philippines).

Distribution: Philippines and Indonesia.

Cirrhilabrus lunatus Randall & Masuda

Cirrhilabrus lunatus Randall & Masuda, 1991: 54, figs. 1-5 ( Sesoko Id, Okinawa Id, Ryukyu Ids, Japan).

Distribution: Ryukyu Ids and Ogasawara Ids.

Cirrhilabrus luteovittatus Randall

Cirrhilabrus luteovittatus Randall, 1988: 203, pl. 1, figs. a-b; pl. 3, figs a-c (Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Ids).

Distribution: Caroline and Marshall Ids.

Cirrhilabrus melanomarginatus Randall & Shen

Cirrhilabrus melanomarginatus Randall & Shen, 1978: 14, pl. 2B (Mao Pi Tou, Taiwan).
Neocirrhilabrus oxyurus Cheng & Wang, 1979: 73 (China).

Distribution: Taiwan, Philippines, and South China Sea.

Cirrhilabrus morrisoni Allen

Cirrhilabrus morrisoni Allen, 1999: 120, figs. 1-4 (Hiberia Reef, western Timor Sea off northwestern Australia).

Distribution: known only from the type locality.

Cirrhilabrus punctatus Randall & Kuiter

Cirrhilabrus punctatus Randall & Kuiter, 1989: 44, figs. 1-7 (One Tree Id, Capricorn Group, Great Barrier Reef).

Distribution: New South Wales, Great Barrier Reef, Papua New Guinea, Lord Howe Id, Fiji, and Tonga.

Cirrhilabrus pylei Allen & Randall

Cirrhilabrus pylei Allen & Randall, 1996: 105, figs. 3-4 (Milne Bay Prov., Papua New Guinea).

Distribution: Papua New Guinea.

Cirrhilabrus randalli Allen

Cirrhilabrus randalli Allen, 1995a: 14, figs. 1-3 ( Mermaid Reef, Rowley Shoals, Western Australia).

Distribution: northwestern Australia.

Cirrhilabrus rhomboidalis Randall

Cirrhilabrus rhomboidalis Randall, 1988: 215, pl. 2, figs. a-b; pl. 3, fig. 8 ( Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Ids).

Distribution: Marshall Ids.

Cirrhilabrus roseafascia Randall & Lubbock

Cirrhilabrus roseafascia Randall & Lubbock, 1982: 9, pl. 1, fig. D (Bulari Pass, south of Nouméa, New Caledonia).

Distribution: New Caledonia.

Cirrhilabrus rubrimarginatus Randall

Cirrhilabrus rubrimarginatus Randall, 1992a: 114, pl. 2 A-C (Sesoko Id, Okinawa Id, Ryukyu Ids, Japan).

Distribution: Ryukyu Ids to Vanuatu, Fiji, and Tonga.

Cirrhilabrus rubripinnis Randall & Carpenter

Cirrhilabrus rubripinnis Randall & Carpenter, 1980: 23, figs, 9-10 (Caban Id, Batangas, Luzon Id, Philippines).

Distribution: Philippines and Kalimantan, Borneo.

Cirrhilabrus rubrisquamis Randall & Emery

Cirrhilabrus rubrisquamis Randall & Emery, 1983: 21, fig. 1 (Peros Banhos Atoll, Chagos Archipelago).

Distribution: Chagos Archipelago and Maldive Ids.

Cirrhilabrus rubriventralis Springer & Randall

Cirrhilabrus rubriventralis Springer & Randall, 1974: 52, figs. 4-5 (Elat, Israel, Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea).

Distribution: Red Sea to Oman and South Africa, with questionable records from Sri Lanka and Philippines (Randall, 1995a); Sumatra (R. H. Kuiter, pers. comm.).

Cirrhilabrus sanguineus Cornic

Cirrhilabrus sanguineus Cornic, 1987: 140, fig. (Mauritius).

Distribution: Mauritius.

Cirrhilabrus scottorum Randall & Pyle

Cirrhilabrus scottorum Randall & Pyle, 1989: 114, figs. 1-5 (Papara, Tahiti, Society Ids).

Distribution: Great Barrier Reef to Pitcairn Group.

Cirrhilabrus solorensis Bleeker

Cirrhilabrus solorensis Bleeker, 1853f: 88 (Lawajong, Solor Id, Indonesia).

Distribution: Indonesia.

Cirrhilabrus temminckii Bleeker

Cirrhilabrus temminckii Bleeker, 1853i: 17 (Nagasak).

Distribution: western Australia to southern Japan.

Cirrhilabrus tonozukai Allen & Kuiter

Cirrhilabrus tonozukai Allen & Kuiter, 1999: 137, figs. 6-8 (Tumbak Id, Banggai Ids, Indonesia).

Distribution: Indonesia.

Cirrhilabrus walindi Allen & Randall

Cirrhilabrus walindi Allen & Randall, 1996: 108, figs. 5-7 (New Britain Id, Bismarck Archipelago).

Distribution: Papua New Guinea and Solomon Ids.

Cirrhilabrus sp 1

Distribution: Fiji.

Cirrhilabrus sp 2

Distribution: Palau.

Remarks: to be described by J.R. Randall and R.L. Pyle.

Cirrhilabrus sp 3

Distribution: Samoa.

Remarks: to be described by J.R. Randall and R.L. Pyle.

Cirrhilabrus sp 4

Distribution: Cook Islands.

Remarks: to be described by J.R. Randall and R.L. Pyle.

Cirrhilabrus sp 5

Distribution: New Caledonia, Santa Cruz Ids, and Solomon Ids.

Remarks: to be described by M.W. Westneat and J.T. Williams

Genus Clepticus Cuvier

Clepticus Cuvier, 1829: 261 (type-species, Clepticus genizara Cuvier, by monotypy).

Three species, two of which are undescribed (Ross Robertson, pers. comm.). Western and eastern Atlantic.

Clepticus parrae (Bloch & Schneider)

Brama parrae Bloch & Schneider, 1801: 100 (Cuba).
Clepticus genizara Cuvier, 1829: 261 (Havana, Cuba).

Distribution: Bermuda and North Carolina to Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean, West Indies, to Brazil.

Clepticus sp 1

Distribution: Brazil.

Remarks: to be described by Rodrigo Moura

Clepticus sp 2

Remarks: a new species from São Tomé, Gulf of Guinea; to be described by Ross Roberston and John Heiser.

Genus Conniella Allen

Conniella Allen, 1983: 44 (type-species, Conniella apterygia Allen, by original designation).

One species.

Conniella apterygia Allen

Conniella apterygia Allen, 1983: 44, figs. 1-2 (Bedwell Id, Clerke Reef, Rowley Shoals, Western Australia).

Distribution: Rowley Shoals and Scott-Seringapatam Reefs, western Australia.

Genus Coris Lacepède

Coris Lacepède (ex Commerson), 1801: 96 (type-species, Coris aygula Lacepède, by subsequent designation).
Julis Cuvier, 1814: 90 (type-species, Labrus julis Linnaeus, by absolute tautonymy).
Aygula Rafinesque, 1815: 87 (unneeded replacement for Coris Lacepède).
Ichtycallus Swainson, 1839: 173, 232 (type-species, Julis semipunctatus Rüppell, by subsequent designation, proposed as a subgenus).
Neanis Gistel, 1848: ix (type-species, Labrus julis Linnaeus, unneeded replacement for Julis "Lacep." [Cuvier, 1814]).
Hemicoris Bleeker, 1862: 411 (type-species, Halichoeres variegatus Rüppell, by original designation).
Ctenocorissa Whitley 1931a: 323 (type-species, Labrus pictus Bloch & Schneider, by original designation).
Tiricoris Whitley, 1955: 111 (type-species, Cymolutes sandageri Hector, by original designation).

Twenty-six species; Indo-Pacific species revised by Randall (1999); two eastern Atlantic species; 5 undescribed species in the Indo-Pacific region.

Coris atlantica Günther

Coris atlantica Günther, 1862: 197 (Sierra Leone).
Coris hupferi Fischer, 1885: 73 (Nifao, Liberia).
Coris guineensis Bleeker, 1863: 31, pl. 5, fig. 2 (Guinea).

Distribution: tropical eastern Atlantic.

Remarks: Coris atlantica is a distinct species ranging from Cape Verde Islands to Liberia (A. Brito and P. Wirtz, pers. comm.). The species is readily confused with the sympatric Coris julis; it differs from C. julis in having longer pelvic fins, more suborbital pores, and configuration of the lateral-line tubules. Two specimens from São Tomé collected by Ross Robertson also show distinct colour variation. These specimens and colour photographs are deposited in the U.S. National Museum of Natural History.

Coris auricularis (Valenciennes)

Julis auricularis Val., 1839: 489 (King George Sound, Western Australia).

Distribution: southwestern Australia.

Coris aurilineata Randall & Kuiter

Coris aurilineata Randall & Kuiter, 1982: 164, pl. 1, fig. 1B-C, fig. 2 (Keppel Id, Queensland, Australia).

Distribution: New South Wales to Great Barrier Reef.

Coris aygula Lacepède

Coris aygula Lacepède, 1801: 96, 97, pl. 4, fig. 1 (Mauritius).
Coris angulatus Lacepède, 1801: 96, 99, pl. 4 (no locality).
Labrus cingulum Lacepède, 1801: 448, 517, pl. 28, fig. 1 (Mauritius).
Labrus aureomaculatus Bennett J.W., 1830: pl. 20 (Sri Lanka).
Julis ruppelii Bennett, 1831: 128 (Gulf of Setic, Red Sea).
Julis gibbifrons Quoy & Gaimard, 1834: 707, pl. 19, fig. 3 (Mauritius).
Julis semipuncatus Rüppell, 1835: 12, pl. 3, fig. 3 (Mohila, Red Sea).
Julis coris Val., 1839: 491; nomen novum for Coris aygula Lacepède; preoccupied by Julis coris Lesson, 1828 [=Thalassoma quinquevittatum (Lay & Bennett, 1839)]).
Coris cyanea Macleay, 1883a: 588 (New Guinea).
Coris variegata Ramsay & Ogilby, 1887a: 131 (Vanuatu).
Coris imbris Tanaka, 1918: 521, pl. 138, fig. 386 (Japan).

Distribution: Indo-Pacific, Red Sea to South Africa, Japan, Australia and Pitcairn Group.

Coris ballieui Vaillant & Sauvage

Coris ballieui Vaillant & Sauvage, 1875: 284 (Hawaiian Ids).
Coris (Hemicoris) rosea Vaillant & Sauvage, 1875: 286 (Hawaiian Ids).
Coris argenteostriata Steindachner, 1900: 176 (Honolulu).
Coris schauinslandii Steindachner, 1900: 177 (Honolulu).
Hemicoris keleipionis Jenkins, 1901: 51, fig. 6 (Honolulu).

Distribution: Hawaiian Ids.

Coris batuensis (Bleeker)

Julis (Halichoeres) batuensis Bleeker, 1856f: 240 (Batu Ids, Indonesia).
Julis (Halichoeres) schroederii Bleeker, 1858a: 3 (Ambon Id, Moluccas Ids, Indonesia).
Coris pallida MacLeay, 1881: 100 (Queensland, Australia).
Coris papuensis Macleay, 1883b: 275 (Papua New Guinea).
Coris coronata De Vis, 1885: 883 (Queensland, Australia).
Platyglossus punctatus De Vis, 1885: 885 (Murray Id, Queensland, Australia).

Distribution: New South Wales to southern Japan and Ogasawara Ids, east to Micronesia, west to the Maldives and Chagos Archipelago.

Coris bulbifrons Randall & Kuiter

Coris bulbifrons Randall & Kuiter, 1982: 168, pl. 2, figs. A-C; figs. 3-5 (Lord Howe Id, Australia).

Distribution: New South Wales, Lord Howe, Norfolk Id.

Coris caudimacula (Quoy & Gaimard)

Julis caudimacula Quoy & Gaimard, 1834: 710 , pl. 15, fig. 2 (Mauritius).
Halichoeres multicolor Rüppell, 1835: 15, pl. 4, fig. 3 (Jidda [Jeddah], Saudi Arabia, Red Sea).

Distribution: Indian Ocean, Red Sea to South Africa, Indonesia and northwestern Australia.

Coris centralis Randall

Coris centralis Randall, 1999b: 21, fig. 2; pls. 5C,D; 17D (Tabuaeran [Fanning Id], Line Islands).

DISTRIBUTION: Line Ids, central Pacific Ocean

Coris cuvieri (Bennett)

Julis cuvieri Bennett, 1831: 128 (Mauritius).
Julis stellatus Val., 1839: 499 (Mauritius).
Coris gaimard africana Smith, 1957b: 119, Pls. 1A-2A; fig. 1 (Mahé, Seychelles).

Distribution: Indian Ocean: Red Sea to South Africa, Sri Lanka and all western Indian Ocean islands.

Remarks: Coris gaimard africana Smith was treated as Coris africana by Randall, 1992b, 1995.

Coris debueni Randall

Coris debueni Randall, 1999b: 26, fig. 3; pls. 6 C,D; 7 A,B (Hanga Roa, west coast of Easter Id.).

Distribution: Easter Island.

Coris dorsomacula Fowler

Coris dorsomacula Fowler, 1908: 436, fig. 8 (Victoria, Australia).

Distribution: western Pacific.

Coris flavovittata (Bennett)

Julis flavovittatus Bennett, 1828b: 36 (Hawaiian Ids).
Coris eydouxii Val., 1839: 445 (Hawaiian Ids).
Coris lepomis Jenkins, 1901: 48, fig. 4 (Honolulu).

Distribution: Hawaiian Ids.

Remarks: the Philippines record of (Fowler and Bean, (1928) is based on a misidentification of Coris pictoides.

Coris formosa (Bennett)

Labrus formosus Bennett J.W., 1830: pl. 16 (Sri Lanka). Coris frerei Playfair & Günther, 1867: 101, pl. 13 (Zanzibar).
Coris halei Day, 1888: 803 (Sri Lanka).

Distribution: Western Indian Ocean, Red Sea to South Africa and Sri Lanka.

REMARKS: Labrus formosus Shaw, 1803 was a subsequent reclassification of the species originally named Sparus formosus Shaw and Nodder, 1790, which is a synonym of Labrus mixtus Linnaeus, 1758. Hence, Labrus formosus Bennett is not a homonym.

Coris gaimard (Quoy & Gaimard)

Julis gaimard Quoy & Gaimard, 1824: 265, pl. 54, fig. 1 (Maui, Hawaiian Ids).
Julis greenovii Bennett, 1828b: 37 (Hawaiian Ids).
Julis ganymede Bennett J.W., 1830: pl. 16 (Sri Lanka).
Julis (Julis) leucorhynchos Bleeker, 1856b: 57 (Manado, Sulawesi [Celebes], Indonesia).
Coris pulcherrima Günther, 1862: 200 (Ambon, Indonesia).
Coris greenoughii Günther, 1861: 387 (emendation of Julis greenovii Bennett).
Coris gaimard speciosa Fowler, 1946: 171, fig. 37 (Aguni-Shima, Ryukyu Ids, Japan).

Distribution: Indo-Pacific, Christmas and Cocos-Keeling Ids (eastern Indian Ocean) to Japan, Australia, Hawaiian Ids, Society Ids and Tuamotus (but not the Marquesas where there is a closely related undescribed species).

Remarks: Julis ganymede Bennett 1830 is a new synonym of Coris gaimard (Eschmeyer & Pethiyagoda, 1996).

Coris hewetti Randall

Coris hewetti Randall, 1999b: 43, figs. 4,5; pls. 10 C,D; 11A, 20 B-F (Anabo Bay, Nuku Hiva, Marquesas Ids.)

Distribution: Marquesas Ids.

Coris julis (Linnaeus)

Labrus julis Linnaeus, 1758: 284 (Genoa, Italy).
Labrus paroticus Linnaeus, 1758: 284 (probably Mediterranean Sea).
Labrus perdica Forsskål 1775: 34 (Istanbul, Turkey).
Labrus keslik Lacepède 1801: 453, 523 (Istanbul, Turkey; unneeded replacement for Labrus perdica Forsskål).
Labrus infuscus Walbaum 1792: 249 (Mediterranean Sea).
Labrus subfuscus Bloch & Schneider 1801: 259 (Mediterranean Sea; preoccupied by Labrus subfuscus Walbaum, 1792 [= Tautoga onitis (Linnaeus, 1758)]).
Labrus cettii Rafinesque 1810b: 23, 54 (Sicily, Italy).
Labrus giofredi Risso, 1810: 228, pl. 9, fig. 23 (Nice).
Julis mediterranea Risso, 1827: 309 (Nice, France; nomen novum for Labrus julis Linnaeus)
Julis speciosa Risso, 1827: 309, 311, pl. 9, fig. 20 (Nice).
Julis vulgaris Fleming, 1828: 210 (Cornwall, England).
Julis vulgaris Val., 1839: 361, pl. 384 preoccupied by Julis vulgaris Fleming, 1828).
Julis festiva Val., 1839: 374 (Brest, France).
Julis melanura Lowe, 1839: 85 (Madeira).
Coris (Hologymnosus) taeniatus Steindachner, 1863b: 1189, pl. 2, fig. 1 ("Java" [probably eastern Atlantic]).
Julis azorensis Fowler, 1919: 204, fig. 2 (Fayal Id, Azores).

Distribution: Eastern Atlantic from Sweden to Cape Lopez, Gabon, including the Azores, Madeira, Canary Ids, Mediterranean and southern Black Sea.

Remarks: Synonymy from Gomon and Forsyth (1990). Julis vulgaris Valenciennes is based on several specimens described by Rondelet, Salviani, Aldrovandi, Willughby and on Labrus n.7 of Artedi used by Linneaus to describe his Labrus julis (Bauchot, 1963: 75). Labrus cettii is a junior synonym according to Quignard (1966) and Tortonese (1970). Labrus infuscus Walbaum was described from the Mediterranean with D IX,12; P 13; A III,12; it is a new synonym of Coris julis. The two syntypes of Coris taeniatus were examined by the first author at the Naturhistorische Museum in Vienna and found to be C. julis; the locality "Java" given by Steindachner is obviously erroneous. The specimens may have been from a large collection made in the Canary Ids that came to the Museum at that time. The larger of the two syntypes, NMW 25675, 114 mm SL, is here designated as the lectotype, a decision made with the approval of the curator, Dr. Ernst Mikschi.

Coris marquesensis Randall

Coris marquesensis Randall, 1999: 49, fig. 6; pls 11B-D; 20 G,H (Marquesienne Bay, Nuku Hiva, Marquesas Ids).

DISTRIBUTION: Marquesas Ids, South Pacific Ocean.

Coris musume (Jordan & Snyder)

Julis musume Jordan & Snyder, 1904: 236, pl. 61 (Japan).

DISTRIBUTION: Southern Japan, Izu Ids and Taiwan.

Coris nigrotaenia Mee & Hare

Coris nigrotaenia Mee & Hare, 1995: 247 (Oman).

Distribution: southern Oman.

Coris picta (Bloch & Schneider)

Labrus pictus Bloch & Schneider, 1801: 251, pl. 55 (New South Wales, Australia).
Coris semicincta Ramsay, 1883: 301 (New South Wales).

Distribution: southeastern Australia, New Caledonia, Kermadec, Lord Howe, Norfolk and New Zealand.

Coris pictoides Randall & Kuiter

Coris pictoides Randall & Kuiter, 1982: 160, pl. 1, fig. A; fig. 1 (Bunut, Tioman Id, Malaysia).

Distribution: New South Wales to northwest Australia and Philippines.

Coris roseoviridis Randall

Coris roseoviridis Randall, 1999b: 59, fig. 6; pls. 13 C,D; 14 A (Karapoto Iti Islet, Rapa).

Distribution: Pitcairn Ids, Mangareva, Rapa, Austral Ids, and Raratonga, Cook Ids.

Coris sandageri (Hector)

Cymolutes sandeyeri Hector, 1884: 323 (Tiritiri Id, Auckland, New Zealand; incorrect original spelling)
Coris rex Ramsay & Ogilby, 1886: 851 (off Bondi, New South Wales, Australia).
Cymolutes sandageri: Sandager, 1888: 130 (emendation).
Coris trimaculata Ogilby, 1888: 992 (Norfolk Id).

Distribution: southeastern Australia and New Zealand.

Remarks: Hector (1884) stated that the specimen was "Collected by Mr. Sandeyer"; however this man's name was F.S. Sandager. Sandager (1888: 130) in a paper on fishes of Mokohinau Islands, lists Cymolutes sandageri, with information on its presence, abundance, spawning, but nothing on the name change. Hutton (1890: 282) followed Hector in using sandeyeri, but later, Thompson (1892), Phillips (1927), and Paulin et al. (1989) report sandageri. Phillips (1927) stated "sandeyeri" is obviously a misprint for "sandageri", the species being named after the lighthouse-keeper, Sandager". G.S. Hardy (1990: 11) reports "Cymolutes sandeyeri Hector, 1884: 323 = Coris sandageri (Hector, 1884)".

We have identified the only remaining syntype of Coris trimaculata, AMS I.1403, 92 mm SL, as a juvenile Coris sandageri.

Coris variegata (Rüppell)

Halichoeres variegatus Rüppell, 1835: 14, pl. 4, fig. 2 (Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea).

Distribution: Red Sea.

Remarks: Coris variegata is often wrongly used in the Indo-West Pacific for the very similar Coris batuensis.

Coris venusta Vaillant & Sauvage

Coris (Hemicoris) venusta Vaillant & Sauvage, 1875: 285 (Hawaiian Ids).
Hemicoris remedius Jenkins, 1901: 49, fig. 5 (Honolulu).

Distribution: Hawaiian Ids.

Genus Ctenolabrus Valenciennes

Ctenolabrus Val., 1839: 223 (type-species, Labrus rupestris Linnaeus, by subsequent designation).
Cynaedus Swainson, 1839: 229 (type-species, Labrus rupestris, by subsequent designation, proposed as a subgenus).

One species (Bauchot & Quignard, 1973).

Ctenolabrus rupestris (Linnaeus)

?Labrus suillus Linnaeus, 1758: 285 (West Europe).
Labrus rupestris Linnaeus, 1758: 286 (no locality).
Labrus bergsnyltrus Lacepède, 1801: 439 (North Atlantic).
Sparus carudse Lacepède, 1802: 49, 148 (Norway).
Labrus cinereus Pallas, 1814: 267 (Maris nigri).
Ctenolabrus marginatus Val., 1839: 232 (France).
Ctenolabrus acutus Val., 1839: 235 (Malaga, Spain).

Distribution: Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean.

Remarks: Labrus suillus is a probable synonym (Quignard, 1966). The combination Ctenolabrus suillus has been used by some authors (Jordan, 1890: 623; Lozano Rey, 1952: 448, pl. 37; Bauchot, 1963: 39; Costa, 1991).

Genus Cymolutes Günther

Cymolutes Günther, 1861: 387 (type-species, Julis praetextata Quoy & Gaimard, by subsequent designation).

Previously considered a monotypic genus (Bauchot, 1963); 3 species are presently recognized (Randall, 1986a; Randall et al., 1990). Indo-Pacific.

Cymolutes lecluse (Quoy & Gaimard)

Xyrichthys lecluse Quoy & Gaimard, 1824: 284, pl. 65, fig.1 (Hawaiian Ids).
Xyrichthys microlepidotus Val., 1840: 52 (Hawaiian Ids).
Novacula (Novacula) microlepis Vaillant & Sauvage, 1875: 284 (Hawaiian Ids).

Distribution: Hawaiian Ids.

Cymolutes praetextatus (Quoy & Gaimard)

Julis praetextata Quoy & Gaimard, 1834: 712, pl. 15, fig. 4 (Mauritius).
Novacula xyrichthyoides Bleeker, 1856g: 488 (East Indies).
?Julis kuelkuel Montrouzier, 1857: 473 (Woodlark Id).

Distribution: Indo-Pacific.

Cymolutes torquatus (Valenciennes)

Xyrichthys torquatus Val., 1840: 54, pl. 392 ("Suriname" [actually East Indies]).
Xyrichthys novaculoides Bleeker, 1853a: 122 (Indonesia).
Cymolutes tateyamaensis Sakamoto, 1930: 11, fig. 1(Japan).

Distribution: Indo-Pacific.

Genus Decodon Günther

Decodon Günther, 1861: 384 (type-species, Cossyphus puellaris Poey, by monotypy).
Pariolanthus Smith, 1968: 343 (type-species, Lepidaplois grandisquamis, by original designation, proposed as a subgenus).

Four species (Randall, 1986a; Gomon, 1997). Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans.

Decodon grandisquamis (Smith)

Lepidaplois (Pariolanthus) grandisquamis Smith, 1968: 343, figs. 1-2 (off Ponte de Barra Falsa, Mozambique).

Distribution: western Indian Ocean.

Decodon melasma Gomon

Decodon melasma Gomon, 1974b: 207, fig. 1 (3 mi. off Buena Vista, Gulf of California, Mexico).

Distribution: eastern Pacific.

Decodon pacificus (Kamohara)

Verreo pacificus Kamohara, 1952: 54, fig. 51 (Mimase).

Distribution: Japan.

Decodon puellaris (Poey)

Cossyphus puellaris Poey, 1860: 210 (Havana, Cuba).

Distribution: Bermuda, North Carolina to Florida, Gulf of Mexico, West Indies to Brazil.

Genus Diproctacanthus Bleeker

Diproctacanthus Bleeker, 1862a: 415 (type-species, Labroides xanthurus Bleeker, by original designation).

One species.

Diproctacanthus xanthurus (Bleeker, 1856)

Labroides xanthurus Bleeker, 1856b: 52 (Indonesia).

Distribution: Indonesia, New Guinea, Philippines, Palau.

Genus Doratonotus Günther

Doratonotus Günther, 1862: 124 (type-species, Doratonotus megalepis Günther, by subsequent monotypy).
Antonichthys Bauchot & Blanc, 1961: 50 (type-species, A. wetmorelloides Bauchot & Blanc, by monotypy).

One species.

Doratonotus megalepis Günther

Doratonotus megalepis Günther, 1862: 125 (St. Christopher, Leeward Ids, West Indies).
Doratonotus thalassinus Jordan & Gilbert, 1884: 28 (Key West, Florida, U.S.A.).
Doratonotus decoris Evermann & Marsh, 1899: 354 (Ponce, Puerto Rico).
Doratonotus boekei Metzelaar, 1919: 107, fig. 31 (Curaçao and Bonaire).
Antonichthys wetmorelloides Bauchot & Blanc, 1961: 50, fig. 3a-c (Rolas Id, São Tomé, eastern Atlantic).

Distribution: Bermuda, Florida to Venezuela; West Indies, and off São Tomé in the eastern Atlantic.

Genus Dotalabrus Whitley

Dotalabrus Whitley, 1930: 251 (type-species, Cheilinus aurantiacus Castelnau, by original designation).

Two species (Russell, 1988); Australia.

Dotalabrus alleni Russell

Dotalabrus sp. Allen, 1985:, figs. 304-305 (Rottnest Id, Western Australia).
Dotalabrus alleni Russell, 1988: 10, fig. 2,pl. 1, c-d (Carnac Id, Cockburn Sound, Western Australia).

Distribution: southwestern Australia.

Dotalabrus aurantiacus (Castelnau)

Cheilinus aurantiacus Castelnau, 1872b: 245 (Adelaide).
Labrichthys elegans Steindachner, 1883: 195 (St. Vincent Gulf, South Australia).
Labrichthys macleayi Herzenstein, 1896: 10 (St. Vincent Gulf, South Australia).

Distribution: southern and southwestern Australia.

Genus Epibulus Cuvier

Epibulus Cuvier, 1815b: 111 (type-species, Sparus insidiator Pallas, by monotypy).

Two species (1 undescribed); Indo-Pacific.

Epibulus insidiator (Pallas)

Sparus insidiator Pallas, 1770: 41, pl. 5, fig. 1 (Java, Indonesia).
Epibulus insidiator var. flava Bleeker, 1849a: 40 (Java).
Epibulus insidiator var. fusca Bleeker, 1849a: 40 (Java).
Epibulus striatus Day, 1871: 697 (Andaman Ids).

Distribution: Indo-Pacific, Red Sea to South Africa, Japan, Australia and Hawaiian Ids.

Epibulus sp 1

Epibulus sp. Myers, 1989: 180.

Distribution: Palau to Philippines.

Remarks: to be described by J.E. Randall and B.W. Carlson.

Genus Eupetrichthys Ramsay & Ogilby

Eupetrichthys Ramsay & Ogilby, 1888: 631 (type-species, E. angustipes Ramsay & Ogilby, by monotypy).

One species.

Eupetrichthys angustipes Ramsay & Ogilby

Eupetrichthys angustipes Ramsay & Ogilby, 1888: 632 (Rose Bay, Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia).

Distribution: Southeastern and western Australia.

Genus Frontilabrus Randall & Condé

Frontilabrus Randall & Condé, 1989: 90 (type-species, F. caeruleus Randall & Condé, by monotypy).

One species.

Frontilabrus caeruleus Randall & Condé

Frontilabrus caeruleus Randall & Condé, 1989: 90, figs. 1-3 (Maldive Ids).

Distribution: Maldive Ids.

Genus Gomphosus Lacepède

Gomphosus Lacepède, 1801: 100 (type-species, Gomphosus caeruleus Lacepède, by subsequent designation).

Acarauna Sevastianoff, 1802: 357, 364 (type-species, Acarauna longirostris Sevastianoff, by monotypy).

Two species (Randall, 1986a); Indo-Pacific.

Gomphosus caeruleus (Lacepède)

Gomphosus caeruleus Lacepède, 1801: 100, 101, pl. 5, fig. 1 (Mauritius).
Acarauna longirostris Sevastianoff, 1802: 359 (Brazil?; evidently erroneous).
Gomphosus fuscus Bennett J.W.,1828: pl. 3 (Sri Lanka).
Gomphosus ornatus Bennett, 1830: 690 (Indonesia).
Gomphosus viridis Bennett J.W., 1830: pl. 30 (Sri Lanka; preoccupied by Gomphosus viridis Cuvier, 1829 [= G. varius Lacepède, 1801]).
Gomphosus melanotus Bleeker, 1855d: 457 (Cocos-Keeling Ids, Indian Ocean).
Gomphosus caeruleus klunzingeri Klausewitz, 1962: 12, pl. 1, fig. 3 (Al-Quseir [formerly Kosseir], Egypt, Red Sea).

Distribution: Indian Ocean, Red Sea to South Africa, Oman, Maldives, Chagos and Cocos-Keeling Ids. Two subspecies: G. caeruleus caeruleus, Indian Ocean, and G. caeruleus klunzingeri, Red Sea.

Gomphosus varius (Lacepède)

Gomphosus varius Lacepède, 1801: 100, 105, pl. 5, fig. 2 (Tahiti, Society Ids).
Gomphosus tricolor Quoy & Gaimard, 1824: 280, pl. 55, fig. 2 (Maui, Hawaiian Ids).
Gomphosus pectoralis Quoy & Gaimard, 1824: 282 (Maui, Hawaiian Ids).
Gomphosus viridis Cuvier, 1829: 261 (no locality given).
Gomphosus cepedianus Val., 1840: 18 (Hawaiian Ids).
Gomphoses fuscus Val., 1840: 25 (Mauritius).
Gomphoses nasutus Parkinson in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1840: 27 (Tahiti, Society Ids).
Gomphosus notostigma Bleeker, 1862b: 304 (Java).
Gomphosus sandvicensis Günther, 1862: 194 (Hawaiian Ids).
Gomphosus undulatus Streets, 1877: 85 (Line Ids).
Gomphosus pacificus Seale, 1901a: 94 (Guam).
Thalassoma stuckiae Whitley, 1959: 19, fig. 7 (Nouméa, New Caledonia).

Distribution: eastern Indian Ocean to central Pacific, including Pitcairn Group.

Genus Halichoeres Rüppell

Halichoeres Rüppell, 1835: (10) 14 (type-species, H. bimaculatus Rüppell, by subsequent designation).
Platyglossus Bleeker (ex Klein), 1862a: 411 (type-species, Julis annulatis Valenciennes, by original designation).
Hemiulis Swainson, 1839:173, 228 (type-species, Labrus guttatus Bloch, by subsequent designation).
Hemijulis Bonaparte, 1841: puntata 156, fasc. 30 (incorrect subsequent spelling).
Hemitautoga Bleeker, 1862a: 413 (type-species, Labrus centiquadrus Lacepède, by original designation).
Guentheria Bleeker, 1862a: 413 (type-species, Halichoeres caeruleovittatus Rüppell, by original designation).
Pseudojulis Bleeker, 1862a: 412 (type-species, Julis (Julis) girardi Bleeker, by original designation).
Choerojulis Gill, 1862: 142 (proposed as a replacement name for Halichoeres Rüppell).
Pusa Jordan & Gilbert, 1879: 374 (type-species, Choerojulis grandisquamis Gill, by monotypy, preoccupied by Scopoli 1777 in Mammalia).
Emmeekia Jordan & Evermann, 1896: 413 (type-species, Pseudojulis venustus Jenkins & Evermann, by original designation).
Iridio Jordan & Evermann, 1896: 412 (type-species, Labrus radiatus Linnaeus, by original designation).
Julidio Jordan & Evermann, 1896: 413 (type-species, Pseudojulis adustus Gilbert, by original designation).
Octocynodon Fowler, 1904: 535 (type-species, Julis miniatus Valenciennes, by original designation)
Halinanodes Whitley, 1931b: 113 (type-species, Halichoeres leucostigma Fowler & Bean, by original designation).
Artisia de Beaufort, 1939: 17 (type-species, Artisia festiva de Beaufort, by monotypy).

Indo-Pacific, western Atlantic and eastern Pacific. Emmeekia is a synonym according to W. Bussing (pers. comm.). Halichoeres is in need of revision. On the basis of differences in larval and juvenile features a separate genus may be required for four eastern Pacific species formerly assigned to Pseudojulis (adustus, inornatus, melanotus and venustus) (Grove & Lavenberg, 1997: 488). With about 70 species, of which 4 are undescribed, Halichoeres is the largest genus of the Labridae. Randall and Smith (1982) recognized 15 species from the western Indian Ocean. Randall (1981c) discussed the status of some species from the Pacific. Nine species are known from the western Atlantic (Randall & Böhlke, 1965); 61 species are known from the Indo-Pacific region.

Halichoeres adustus (Gilbert)

Pseudojulis adustus Gilbert, 1890: 66 (Socorro Id, Revilla Gigedo [Revillagigedo] Ids, off western Mexico).

DISTRIBUTION: Revillagigedo Ids and Isla del Coco.

Halichoeres aestuaricola Bussing

Iridio bimaculata Wilson, 1916: 68 (mouth of Rio Dagua at Bonaventura, Colombia).
Halichoeres aestuaricola Bussing, 1972: 4, fig. 1 nomen novum for Iridio bimaculata Wilson 1916, secondarily preoccupied by Halichoeres bimaculatus Rüppell 1835.

DISTRIBUTION: Gulf of California to Colombia.

Halichoeres argus (Bloch & Schneider)

Labrus guttatus Bloch, 1791: 149, pl. 287, fig. 2 (no locality; preoccupied by Labrus guttatus Bonnaterre, 1788 and Labrus guttatus Gmelin, 1789 [= Symphodus ocellatus (Forsskål, 1775)]).
Labrus argus Bloch & Schneider, 1801: 263 (Australia).
Labrus guttulatus Lacepède, 1801: 446, 514 (incorrect subsequent spelling or emendation of Labrus guttatus).
Julis argus Bennett 1828a: 577, pl. 13, fig. 7 (Indonesia).
Julis punctulatus Val., 1839: 483 ([Indonesia]; based on Renard, fol. 21, n. 115).
Julis (Halichoeres) polyophthalmus; Bleeker, 1852f: 731 (Lepar Id, western Sumatra, Indonesia).
Julis (Halichoeres) leparensis Bleeker, 1852f: 730 (Lepar Id, western Sumatra, Indonesia).
Platyglossus reticulatus Cartier, 1874: 104 (Philippines).
Halichoeres fijiensis Herre, 1935: 410 (Ovalau, Fiji Ids).

DISTRIBUTION: western Pacific.

REMARKS: Julis punctulatus is a synonym (Pietsch, 1995).

Halichoeres bathyphilus (Beebe & Tee-Van)

Iridio bathyphilus Beebe & Tee-Van, 1932: 117 (1 mi. south of Nonsuch Id, Bermuda).

DISTRIBUTION: Bermuda, North Carolina, northeastern Gulf of Mexico, Yucatan and southern Brazil.

Halichoeres bicolor (Bloch & Schneider)

Labrus bicolor Bloch & Schneider, 1801: 267 (no locality).
Julis (Halichoeres) margaritiphorus Bleeker, 1853d: 487 (Batavia [Jakarta], Indonesia).
Julis (Halichoeres) hyrtlii Bleeker, 1856b: 60 (Makasar [Ujung Pandang], Sulawesi [Celebes], Indonesia).
Julis (Halichoeres) cantori Bleeker, 1861a: 70 (Malaysia).
Platyglossus bifasciatus Steindachner, 1866a: 477, pl. 5, fig. 2 (Hong Kong).
Platyglossus pseudogramma Cartier, 1874: 103 (Ubay, Bohol Id, Philippines).
Platyglossus bilineatus Karoli, 1882: 174 (lapsus calami for bifasciatus).
?Platyglossus xanti Karoli, 1882: 174 (Singapore); probably a juvenile Halichoeres bicolor.

DISTRIBUTION: Indo-Malayan region to Sri Lanka; a Christmas Id record is doubtful.

Halichoeres binotopsis Bleeker

Julis (Halichoeres) binotopsis Bleeker, 1849b: 7 (Boleling, northern Bali, Indonesia).
Halichoeres sp. 2 Kuiter, 1992: 179.

DISTRIBUTION: Indonesia.

Halichoeres biocellatus Schultz

Halichoeres biocellatus Schultz, in Schultz et al., 1960: 233, fig. 104 (Arjii Id, Bikini Atoll, Marshall Ids).

DISTRIBUTION: southern Japan to western Australia, Fiji and Micronesia.

Halichoeres bivittatus (Bloch)

Labrus bivittatus Bloch, 1791: 133, pl. 284, fig. 1 (Martinique Id, West Indies).
Labrus psittaculus Lacepède, 1801: 452, 522, pl. 16, fig. 2 (America [Martinique Id, West Indies]).
Labrus multicostatus Gronow in Gray, 1854: 81 (Carolinas, U.S.A.).
Julis humeralis Poey, 1860: 212 (Cuba).
Choerojulis grandisquamis Gill, 1863: 206 (North Carolina, U.S.A.)
Choerojulis arangoi Poey, 1876: 151 [109], pl. 7 [4], fig. 1 (Havana, Cuba).
Platyglossus florealis Jordan & Gilbert, 1882c: 287 (Laguna Grande, Florida, U.S.A.).

DISTRIBUTION: Bermuda, North Carolina to Brazil.

Halichoeres bleekeri (Steindachner & Döderlein)

Platyglossus bleekeri Steindachner & Döderlein, 1887: 275 (Tokyo, Japan).
Halichoeres tremebundus Jordan & Snyder, 1902: 639, fig. 8 (Hiroshima, Japan).

DISTRIBUTION: Honshu to Philippines.

REMARKS: H. bleekeri is here treated as distinct from the species the Japanese have been calling H. tenuispinis (Randall, 1999d).

Halichoeres brownfieldi (Whitley)

Choerojulis brownfieldi Whitley, 1945: 28, fig. 13 (Garden Id, off Fremantle,Western Australia).

DISTRIBUTION: western Australia.

Halichoeres caudalis (Poey)

Julis caudalis Poey, 1860: 213 (Havana, Cuba).

DISTRIBUTION: North Carolina to northern South America.

Halichoeres chierchiae Caporiacco

Halichoeres chierchiae Caporiacco, 1947: 205, fig. 3 (Gulf of Panama, eastern Pacific).

DISTRIBUTION: Gulf of California to Panama.

Halichoeres chlorocephalus Kuiter & Randall

Halichoeres chlorocephalus Kuiter & Randall, 1995: 110, figs. 5-8 (Nagada, Madang Prov., Papua New Guinea).

DISTRIBUTION: Papua New Guinea.

Halichoeres chloropterus (Bloch)

Labrus chloropterus Bloch, 1791: 151, pl. 288 (Japan).
Labrus gymnocephalus Bloch & Schneider, 1801: 251 (no locality).
Julis (Halichoeres) cuvieri Bleeker, 1847: 160 (Batavia [Jakarta], Indonesia; preoccupied by Julis cuvieri Bennett, 1831 [= Coris cuvieri])
Julis (Halichoeres) modestus Bleeker, 1847: 160 (Batavia [Jakarta], Indonesia).
Halichoeres bleekeri Günther, 1861: 386 nomen novum for Julis cuvieri Bleeker, 1847.
Platyglossus guttulatus Macleay, 1883a: 587 (New Guinea).

DISTRIBUTION: Philippines to Solomon Ids.

Halichoeres chrysus Randall

Halichoeres chrysus Randall, 1981c: 416, figs. 1-2 (Sandfly Passage, Florida Id, Solomon Ids).

DISTRIBUTION: western Pacific to Marshall Ids and Caroline Ids; also Rowley Shoals (western Australia) and Christmas Id (eastern Indian Ocean).

Halichoeres cosmetus Randall & Smith

Halichoeres cosmetus Randall & Smith, 1982: (3)15, pl. 6, fig. C, pl. 7, figs. A-B (North Male Atoll, Maldives).

DISTRIBUTION: western Indian Ocean.

Halichoeres cyanocephalus (Bloch)

Labrus cyanocephalus Bloch, 1791: 139, pl. 286 (no locality).
Julis dimidiatus Agassiz in Spix & Agassiz, 1831: 96, pl. 53 (off Brazil).
Julis internasalis Poey, 1861: 421 (Havana, Cuba).

DISTRIBUTION: Florida and Antilles to Brazil.

Halichoeres discolor Bussing

Halichoeres discolor Bussing, 1983: 19, fig. 1 (Bahía Weston, Isla del Coco, Costa Rica).

DISTRIBUTION: Isla del Coco, Costa Rica, eastern Pacific.

Halichoeres dispilus (Günther)

Platyglossus dispilus Günther, 1864: 25 (Pacific coast of Panama).

DISTRIBUTION: Gulf of California to Peru, Galapágos Ids.

Halichoeres garnoti (Valenciennes)

Julis garnoti Val., 1839: 390 (Martinique Id, West Indies).
Julis cinctus Poey, 1860: 211, pl. 13, fig. 19 (Cuba).
Julis ruptus Poey, 1860: 212, pl. 13, fig. 20 (Cuba).
Iridio decoratus Bean, 1906: 29 (Nonsuch Id, Bermuda).

DISTRIBUTION: Bermuda, North Carolina to Florida, West Indies and Caribbean to southern Brazil.

Halichoeres hartzfeldii (Bleeker)

Julis (Halichoeres) hartzfeldii Bleeker, 1852d: 563 (Ambon Id, Moluccas Ids, Indonesia).
Labrichthys nudigena De Vis, 1885: 881 (Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia).

DISTRIBUTION: Indonesia.

REMARKS: a valid species according to Kuiter (1992).

Halichoeres hortulanus (Lacepède)

Labrus hortulanus Lacepède, 1801: 449, 518, pl. 29, fig. 2 (Indo-Pacific Ocean).
Labrus centiquadrus Lacepède, 1801: 437, 493 (Madagascar, Mauritius and Réunion).
Julis semidecorata Lesson, 1828: 403 (Mauritius).
Sparus decussatus Bennett, 1829: pl. 14 (Sri Lanka).
Halichoeres eximius Rüppell, 1835: 16, pl. 5, fig. 1 (Red Sea).
Julis corbis Val., 1839: 435 (no locality given).
Julis (Halichoeres) notophthalmus Bleeker, 1847: 158 (Batavia [Jakarta], Indonesia).
Tautoga notophthalmus Bleeker, 1856b: 53 (Manado, Sulawesi [Celebes], Indonesia).

DISTRIBUTION: Indo-Pacific, including Red Sea.

REMARKS: Halichoeres centiquadrus appeared first in Lacepède (1801) and was used by many authors as the name for this species. Randall and Smith (1982) pointed out that Valenciennes realized that centiquadrus and hortulanus represented the same species; he placed hortulanus first in the species heading and table of contents. As first revisor, his choice of hortulanus established it as the valid name for this species. Julis corbis Valenciennes is a synonym (Pietsch, 1995).

Halichoeres insularis Allen & Robertson

Halichoeres insularis Allen & Robertson, 1992: 51, figs. 5-6 (Socorro Id, Revillagigedo Ids, Mexico).

DISTRIBUTION: Isla Socorro, off Pacific coast of Mexico.

Halichoeres iridis Randall & Smith

Halichoeres iridis Randall & Smith, 1982: 17, pl. 7, figs. C-E (Mauritius).

DISTRIBUTION: Western Indian Ocean, Red Sea to South Africa, Oman, Maldives, Chagos and Mauritius.

Halichoeres kallochroma Bleeker

Julis (Halichoeres) kallochroma Bleeker, 1853c: 289 (Priaman, Sumatra, Indonesia).

DISTRIBUTION: Mentawai Ids (off Sumatra); also off southwestern Thailand (U. Satopoomin, pers. comm.).

Halichoeres lapillus Smith

Halichoeres lapillus Smith, 1947: 801 (Inhaca Id, Delagoa Bay, Mozambique).

DISTRIBUTION: western Indian Ocean.

Halichoeres leptotaenia Randall & Earle

Halichoeres leptotaenia Randall & Earle, 1994: 288, pls. 1-3 (Musandam, Persian Gulf, Oman).

DISTRIBUTION: Persian Gulf.

Halichoeres leucoxanthus Randall & Smith

Halichoeres leucoxanthus Randall & Smith, 1982: 20, pl. 8, figs C-D (East end of Java, Indonesia).

DISTRIBUTION: western Indian Ocean, Christmas Id, and western Indonesia.

Halichoeres leucurus (Walbaum)

Labrus leucurus Walbaum, 1792: 249 (no locality).
Labrus purpurescens Bloch & Schneider, 1801: 262 (no locality).
Anampses moniliger Cuvier, in Cuvier et al., 1827: pl. 31, fig. 6 (no locality).
Julis (Halichoeres) kallopisos Bleeker, 1853h: 348 (Ambon Id, Moluccas Ids, Indonesia).
Julis (Halichoeres) temmincki Bleeker, 1853d: 491 (Batavia [Jakarta], Indonesia).

DISTRIBUTION: East Indies, Palau, and Solomon Ids.

REMARKS: Although Halichoeres purpurescens has often been recognized as valid, we follow de Beaufort (1940) in regarding it as a synonym of H. leucurus. Labrus leucurus and Anampses moniliger are based on the figure and description of Seba (1761: 95 pl. 31).

Halichoeres maculipinna (Müller & Troschel)

Julis maculipinna Müller & Troschel in Schomburgk, 1848: 18 (Barbados, West Indies).
Iridio meyeri Bean, 1906: 29 (Bermuda).
Iridio microstomus Bean, 1906: 30 (Bermuda).
Halichoeres penrosei Starks, 1913: 59, pl. 7 (Natal, Brazil).
Iridio frenatus Nichols, 1920: 61 (Bermuda).
Iridio similis Nichols, 1920: 61 (Bermuda).

DISTRIBUTION: Bermuda, North Carolina to Florida, West Indies, Caribbean to Brazil.

Halichoeres malpelo Allen & Robertson

Halichoeres malpelo Allen & Robertson, 1992: 47, figs. 1-2 (Malpelo Id, eastern Pacific).

DISTRIBUTION: Isla Malpelo, Colombia, eastern Pacific.

Halichoeres margaritaceus (Valenciennes)

Julis margaritaceus Val., 1839: 484 (Vanikoro Id, Santa Cruz Ids, southwestern Pacific).
Julis poecila Lay & Bennett, 1839: 66, pl. 19, fig.1 (Ryukyu Ids, Japan).
Julis (Halichoeres) harloffii Bleeker, 1847: 159 (Java).
Platyglossus opercularis Günther, 1862: 148 (Fiji Ids and Ambon Id, Indonesia).
Platyglossus equinus De Vis, 1885: 885 (Cardwell, Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia).
Halichoeres daedalma Jordan & Seale, 1906: 301, pl. 47, fig. 2 (Apia, Upolu Id, Western Samoa).
Halichoeres nafae Tanaka, 1908: 36, pl. 2, fig. 3 (Naha, Okinawa Id, Ryukyu Ids, Japan).

DISTRIBUTION: Cocos-Keeling Islands to central Pacific.

REMARKS: synonymy from Kuiter and Randall (1981).

Halichoeres marginatus Rüppell

Halichoeres marginatus Rüppell, 1835: 16 (Mohila and Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea).
Julis lamarii Val., 1839: 481 (Mauritius).
Julis annularis Val. (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt) in Cuv. & Val., 1839: 482 (Java, Indonesia).
Julis notopsis Val. (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt) in Cuv. & Val., 1839: 485 (Guam, Mariana Ids).
Julis (Halichoeres) phaiopus Bleeker, 1853c: 291 (Cauer, Sumatra, Indonesia).
Platyglossus metager Day (ex Tickell), 1888: 802 (Saddle Id, off Kyoukphyoo, Arracan, Myanmar [Burma]).
Halichoeres ianthinus Fourmanoir, 1955: 217 (Comores).
Halichoeres virescens Fourmanoir & Guézé, 1961: 13 (Réunion Id).

DISTRIBUTION: Indo-Pacific, Red Sea to Hawaiian Ids.

Halichoeres melanochir Fowler & Bean

Halichoeres melanochir Fowler & Bean, 1928: 264, pl. 25 (Lampinigan Id, Philippines).

DISTRIBUTION: western Australia to southern Japan.

Halichoeres melanotis (Gilbert)

Pseudojulis melanotis Gilbert, 1890: 66 (Gulf of California, Mexico).

DISTRIBUTION: Gulf of California to Panama.

Halichoeres melanurus (Bleeker)

Julis (Halichoeres) hoevenii Bleeker, 1851b: 250 (Banda Neira, Banda Ids, Indonesia).
Julis (Halichoeres) melanurus Bleeker, 1851b: 251 (Banda Neira, Banda Ids, Indonesia).
Julis (Halichoeres) chrysotaenia Bleeker, 1853d: 488 (Batavia [Jakarta], Indonesia).
Platyglossus floscorallis Jordan & Seale, 1906: 299, pl. 46, fig. 2 (Pago Pago, American Samoa).

DISTRIBUTION: western Pacific to Micronesia and Samoa.

REMARKS: Halichoeres hoevenii and H. melanurus are the female and male forms of this species. As first revisors, (Randall, Allen & Steene, 1997: 319) chose Halichoeres melanurus as the valid name.

Halichoeres melas Randall & Earle

Halichoeres melas Randall & Earle, 1994: 296, pl. 8 (Kuria Muria Ids, southern Oman, Arabian Sea).

DISTRIBUTION: southern Oman.

Halichoeres melasmapomus Randall

Halichoeres melasmapomus Randall, 1981c: 421, figs. 3-4 (Pitcairn Id).

DISTRIBUTION: western to central Pacific.

Halichoeres miniatus (Valenciennes)

Julis miniatus Val. (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt) in Cuv. & Val., 1839: 460 (Java, Indonesia).
Pseudojulis murrayensis De Vis, 1885: 882 (Murray Id, Queensland, Australia).
Halichoeres annulatus Fowler, 1904: 535, pl. 20 (Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia).

DISTRIBUTION: western Pacific.

REMARKS: synonymy from Kuiter and Randall (1981).

Halichoeres nebulosus (Valenciennes)

Julis nebulosus Val., 1839: 461 (Bombay, India).

Julis (Halichoeres) pseudominiatus Bleeker, 1856a: 62 (Ambon Id, Moluccas Ids, Indonesia).

Julis (Halichoeres) reichei Bleeker, 1858b: 43 (Sumatra and Ambon Id, Indonesia).

Pseudojulis maculifer Castelnau, 1875: 35 (Queensland, Australia).

DISTRIBUTION: western Indian Ocean to western Pacific.

REMARKS: synonymy from Kuiter and Randall (1981).

Halichoeres nicholsi (Jordan & Gilbert)

Platyglossus nicholsi Jordan & Gilbert, 1882a: 231 (Socorro Id, Revillagigedo Ids, off western Mexico).
Halichoeres sellifer Gilbert, 1890: 67 (Clarion Id, Revillagigedo Ids).
Halichoeres macgregori Gilbert & Starks, 1904: 145, pl. 23, fig. 45 (Panama).
Julidio maculosus Clark, 1936: 390 (Conway Bay, Indefatigable Id [Santa Cruz], Galápagos Ids).
Halichoeres stigmasepia Fowler, 1944a: 336, fig. 228 (Santa María Id [Charles Id], Galápagos Ids).
Halichoeres stictus Fowler, 1944a: 336, figs. 230-231 (James Id [San Salvador Id], Galápagos Ids).

DISTRIBUTION: Gulf of California to Panama, Revillagigedo Ids and Galápagos Ids.

REMARKS: synonymy from Bussing (1987).

Halichoeres nigrescens (Bloch & Schneider)

Labrus nigrescens Bloch & Schneider, 1801: 263 (no locality).
Labrus baccatus de Procé 1822: 132 (Manila, Philippines).
Labrus mola Cuvier 1829: 258 (no locality given).
Julis dussumieri Val., 1839: 478, pl. 387 (Malabar, India).
Julis exornatus Richardson, 1846b: 258 (Hong Kong).
Julis (Halichoeres) javanicus Bleeker, 1857b: 341 (Java).
Halichoeres kneri Bleeker, 1862b: (Java; Singapore; Bangka; Sulawesi, Indonesia).
Platyglossus (Leptojulis) dubius Steindachner, 1866c: 37 (Tanzania [Zanzibar]).
Platyglossus dayi Steindachner, 1870b: 567 (Singapore).
Platyglossus ransonneti Steindachner, 1870: 567 (Singapore).
Platyglossus immaculatus Macleay, 1878a: 362, pl. 10, fig. 1f (Darwin, Australia).
Platyglossus amabilis De Vis, 1885: 885 (Murray Id, Queensland, Australia).
Platyglossus roseus Day, 1888: 264 (Karachi, Pakistan).
Platyglossus maculatus Jatzow & Lenz, 1898: 520, pl. 36, fig. 16 (Zanzibar).
Halichoeres leucostigma Fowler & Bean, 1928: 299, pl. 40 (Pujada Bay, Mindanao, Philippines).
Halichoeres dianthus Smith, 1947: 802 (Inhaca Id, Delagoa Bay, Mozambique).

DISTRIBUTION: Western Indian Ocean to western Pacific.

REMARKS: Bloch and Schneider (1801) based their brief description of Labrus nigrescens on Seba's plate 31, fig.2. Randall and Smith (1982) pointed out that no type specimen of L. nigrescens is extant, and accepted Julis dussumieri Valenciennes, 1839 as the valid name, adding "in contrast to most recent authors who use Halichoeres nigrescens Bloch & Schneider". They listed deficiencies in the Seba illustration of nigrescens and noted that the two black spots between the fourth, fifth and sixth dorsal-fin spines are suggestive of males of several species of the genus including H. dussumieri. Further studies of these species by J.E. Randall now indicate that the two black spots in the spinous portion of the dorsal fin as illustrated by Seba are diagnostic for H. nigrescens. Other discrepencies such as greater body depth, protruding lower jaw, and posterior origin of the dorsal fin should be regarded as artist errors. The anal-ray count of III,15 as given by Bloch & Schneider, is actually III,12 (15 represents the total count of anal spines and soft-rays), so this count is not in error as indicated by Randall and Smith. If nigrescens is not accepted as the valid name, then Halichoeres mola (Cuvier, 1829) would replace H. dussumieri. Cuvier based the name mola on the Sahnee Moia of Russel (1803: vol. 2: 15, fig. 120) which is clearly conspecific with the species we here identify as nigrescens. The holotypes of Platyglossus maculatus (AMS I.16369-001, 84 mm SL) and P. amabilis (QM I.88, 57 mm SL, from Murray Id) have been examined by the second author. Rudie H. Kuiter (pers. comm.) determined that Halichoeres kneri is a subadult of H. dussumieri. The holotype of P. roseus Day was examined by A. Gill. From meristics, body form, the presence of a median row of predorsal scales and fin form he concluded that it is H. dussumieri. The specimen lacks the distinctive pectoral-base spot of the species, but is faded, and may have lost this character after long preservation.

Halichoeres notospilus (Günther)

Pseudojulis notospilus Günther, 1864: 26 (Pacific coast of Panama).

DISTRIBUTION: Gulf of California to Peru.

Halichoeres ornatissimus (Garrett)

Julis ornatissimus Garrett, 1863: 63 (Hawaiian Ids).
Halichoeres iridescens Jenkins, 1901: 47, fig. 2 (Honolulu, Hawaiian Ids).
Halichoeres lao Jenkins, 1901: 48, fig. 3 (Honolulu).

DISTRIBUTION: central and western Pacific.

Halichoeres pallidus Kuiter & Randall

Halichoeres pallidus Kuiter & Randall, 1995: 116, figs. 13-16 (Gunung Api Id, Indonesia).

DISTRIBUTION: Indonesia and Line Ids, central Pacific.

Halichoeres papilionaceus (Valenciennes)

Julis papilionaceus Val., 1839: 484 (Vanikoro Id, Santa Cruz Ids, southwestern Pacific).
Julis (Halichoeres) schwarzii Bleeker, 1847: 159 (Sumanap, eastern Madura, Indonesia).
Julis (Halichoeres) dieschismenacanthus Bleeker, 1852e: 645 (Banda Neira, Banda Ids, Indonesia).
Julis (Halichoeres) dieschismenacanthoides Bleeker, 1853a: 121 (Ambon Id, Moluccas Ids, Indonesia).
Platyglossus (Halichoeres) doleschalli Steindachner, 1863b: 1190, pl. 2, fig. 2 (Ambon Id, Indonesia).

DISTRIBUTION: East Indies.

Halichoeres pardaleocephalus Bleeker

Julis (Halichoeres) pardaleocephalus Bleeker, 1849b: 8 (Boleling, northern Bali, Indonesia).

DISTRIBUTION: Bali and Sumatra to India.

Halichoeres pelicieri Randall & Smith

Halichoeres pelicieri Randall & Smith, 1982: 12, pl. 5, figs. C-D, pl. 6, figs. A-B (Mauritius).

DISTRIBUTION: Mauritius.

Halichoeres pictus (Poey)

Julis pictus Poey, 1860: 214 (Havana, Cuba).

DISTRIBUTION: Bermuda, Florida Keys, West Indies and Carribean to Brazil.

Halichoeres podostigma Bleeker

Julis (Halichoeres) podostigma Bleeker, 1854c: 332 (Larantuka, Flores Id, Indonesia).

DISTRIBUTION: East Indies.

Halichoeres poeyi (Steindachner)

Choerojulis crotaphus Poey (nec Cuvier), 1860: 109 (Cuba).
Platyglossus poeyi Steindachner, 1867c: 355 (Suriname).
Iridio kirschii Jordan & Evermann, 1898: 1598 (Bahia, Brazil).

DISTRIBUTION: South Florida and Bahamas to Brazil.

Halichoeres prosopeion Bleeker

Julis (Halichoeres) prosopeion Bleeker, 1853h: 347 (Ambon Id, Moluccas Ids, Indonesia).

DISTRIBUTION: western Pacific to Palau and Samoa.

Halichoeres radiatus (Linnaeus)

Labrus radiatus Linnaeus, 1758: 288 (America).
Labrus brasiliensis Bloch, 1791: 125, pl. 280 (Brazil).
Julis crotaphus Cuvier, 1829: 258 (no locality given).
Julis cyanostigma Val., 1839: 391 (Martinique).
Julis opalina Val., 1839: 392 (Martinique, West Indies).
Julis patatus Val., 1839: 398 (Martinique, West Indies).
Julis principis Val., 1839: 402 (Bahia, Brazil).
Iridio elegans Bean, 1906: 30, fig. 6 ( Bermuda).
Halichoeres irideus Starks, 1913: 60, pl. 8 (Natal, Brazil).
Halichoeres irideus torquatus Parr, 1930: 84, fig. 20 (Rum Cay, Bahamas).

DISTRIBUTION: Bermuda and North Carolina to Brazil.

REMARKS: According to Luiz Alvez Rocha (pers. comm.) specimens from Brazil may represent a different species from H. radiatus in the Caribbean.

Halichoeres richmondi Fowler & Bean

Halichoeres richmondi Fowler & Bean, 1928: 263, pl. 24 (Inamucan Bay, Mindanao, Philippines).

DISTRIBUTION: East Indies to Micronesia.

Halichoeres rubricephalus Kuiter & Randall

Halichoeres rubricephalus Kuiter & Randall, 1995: 113, figs. 9-12 (Flores Id, Indonesia).

Halichoeres sp. 1 Kuiter, 1992: 177.

DISTRIBUTION: Flores, Indonesia.

Halichoeres scapularis (Bennett)

Julis scapularis Bennett, 1832a: 167 (Mauritius).
Halichoeres caeruleovittatus Rüppell, 1835: 14, pl. 4, fig. 1 (Jidda [Jeddah] Saudi Arabia, Red Sea; [also spelt Halichöres coeruleo-vittatus in text]).
Julis leschenaulti Val., 1839: 453 (Mauritius, Réunion).
Julis elegans Val. (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt) in Cuv. & Val., 1839: 467 (Java, Indonesia).
Julis (Halichoeres) phaiotaenia Bleeker, 1855a: 322 (Batu Ids, Indonesia).
Platyglossus alternans Cartier, 1874: 104 (Philippines).
Platyglossus (Guentheria) pagenstecheri Kossmann & Räuber, 1877: 407, pl. 3, fig. 5 (Red Sea).
Pseudojulis ziczac De Vis, 1885: 282 (Queensland).
Halichoeres cymatogrammus Jordan & Seale, 1905: 786, fig. 8 (southern Negros, Philippines).

DISTRIBUTION: Indo-West Pacific, Red Sea to South Africa, Japan, Australia and western Pacific.

Halichoeres semicinctus (Ayres)

Julis semicintus Ayres, 1859: 32 (Cedros Id, Baja California, Mexico).
Pseudojulis venustus Jenkins & Evermann, 1889: 145 (Guaymas, Sonora, Mexico).

DISTRIBUTION: Baja California and Gulf of California.

REMARKS: synonymy from W. Bussing (pers. comm.).

Halichoeres signifer Randall & Earle

Halichoeres signifer Randall & Earle, 1994: 292, pls. 5-7 (Masirah Id, central coast of Oman, Arabian Sea).

DISTRIBUTION: central to southern Oman.

Halichoeres solorensis Bleeker)

Julis (Halichoeres) solorensis Bleeker, 1853f: 86 (Lawajong, Solor Id, Indonesia).
Julis (Halichoeres) amboinensis Bleeker, 1856a: 55 (Ambon Id, Moluccas Ids, Indonesia).

DISTRIBUTION: East Indies.

Halichoeres stigmaticus Randall & Smith

Halichoeres stigmaticus Randall & Smith, 1982: 7, pl. 3, fig. A-B (east of Muharrak Id, Bahrain, Persian Gulf).

DISTRIBUTION: Persian Gulf.

Halichoeres tenuispinis (Günther)

Platyglossus tenuispinis Günther, 1862: 161 (China).
Artisia festiva de Beaufort, 1939: 17, fig. 2 (Amoy, China).

DISTRIBUTION: coast of China.

REMARKS: Synonymy from Randall (1999d).

Halichoeres timorensis (Bleeker)

Julis (Halichoeres) timorensis Bleeker, 1852b: 171 (Timor Id, East Indies).
Julis (Halichoeres) kawarin Bleeker, 1852b: 172 (Timor).

DISTRIBUTION: East Indies.

Halichoeres trimaculatus (Quoy & Gaimard)

Julis trimaculata Quoy & Gaimard, 1834: 705, pl. 20, fig. 2 (Vanikoro Id, Santa Cruz Ids, southwestern Pacific).
Julis auritus Val., 1839: 486 (Ulea, Caroline Ids).
Julis (Halichoeres) spilurus Bleeker, 1851b: 252 (Banda Neira, Banda Ids, Indonesia).
Platyglossus vicinus Günther, 1909: 267, pl. 142, fig. C (Gilbert Ids).
Guntheria vestalis Whitley, 1958: 37 (Lady Musgrove Id, Queensland, Australia).

DISTRIBUTION: central and western Pacific.

REMARKS: Russell (1983b: 99) referred Guntheria vestalis Whitley to the synonymy of Halichoeres trimaculatus. Julis auritus was described by Valenciennes from a painting. A colour photograph of the painting was sent by Martine Desoutter of the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris to the second author who was then able to identify the species as H. trimaculatus.

Halichoeres trispilus Randall & Smith

Halichoeres trispilus Randall & Smith, 1982: 18, pl. 8, figs. A-B (Villingili Id, North Malé Atoll, Maldives).

DISTRIBUTION: Maldives, South Africa and Mauritius.

Halichoeres vrolikii (Bleeker)

Julis (Halichoeres) vrolikii Bleeker, 1855a: 323 (Batu Ids, Indonesia).
Platyglossus ubayensis Cartier, 1874: 104 (Philippines).
Halichoeres desmogenys Fowler & Bean, 1928: 276, pls. 28-29 (Dupon Port, Leyte Id, Philippines).

DISTRIBUTION: Indonesia and Philippines to Maldives.

Halichoeres zeylonicus (Bennett)

Julis zeylonicus Bennett, 1832b: 183 (Sri Lanka).
Halichoeres bimaculatus Rüppell, 1835: 17, pl. 5, fig. 2 (Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea).

DISTRIBUTION: Red Sea and western Indian Ocean to Indonesia.

Halichoeres sp 1

Halichoeres ornatissimus (nec Garrett): Masuda et al., 1984: 208.

REMARKS: Known from southern Japan and Taiwan; to be described by J. E. Randall.

? Halichoeres sp 2

REMARKS: Known from Belize; tentatively placed in the genus Halichoeres, this species is under study by J. E. Randall, P. S. Lobel and L. Kaufman.

Halichoeres sp 3

REMARKS: Known from Cocos Id, eastern Pacific; to be described by G.R. Allen and D.R. Robertson.

Halichoeres sp 4

DISTRIBUTION: Galapágos Ids.

REMARKS: A new species to be described by C.C. Baldwin and J.E. McCosker (in press).

Genus Hemigymnus Günther

Hemigymnus Günther, 1861: 386 (type-species, Mullus fasciatus Thunberg, by subsequent designation).
Cheilolabrus Alleyne & Macleay, 1877: 345 (type-species, C. magnilabris Alleyne & Macleay, by monotypy).

Two species (Randall, 1986a); Indo-Pacific.

Hemigymnus fasciatus (Bloch)

Labrus fasciatus Bloch, 1792: 6, pl. 290 (Japan).
Labrus fuliginosus Lacepède, 1801: 437, 493, pl. 22, fig. 3 (Madagascar, Mauritius, Réunion).
Labrus malapteronotus Lacepède, 1801: 450, 518, pl. 31, fig. 1 (Great Equatorial Ocean [Mauritius]).
Sparus meaco Lacepède, 1802: 54, 160 (Japan).
Sparus zonephorus Lacepède, 1802: 51, 155 (unnecessary replaceent for Labrus fasciatus Bloch).
Scarus quinquefasciatus Bennett J.W., 1830: pl. 23 (Sri Lanka).
Halichoeres sexfasciatus Rüppell, 1835: 18, pl. 5, fig. 3 (Jidda [Jeddah], Saudi Arabia, Red Sea).
Tautoga mertensii Val., 1839: 308 (Caroline Ids).
Tautoga leucomos Bleeker, 1858c: 239 (Indonesia).
Thalassoma bilateralis von Bonde, 1934: 454, pl. 23, fig. 7 (Zanzibar fish market, Tanzania).

DISTRIBUTION: Indo-Pacific, Red Sea to South Africa, Japan, Australia and Pitcairn Group.

Hemigymnus melapterus (Bloch)

Labrus melapterus Bloch, 1791: 137, pl. 285 (Japan).
Labrus malapterus Bloch 1792: 29, pl. 296, fig. 2 (Japan).
?Labrus melanopterus Forster 1795: 15 (Indian Ocean).
Labrus melampterus Bloch & Schneider, 1801: 247 (Java).
Sparus niger Lacepède, 1802: 50, 152 (Japan).
Julis boryii Lesson, 1831: 141, pl. 36 (Tahiti, Society Ids).
Tautoga dimidiatus Bleeker, 1849a: 18 (no locality).
Julis beraber Montrouzier, 1857: 474 (Woodlark Id).
Labrichthys bicolor Day, 1871: 696 (Andaman Ids).
Cheilolabrus magnilabris Alleyne & Macleay, 1877: 345, pl. 16, fig. 2 (Darnley Id, Queensland, Australia).

DISTRIBUTION: Western Indian Ocean to Samoa and Micronesia.

REMARKS: The name melanopterus was listed in the register of Bloch's Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische, last volume of 1795 with reference to part 5 of that work page 137. The species described there was named in 1791 as Labrus melapterus (H.-J. Paepke, pers. comm.).

Genus Hologymnosus Lacepède

Hologymnosus Lacepède, 1801: 556 (type-species, Hologymnosus fasciatus Lacepède, by monotypy).

Genus revised by Randall (1982); 4 species; Indo-Pacific.

Hologymnosus annulatus (Lacepède)

Labrus annulatus Lacepède, 1801: 455, 526, pl. 28, fig. 3 (Indo-Pacific Ocean).
Labrus semidiscus Lacepède, 1801: 429, 473, pl. 6, fig. 2 (Great Gulf of India).
Coris elongata Günther, 1862: 201 (Aneityum Id, Vanuatu).
Coris semipartita Günther, 1862: 203 (Mauritius).

DISTRIBUTION: Indo-Pacific, Red Sea to Pitcairn Group.

Hologymnosus doliatus (Lacepède)

Labrus doliatus Lacepède, 1801: 429, 473, pl. 6, fig. 3 (Mauritius).
Hologymnosus fasciatus Lacepède, 1801: 556, 557, pl. 1, fig. 3 (Indo-Pacific Ocean).
Julis rosea Quoy & Gaimard, 1834: 709 (Mauritius).
Julis annulatus Val., 1839: 501, pl. 388 (Mauritius; Seychelles).
Julis laportei Liénard, 1845: 113 (Mauritius).
Julis (Julis) oxyrhynchos Bleeker, 1857a: 74 (Kajeli, Buru Ids, Moluccas Ids, Indonesia).

DISTRIBUTION: East Africa to Samoa and Line Ids.

REMARKS: Julis laportei Liénard is a new synonym.

Hologymnosus longipes (Günther)

Coris longipes Günther, 1862: 204 (Vanuatu).

DISTRIBUTION: Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Loyalty Ids and Great Barrier Reef.

Hologymnosus rhodonotus Randall & Yamakawa

Hologymnosus sp. Randall, 1982: 19.
Hologymnosus rhodonotus Randall & Yamakawa, 1988: 26, figs. 1-2 (Okinawa, Ryukyu Ids, Japan).

DISTRIBUTION: Okinawa and Philippines.

Genus Labrichthys Bleeker

Labrichthys Bleeker, 1854c: 331 (type-species, Labrichthys cyanotaenia Bleeker, by monotypy).
Thysanocheilus Kner, 1864: 185 (type-species, Thysanocheilus ornatus Kner, by monotypy).

One species (Randall & Springer, 1973).

Labrichthys unilineatus (Guichenot)

Cossyphus unilineatus Guichenot, 1847: 284 (Guam).
Labrichthys cyanotaenia Bleeker, 1854c: 331 (Larantuka, Flores Id, Lesser Sunda Ids, Indonesia).
Thysanocheilus ornatus Kner, 1865a: 5, pl. 3, fig. 1 (Upolu, Samoa).
Platyglossus ocellatus Kner & Steindachner, 1867: 377 [22], pl. 2, fig. 8 (Upolu, Samoa).
Chaerojulis castaneus Kner & Steindachner, 1867: 394 (Upolu, Samoa).

DISTRIBUTION: Western Indian Ocean to Samoa.

Genus Labroides Bleeker

Labroides Bleeker, 1851: 227, 249 (type-species, Labroides paradiseus Bleeker, by monotypy). Fissilabrus Kner, 1860: 52 [14] (type-species, Cossyphus dimidiatus Valenciennes, by subsequent monotypy).
Fowlerella Smith, 1957a: 100, 104 (type-species, Labroides bicolor Fowler & Bean, by original designation).

Five species (Randall, 1958b); Red Sea and Indo-Pacific.

Labroides bicolor Fowler & Bean

Labroides bicolor Fowler & Bean, 1928: 224, pl. 18 (Port Maricaban, Philippines).

DISTRIBUTION: Indo-Pacific.

Labroides dimidiatus (Valenciennes)

Labrus latovittatus Rüppell, 1835: 7 (El Tur, Sinai coast, Egypt; preoccupied by Labrus latovittatus Lacepède, 1801 [= Malacanthus latovittatus]).

Cossyphus dimidiatus Val., 1839: 136 (replacement name for Labrus latovittatus Rüppell).
Labroides paradiseus Bleeker, 1851b: 249 (Indonesia).
Labroides bicincta Saville-Kent, 1893: 308, color pl. 16, fig.4 (Queensland, Australia).
Labroides caeruleolineatus Fowler, 1945: 65, fig. 7 (Saipan Id, West Pacific).

DISTRIBUTION: Indo-Pacific, Red Sea to South Africa, Japan, Australia and Pitcairn Group.

Labroides pectoralis Randall & Springer

Labroides pectoralis Randall & Springer, 1975: 6, pl. 1 (Auluptagel Id, Palau Ids, Philippine Sea).

DISTRIBUTION: Micronesia and western Pacific to Christmas Id (Indian Ocean).

Labroides phthirophagus Randall

Labroides phthirophagus Randall, 1958b: 337, pl. 1, fig. A (Honolulu, Oahu Id, Hawaiian Ids).

DISTRIBUTION: Hawaiian Ids.

Labroides rubrolabiatus Randall

Labroides rubrolabiatus Randall, 1958b: 342, pl. 1, fig. B (Moorea, Society Ids).

DISTRIBUTION: Pitcairn Group, French Polynesia, Society Ids, and Line Ids to Samoa.

Genus Labropsis Schmidt

Labropsis Schmidt, 1931: 75 (type-species, Labropsis manabei Schmidt, by original designation).

Genus revised by Randall (1981a); 6 species; Indo-Pacific.

Labropsis alleni Randall

Labropsis alleni Randall, 1981a: 131, pl. 1, fig. A (Palau).

DISTRIBUTION: western Pacific to Marshall Ids.

Labropsis australis Randall

Labropsis australis Randall, 1981a: 149, pl. 5, Figs. A-C (One Tree Id, Capricorn Group, Great Barrier Reef).

DISTRIBUTION: Great Barrier Reef to Samoa.

Labropsis manabei Schmidt

Labropsis manabei Schmidt, 1931: 76, figs, 3-4 (Itoman, Okinawa Id, Ryukyu Ids, Japan).

DISTRIBUTION: Indonesia to Ryukyu Ids.

Labropsis micronesica Randall

Labropsis micronesica Randall, 1981a: 145, pl. 4, figs. A-C (Eniwetak Atoll, Marshall Ids).

DISTRIBUTION: Islands of Micronesia.

Labropsis polynesica Randall

Labropsis polynesica Randall, 1981a: 134, pl. 1, figs. B-C; fig. 3 (Moorea, Society Ids).

DISTRIBUTION: French Polynesia to Cook Ids.

Labropsis xanthonota Randall

Labropsis sp. Shepard & Meyer, 1978b: 37.
Labropsis sp. Allen & Steene, 1979: 50.
Labropsis xanthonota Randall, 1981a: 138, pl. 2, figs A-C (Fagatele Bay, Tutuila, American Samoa).

DISTRIBUTION: Indian Ocean to western Pacific, eastward to Micronesia and Samoa.

Genus Labrus Linnaeus

Labrus Linnaeus, 1758: 282 (type-species, Labrus bimaculatus Linnaeus, by subsequent designation).
Cicla Röse, 1793: 112 (type-species, ?Labrus viridis, by subsequent designation).

REMARKS: Fernholm & Wheeler (1983:253) indicate that the holotype of Labrus bimaculatus is a Cichlasoma; Case 2905 is pending before the International Commission to select neotypes so that Labrus bimaculatus would be a labrid. Bailey (1997) and Kullander (1997) proposed to designate Labrus mixtus Linnaeus, 1758 as type-species. Quignard (1966) discussed the status of the four species. Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean.

Labrus bergylta (Ascanius)

Labrus bergylta Ascanius, 1767: 3, pl. 1 (no locality).
Labrus comber Bonnaterre, 1788: 115, pl. 99, fig. 405 (Seas of Great Britain).
Labrus comber Gmelin, 1789: 1297 ("Cornubiae littore"; preoccupied by Labrus comber Bonnaterre, 1788).
Labrus ballan Bonnaterre, 1788: 115, pl. 98 (Seas of Great Britain).
Labrus ballan Walbaum 1792: 259 (Seas of Great Britain; preoccupied by Bonnaterre, 1788).
Labrus comber Walbaum, 1792: 259 (no locality; preoccupied by Labrus comber Bonnaterre, 1788 and Labrus comber Gmelin, 1789).
Labrus maculatus Bloch, 1792: 17, pl. 294 (North Sea).
Labrus aper Retzius, 1800: 335 ("Mari Occidentalis").
Labrus neustriae Lacepède, 1801: 451, 522 (près des rives de l'ancienne Neustrie).
Labrus ballanus Shaw, 1803: 498, pl. 71 (Filey Bridge near Scarborough, England).
Labrus balanus Fleming, 1828: 209 (England).
Crenilabrus multidentatus Thompson, 1837: 56 (Ireland).
Labrus variabilis Thompson, 1837: 59 (Ireland).
Labrus donovani Val., 1839: 39 (Brittany).
Labrus reticulatus Lowe, 1839: 85 ( Madeira; preoccupied by Labrus reticulatus Bonnaterre, 1788 [= Symphodus ocellatus (Forsskål, 1775)] and Labrus reticulatus Walbaum, 1792 nomen dubium).
Labrus nubilus Valenciennes,1843: 62 (Canary Ids).

DISTRIBUTION: eastern Atlantic from Norway to Morocco, Azores, Madeira and Mediterranean.

REMARKS: Labrus comber Gmelin is here regarded as independently described from L. comber Bonnaterre.

Labrus merula Linnaeus

?Labrus livens Linnaeus, 1758: 287 (no locality).
Labrus merula Linnaeus, 1758: 288 (Europe).
?Sparus lividus Lacepède, 1802: 50, 152 (Mediterranean).
Labrus nereus Risso, 1810: 231 (Nice, France).
Labrus psittacus Risso, 1827: 304 (Nice; preoccupied by Labrus psittacus Lacepède, 1801 [= Labrus viridis Linnaeus 1758]).
?Labrus crassus Agassiz in Spix & Agassiz, 1831: 95, pl. 52 (off Brazil).
Labrus limbatus Val., 1839: 89 (Toulon, Nice, Naples).
Labrus lineolatus Val., 1839: 90 (Toulon, Nice, Naples).
Labrus saxorum Val., 1839: 91 (Mediterranean Sea).

DISTRIBUTION: Portugal to Morocco, Azores, and Mediterranean.

REMARKS: Jordan (1890: 609) used Labrus livens for this species. However, as pointed out by Valenciennes (1839: 86)nothing in the concise description of Labrus livens proves it represents this species. Agassiz described Labrus crassus with D XVII,14; Günther (1862) and Jordan (1890) questioned the type locality. As no species of Labrus are known tooccur in American waters, L. crassus probably came from Europe, and the species is a synonym of L. merula.

Labrus mixtus Linnaeus

Labrus ossifagus Linnaeus, 1758: 286 (Europe).
Labrus mixtus Linnaeus, 1758: 287 (Liburni [eastern Adriatic Sea]).
Labrus varius Linnaeus 1758: 288 (Mediterranean Sea).
Labrus coeruleus Ascanius, 1772: 5, pl. 12 (Norway).
Labrus carneus Ascanius, 1772: 6, pl. 13 (Norway).
Labrus trimaculatus Bonnaterre, 1788: 113, pl. 98, fig. 401 (Seas of Great Britain).
Labrus lineatus Bonnaterre, 1788: 113, pl. 98, fig. 402 (Seas of Great Britain).
Labrus trimaculatus Gmelin 1789: 1294 (Britain; preoccupied by Labrus trimaculatus Bonnaterre, 1788).
Labrus variegatus Gmelin, 1789: 1294 (Skerry).
Labrus coquus Gmelin, 1789: 1297 ("in Cornubiae littore").
?Labrus microlepidotus Bloch, 1792: 12, pl. 292 (no locality).
Labrus badius Walbaum 1792: 258 (no locality).
Labrus coquus Walbaum, 1792: 260 (no locality; preoccupied by Labrus coquus Gmelin, 1789).
Labrus herbeus Walbaum 1792: 25 (no locality).
Labrus vittatus Walbaum, 1792: 256 (no locality).
Labrus vetula Bloch, 1792: 14, pl. 293 (North Sea).
Labrus cook Bloch & Schneider 1801: 268 (no locality).
Sparus claviera Lacepède, 1802: 50, 152 (Marseille et d'Antibes; unnecessary replacement for Labrus varius Linnaeus).
Sparus formosus Shaw & Nodder, 1790: pl. 31 (North Atlantic).
Labrus luvarus Rafinesque, 1810a: 38 (Sicily).
Labrus quadrimaculatus Risso, 1827: 302 (Nice, France).
Acantholabrus yarellii Val., 1839: 250 (London market).
Labrus larvatus Lowe, 1852: 249 ( Madeira).

DISTRIBUTION: eastern Atlantic from Norway to Senegal and Mediterranean.

REMARKS: Labrus bimaculatus Linnaeus, 1758 has been used for either the present species or the common South American cichlid Cichlasoma bimaculatum. Conservation of usage and neotype designation were proposed by Ronald Fricke and Carl J. Ferraris (Case 2905) so that the name bimaculatus should be maintained for the labrid species. However, L. mixtus continues to be used for the labrid species and L. bimaculatus is very much in use for the South American cichlid. Kullander (1997) designated a neotype for L. mixtus (UUZM 193) and proposed: i) to set aside the application in Case 2905, ii) to place on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology the names bimaculatus (specific name of the type species of Cichlasoma) and mixtus (specific name of the type species of Labrus), and iii) to place on the Official List of Rejected and Invalid Specific Names in Zoology the name ossifagus. This application was also supported by Kottelat and Wheeler (1998). We agree that stability is best attained by accepting Kullander's proposal. Labrus vittatus Walbaum and Labrus formosus Shaw are synonyms according to Günther (1862). However, formosus was originally described as Sparus formosus Shaw and Nodder, 1790. We follow Günther (1862: 91 footnote) in regarding Acantholabrus yarellii as an abnormal specimen of L. mixtus. Labrus microlepidotus, with dorsal-fin rays XVII, 13 and more than 50 lateral-line scales, is likely a synonym of L. mixtus.

Labrus viridis Linnaeus

Labrus viridis Linnaeus, 1758: 286 (Mediterranean Sea).
Labrus luscus Linnaeus, 1758: 287 (no locality).
Labrus turdus Linnaeus, 1758: 287 (European Seas).
Labrus luteus Walbaum 1792: 236 (no locality).
Labrus saphyrinus Walbaum 1792: 236 (no locality).
Labrus psittacus Lacepède, 1801: 440 (no locality).
Labrus zittoides Rafinesque, 1810a: 38 (Sicily, Italy).
Labrus zittus Rafinesque, 1810a: 38, pl. 12, fig. 3 (Sicily).
Labrus prasostictes Pallas, 1814: 272 ("ad Ponti littora").
Labrus pincus Nardo, 1827: 30 (Adriatic Sea).
Labrus saxatilis Risso, 1827: 300 (Nice, France).
Labrus festivus Risso, 1827: 304 (Nice, France).
Labrus rufus Rathke, 1837: 337 (Black Sea; preoccupied by Labrus rufus Linnaeus, 1758 [= Bodianus rufus]).
Labrus lividus Val., 1839: 87 (Toulon; Marseille, Naples).
Labrus nardii Perugia 1866: 20 (Adriatic Sea).

DISTRIBUTION: Mediterranean Sea.

REMARKS: Labrus nardii was regarded as a synonym by Perugia (1881). Labrus pincus Nardo is a synonym according to Canestrini (1872) and Bini (1968).

Genus Lachnolaimus Cuvier

Lachnolaimus Cuvier, 1829: 257 (type-species, L. suillus Cuvier, by subsequent designation).
Lachnolaemus Agassiz, 1846: 199 (unjustified emendation).

One species.

Lachnolaimus maximus Walbaum

Labrus maximus Walbaum, 1792: 261 (no locality).
Lachnolaimus caninus Cuvier, 1829: 257 (no locality).
Lachnolaimus suillus Cuvier, 1829: 257 (no locality).
Lachnolaimus aigula Val., 1839: 277, pl. 378 (St. Barthélemy Id, Leeward Ids, Lesser Antilles).
Lachnolaimus dux Val., 1839: 285 (Martinique).
Lachnolaimus psittacus Val., 1839: 291 (Puerto Rico)

DISTRIBUTION: Carolinas to northern South America.

REMARKS: synonymy from Jordan (1885, 1890). Lachnolaimus suillus and L. caninus were redescribed as new by Valenciennes (1839: 286-290). The combination Lachnolaimus falcatus used by Günther (1862: 87), based on Labrus falcatus Linnaeus is invalid; Labrus falcatus was described by Linnaeus in the carangid genus Trachinotus.

Genus Lappanella Jordan

Lappanella Jordan, 1890: 622, 689 (type-species, Ctenolabrus iris Valenciennes, by monotypy, proposed as a subgenus).
Marzapanus Facciolà, 1916: 148 (type-species, Coricus fasciatus Cocco, by monotypy).

Two species (Gomon and Forsyth, 1990). Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean.

Lappanella fasciata (Cocco)

Coricus fasciatus Cocco, 1833: 16, fig. 3 (Messina, Sicily).
Ctenolabrus iris Val., 1839: 236, pl. 374 (Naples, Sicily; Malta).
Crenilabrus aurantiacus Facciolà, 1888: 22 (Messina, Sicily; preoccupied by Crenilabrus aurantiacus Cocco in Facciolà, 1885 [= ?Symphodus ocellatus (Forsskål]).

DISTRIBUTION: eastern Atlantic, Mediterranean Sea.

REMARKS: Quignard (1965) redescribed the species without mention of Crenilabrus aurantiacus. Facciolà (1916) recognized his C. aurantiacus as a synonym of Coricus fasciatus Cocco.

Lappanella guineensis Bauchot

Lappanella guineensis Bauchot, 1969: 1145, fig. 1 (Gulf of Guinea, 8°28'N, 14°21'W).

DISTRIBUTION: eastern Atlantic.

Genus Larabicus Randall & Springer

Larabicus Randall & Springer, 1973: 289 (type-species, Labrus quadrilineatus Rüppell, 1835 by original designation).

One species.

Larabicus quadrilineatus (Rüppell)

Labrus quadrilineatus Rüppell, 1835: 6, pl. 2, fig. 1 (Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea).
Cossyphus taeniatus Val. (ex Ehrenberg) in Cuv. & Val., 1839: 134 (Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea).
Labrichthys cousteaui Estève in Roux-Estève and Fourmanaoir, 1955: 199 (Abu Latt, Red Sea).

DISTRIBUTION: Red Sea.

Genus Leptojulis Bleeker

Leptojulis Bleeker, 1862a: 412 (type-species, Julis (Halichoeres) cyanopleura Bleeker, by original designation).

Five species (Randall, 1996); Indo-West Pacific.

Leptojulis chrysotaenia Randall & Ferraris

Leptojulis chrysotaenia Randall & Ferraris, 1981: 91, figs. 3-4 (Ka Pu Islet, Phuket, Thailand).

DISTRIBUTION: Indonesia to Sri Lanka.

Leptojulis cyanopleura (Bleeker)

Julis finlaysoni Val., 1839: 471 (Sri Lanka).
Julis purpureolineatus Val., 1839: 471 (Sri Lanka).
Julis (Halichoeres) cyanopleura Bleeker, 1853d: 489 (Batavia [Jakarta], Indonesia).
Julis (Halichoeres) pyrrhogrammatoides Bleeker, 1853d: 490 (Batavia [Jakarta], Indonesia).

DISTRIBUTION: Malaysia, New Guinea, and Australia to Persian Gulf.

REMARKS: Randall and Parenti (1999) have proposed that the names Julis finlaysoni and purpureolineatus be suppressed in order to conserve cyanopleura.

Leptojulis lambdastigma Randall & Ferraris

Leptojulis lambdastigma Randall & Ferraris, 1981: 93, fig. 5 (Samar Sea, Philippines).

DISTRIBUTION: Philippines and Taiwan.

Leptojulis polylepis Randall

Leptojulis polylepis Randall, 1996: 15, pls, 2C, 3G, 3H (Guadalcanal, Solomon Ids).

DISTRIBUTION: Solomon Ids, New Guinea, and Indonesia.

Leptojulis urostigma Randall

Leptojulis urostigma Randall, 1996: 10, fig. 3, pls 3D-F (Batangas Prov., Luzon Id, Philippines).

DISTRIBUTION: Taiwan to Indonesia.

Genus Macropharyngodon Bleeker

Macropharyngodon Bleeker, 1862a: 412 (type-species, Julis geoffroy Quoy & Gaimard, by original designation).

Ten species (Randall, 1978b). Indo-Pacific.

Macropharyngodon bipartitus Smith

Macropharyngodon bipartitus Smith, 1957a: 104, fig. 2; pl. 2, fig. B (Pinda, Mozambique).
Macropharyngodon varialvus Smith, 1957a: 105, fig. 3; pl. 2, fig. A (Pinda, Mozambique).
Macropharyngodon bipartitus marisrubri Randall, 1978: 759, figs. 5 a-b (Taba, Gulf of Aqaba).

DISTRIBUTION: Western Indian Ocean and Red Sea. Two subspecies: Macropharyngodon bipartitus marisrubri, Red Sea, and Macropharyngodon bipartitus bipartitus, western Indian Ocean.

Macropharyngodon choati Randall

Macropharyngodon choati Randall, 1978b: 761, fig. 5d (One Tree Id, Capricorn Group, Great Barrier Reef).

DISTRIBUTION: southern Great Barrier Reef, New South Wales, and New Caledonia.

Macropharyngodon cyanoguttatus Randall

Macropharyngodon cyanoguttatus Randall, 1978b: 749, figs. 3 c-d (Mauritius).

DISTRIBUTION: Mauritius, Réunion, and South Africa.

Macropharyngodon geoffroy (Quoy & Gaimard)

Julis geoffroy Quoy & Gaimard, 1824: 270, pl. 56, fig. 3 (Hawaiian Ids).
Labrus margaritiferus Cuvier, 1829: 258 (no locality).
Macropharyngodon aquilolo Jenkins, 1901: 46, fig. 1 (Honolulu, Hawaiian Ids).

DISTRIBUTION: Hawaiian Ids.

REMARKS: Cuvier (1829: 258) published the name Labrus margaritiferus as a footnote with reference to fig. 3 on a plate in Quoy and Gaimard (1824) with the common name "Girelle Labiche". The plate number was mistakenly omitted. This common name does not appear on any Quoy and Gaimard plates. M.-L. Bauchot checked the original manuscript 506 (XIII B 62) and found the name Girelle Labiche written in pencil on a tracing of the painting of pl. 56, fig. 3 of Quoy and Gaimard. This was the first common name given to the species by Quoy. It was later changed to Girelle Geoffroy.

Macropharyngodon kuiteri Randall

Macropharyngodon kuiteri Randall, 1978b: 766, figs. 5 g-h (Seal Rocks, New South Wales, Australia).

DISTRIBUTION: southern Great Barrier Reef, New South Wales, and New Caledonia.

Macropharyngodon meleagris (Valenciennes)

Julis meleagris Val., 1839: 481 (Ulea, Caroline Ids).
Leptojulis pardalis Kner, 1867: 728 [19], pl. 3, fig. 2 (Fiji).
Platyglossus nigromaculatus Günther, 1872a: 666, pl. 65, fig. B (Savai'i [Savay] Id, Western Samoa Ids).
Halichoeres nigropunctatus Seale, 1901a: 89 (Guam).

DISTRIBUTION: western and central Pacific.

Macropharyngodon moyeri Shepard & Meyer

Macropharyngodon moyeri Shepard & Meyer, 1978a: 159, fig. 1 (Miyakejima, Izu Ids, Japan).

DISTRIBUTION: southern Japan.

Macropharyngodon negrosensis Herre

Macropharyngodon negrosensis Herre, 1932: 142 (Dumagnete, Oriental Negros, Philippines).

DISTRIBUTION: western Pacific to Micronesia and Samoa.

Macropharyngodon ornatus Randall

Macropharyngodon ornatus Randall, 1978b: 753, figs. 3 g-h (Ambon Id, Moluccas Ids, Indonesia).

DISTRIBUTION: Indonesia to western Indian Ocean.

Macropharyngodon vivienae Randall

Macropharyngodon vivienae Randall, 1978b: 764, fig. 6 (outer slope of barrier reef, off Tuléar, Madagascar).

DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar and South Africa.

Genus Malapterus Valenciennes

Malapterus Val., 1839: 355 (type-species, Malapterus reticulatus Valenciennes, by monotypy).
Malacopterus Günther, 1862: (unjustified emendation, preoccupied by Audinet-Serville 1834 in Coleoptera).
Neolabrus Steindachner, 1875: 461 (type-species, Neolabrus fenestratus Steindachner, by monotypy).
Hospilabrus Whitley, 1931a: 334 (unnneeded replacement for Malapterus Valenciennes).

A valid genus (Pequeño, 1989 and M. Protti, pers. comm.). One species.

Malapterus reticulatus Valenciennes

Malapterus reticulatus Val., 1839: 355, pl. 383 (Juan Fernández Ids).
Neolabrus fenestratus Steindachner, 1875: 461 [19], pl. 1, fig. 2 (Juan Fernández Ids).

DISTRIBUTION: Juan Fernández Ids, Chile.

Genus Minilabrus Randall & Dor

Minilabrus Randall & Dor, 1980: 155 (type-species, M. striatus Randall & Dor, by original designation).

One species.

Minilabrus striatus Randall & Dor

Minilabrus striatus Randall & Dor, 1980: 155, figs. 1-3 (Um Aabak , Dahlak Archipelago, Eritrea, Red Sea).

DISTRIBUTION: Red Sea.

Genus Nelabrichthys Russell

Nelabrichthys Russell, 1983a: 1 (type-species, Labrus ornatus Carmichael, by original designation).

One species.

Nelabrichthys ornatus (Carmichael)

Labrus ornatus Carmichael, 1819: 502, pl. 27 (Tristan da Cunha, South Atlantic).
Labrichthys isleanus Sauvage, 1875: 988 (St Paul Id, southern Indian Ocean).
Labrichthys lantzii Sauvage, 1875: 988 (St Paul Id).
Platyglossus robinsoni Gilchrist & Thompson, 1914: 86 (Natal, South Africa [specimen evidently mislabelled]).

DISTRIBUTION: Tristan da Cunha Group, Gough, and Vema Seamount in the southern Atlantic, and St Paul and Amsterdam Ids in the southern Indian Ocean.

Genus Notolabrus Russell

Notolabrus Russell, 1988: 12 (type-species, Labrus fucicola Richardson, by original designation).

Seven species (Russell, 1988). Mostly in southern Australia and New Zealand.

Notolabrus celidotus (Bloch & Schneider)

Labrus celidotus Bloch & Schneider (ex Forster), 1801: 265 (New Zealand).
Labrus poecilopleura Val., 1839: 95 (New Zealand).
Julis notatus Richardson and Solander in Richardson, 1843c: 425 (Totaeranue, Queen Charlotte Sound and Tolaga, New Zealand).
Labrus botryocosmus Richardson, 1846a: 53, pl. 31 (South Australia).

DISTRIBUTION: New Zealand.

Notolabrus cinctus (Hutton)

Labrichthys cincta Hutton, 1877: 354 (Otago, New Zealand).

DISTRIBUTION: New Zealand.

Notolabrus fucicola (Richardson)

Labrus fucicola Richardson, 1840: 26 (Tasmania).
Labrichthys fucicolor Hutton, 1890: 281 (misprinting or emendation).
Pseudolabrus pittensis Waite, 1910: 26 (Chatham Ids).

DISTRIBUTION: southwestern Australia and New Zealand.

Notolabrus gymnogenis (Günther)

Labrichthys gymnogenis Günther, 1862: 117 (Australia).
Labrichthys nigromarginatus MacLeay, 1878b: 35, pl. 3, fig. 3 (Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia).

DISTRIBUTION: Queensland to Tasmania, Lord Howe Id.

Notolabrus inscriptus (Richardson)

Labrus inscriptus Richardson, 1848: 134, pl. 56, figs. 1-2 (Norfolk Id).

DISTRIBUTION: New South Wales, New Zealand, Lord Howe Id, Norfolk Id, and Kermadecs.

Notolabrus parilus (Richardson)

Tautoga parila Richardson, 1850: 70 (King George Sound, Western Australia).
Labrichthys punctulata Günther, 1862: 118 (Swan river, Western Australia).
Labrichthys edelensis Castelnau, 1873: 137 (Fremantle, Western Australia).
Labrichthys bostockii Castelnau, 1873: 137 (Fremantle).
Labrichthys convexus Castelnau, 1875: 38 (Fremantle).
Labrichthys rubra Castelnau, 1875: 38 (Fremantle).
Labrichthys unicolor Castelnau, 1875: 37 (Fremantle).

DISTRIBUTION: southern and western Australia.

Notolabrus tetricus (Richardson)

Labrus tetricus Richardson, 1840: 25 (Tasmania).
Labrichthys bleekeri Castelnau, 1872a: 148 (Melbourne).
Labrichthys richardsoni Castelnau, 1872a: 150 (Melbourne)
Labrichthys vestita Castelnau, 1872a: 151 (Melbourne).
Labrichthys tetrica var fuscipinnis Klunzinger, 1872: 37 (Hobson's Bay, Victoria, Australia).
Labrichthys tetrica var tigripinnis Klunzinger, 1872: 37 (Hobson's Bay, Victoria, Australia).
Labrichthys cuvieri Castelnau, 1873: 53 (Tasmania).
?Labrichthys tetrica var ocellata Klunzinger, 1880: 402 (Murray river, South Australia).
Labrichthys cyanogenys Ramsay & Ogilby, 1887b: 242 (Broken Bay, New South Wales, Australia).
Labricthys ceruleus Saville-Kent, 1897: 174 (Tasmania).

DISTRIBUTION: southern New South Wales to Tasmania and South Australia.

Genus Novaculichthys Bleeker

Novaculichthys Bleeker, 1862a: 414 (type-species, Labrus taeniourus Lacepède, by original designation).
Malacocentrus Gill, 1862: 143 (type-species, Xyrichthys taeniurus Valenciennes, by original designation).
Dimalacocentrus Gill, 1863: 223 (type-species, Novacula kallosoma Bleeker, by monotypy).
Semachlorella Fowler & Bean, 1928: 367 (type-species, Julis bifer, Lay & Bennett, by original designation)
Novaculops Schultz, 1960: (122) 143 (type-species, Novaculichthys woodi Jenkins, by original designation).

This genus is under study by J.E. Randall and J.L. Earle; 7 species, including 3 undescribed species. Red Sea to eastern Pacific.

Novaculichthys macrolepidotus (Bloch)

Labrus macrolepidotus Bloch, 1791: 135, pl. 284, fig. 2 (no locality).
Labrus arago Quoy & Gaimard, 1824: 263, pl. 65, fig. 2 (Iles des Papous).
Julis taenianotus Cuvier in Quoy & Gaimard, 1824: 271 (Waigeo, Indonesia).
Julis trimaculata Val., 1839: 386 (no locality; preoccupied by Julis trimaculata Quoy & Gaimard, 1834 [= Halichoeres trimaculatus]). Novacula julioides Bleeker, 1851b: 354 ( Indonesia).

DISTRIBUTION: Indian Ocean to Mariana Ids.

Novaculichthys perlas

(Wellington, Allen & Robertson)

Xyrichtys perlas Wellington, Allen & Robertson, 1994: 49, figs. 1-3 (Isla San Jose, Perlas Ids, eastern Pacific).

DISTRIBUTION: Perlas Ids (Gulf of Panama).

Novaculichthys taeniourus (Lacepède)

Labrus taeniourus Lacepède, 1801: 448, 518, pl. 29, fig. 1 (Great Equatorial Ocean [Mauritius]).
Sparus hemisphaerium Lacepède, 1802: 53, 160 (Madagascar).
Sparus brachion Lacepède, 1802: 54, 160 (Madagascar).
Julis vanikorensis Quoy & Gaimard, 1834: 704, pl. 20, fig. 1 (Vanikoro Id, Santa Cruz Ids, southwestern Pacific).
Xyrichthys altipinnis Rüppell, 1835: 22, pl. 7 (Jidda [Jeddah], Saudi Arabia, Red Sea).
Julis bifer Lay & Bennett, 1839: 64, pl. 18, fig. 2 (Oahu Id, Hawaiian Ids).
Novacula cephalotaenia Bleeker, 1854c: 333 (Indonesia).
Novacula hoedtii Bleeker, 1856a: 59 (Ambon, Indonesia).
Novacula kallosoma Bleeker, 1860b: 5 (Ambon and Bali).

DISTRIBUTION: Indo-Pacific, Red Sea to South Africa, Hawaiian Ids, and tropical eastern Pacific.

REMARKS: Valenciennes redescribed Labrus taeniourus Lacepède as Xyrichthys taeniurus nob. (Val., 1840: 54) and Julis vanikorensis Quoy & Gaimard as Xyrichthys vanikolensis nob. (Val., 1840: 57).

Novaculichthys woodi Jenkins

Novaculichthys woodi Jenkins, 1901: 52, fig. 8 (Honolulu).
Novaculichthys entargyreus Jenkins, 1901: 53, fig. 9 (Honolulu, Oahu Id, Hawaiian Ids).
Novaculichthys tattoo Seale, 1901b: 5, fig. 2 (Honolulu).
Xyrichthys sciistius Jordan & Thompson 1914: 263, pl. 30, fig. 3 (Sagami Bay, Japan).

DISTRIBUTION: Hawaiian Ids and southern Japan.

Novaculichthys sp 1

DISTRIBUTION: Lord Howe Id (Francis, 1993).

Novaculichthys sp 2

DISTRIBUTION: Papua New Guinea.

Novaculichthys sp 3

DISTRIBUTION: Easter Id.

Genus Ophthalmolepis Bleeker

Ophthalmolepis Bleeker, 1862a: 413 (type-species, Julis lineolatus Valenciennes, by original designation).

One species.

Ophthalmolepis lineolatus (Valenciennes)

Julis lineolatus Val., 1839: 436 (Victoria, Australia).
Julis cyanogramma Richardson, 1850: 73 (King George Sound, Western Australia).
Pseudojulis lineata Castelnau, 1873: 138 (Fremantle, WA).
Julis adelaidensis Castelnau, 1875: 35 (Adelaide).

DISTRIBUTION: Southern Queensland to southern and western Australia.

Genus Oxycheilinus Gill

Oxycheilinus Gill, 1863: 143 (type-species, Cheilinus arenatus Valenciennes, by original designation).

Twelve species, of which 4 are undescribed (Westneat, pers. comm.); Indo-Pacific. Synonymies are partially based on Fowler (1928) and de Beaufort (1940) and they should be considered provisional. The genus is currently under revision by M.W. Westneat, J.E. Randall and M.F. Gomon.

Oxycheilinus arenatus (Valenciennes)

Cheilinus arenatus Val., 1840: 101, pl. 397 (Réunion Id).
Cheilinus notophthalmus Bleeker, 1853d: 493 (Indonesia).

DISTRIBUTION: Red Sea, Indian Ocean to Micronesia and Samoa (in deep water).

Oxycheilinus bimaculatus (Valenciennes)

Cheilinus bimaculatus Val., 1840: 96 (Honolulu).
Cheilinus ceramensis Bleeker, 1852c: 290 (Indonesia).
Cheilinus mossambicus Günther, 1862: 127 (Mozambique).
Cheilinus melanopleura Bleeker, 1866: 134 (Ambon Id).
Cheilinus bifasciatus Bleeker, 1871: 327, fig. 3 (Ambon).

DISTRIBUTION: Indo-Pacific, including Hawaiian Ids.

Oxycheilinus celebicus (Bleeker)

Cheilinus celebicus Bleeker, 1853g: 171 (Indonesia).
Cheilinus hoevenii Bleeker, 1862b: 297 (Indonesia).
Cheilinus oxyrhynchus Bleeker, 1862b: 300 (Sulawesi; Ambon and Batjan; Indonesia).

DISTRIBUTION: Indo-Australian Archipelago and Japan.

Oxycheilinus digramma (Lacepède)

Labrus digramma Lacepède, 1801: 448, 518, pl. 1, fig. 2 (Mauritius).
Sparus radiatus Bloch & Schneider, 1801: 270 (East Indies).
Cheilinus coccineus Rüppell, 1828: 23 ([Jeddah, Red Sea).
Cheilinus commersoni Bennett, 1832a: 167 (Mauritius).
Cheilinus radiatus Val., 1840: 91 (Red Sea).
Cheilinus roseus Val., 1840: 105 (Ulea, Caroline Ids).
Cheilinus lacrymans Val., 1840: 109 (Indonesia).

DISTRIBUTION: Red Sea to western Pacific.

REMARKS: the name has been often incorrectly spelled diagrammus (Kyushin et al., 1977; Dor, 1984; Yamakawa in Masuda et al. 1984; Randall 1986a.

Oxycheilinus mentalis (Rüppell)

Cheilinus mentalis Rüppell, 1828: 24 (Massawa, Eritrea).
Cheilinus venosus Val., 1840: 100 (Suez, Red Sea).

DISTRIBUTION: Red Sea and Gulf of Aden.

Oxycheilinus orientalis (Günther)

Cheilinus orientalis Günther (ex Bleeker), 1862: 132 (Batjan, Indonesia).

DISTRIBUTION: Indonesia to New Caledonia.

Oxycheilinus rhodochrous (Playfair & Günther)

Cheilinus rhodochrous Playfair & Günther, 1867: 90, pl. 11, fig. 3 (Zanzibar).

DISTRIBUTION: Zanzibar.

REMARKS: erroneously regarded as the senior synonym of Cheilinus unifasciatus Streets by de Beaufort (1940). The citation by Masuda et al. (1984) appears to be a misidentification of C. unifasciatus. Provisionally, we consider it valid. Perhaps it is a deeper water fish not seen in normal diving depths.

Oxycheilinus unifasciatus (Streets)

Cheilinus polygramma Val., 1840: 103 (Caroline Ids).
Cheilinus unifasciatus Streets, 1877: 82 (Line Ids).
Chilinus [sic] hexagonatus Günther, 1881: 287, pl. 135, fig. B (Yap Id; Hawaiian Ids).
Cheilinus zonurus Jenkins, 1901: 56, fig. 13 (Johnson Id, central Pacific).
Cheilinus cingulatus Weber, 1913: 365, pl. 9, fig. 5 (Binongka, Siboga sta. 220; Banda, Siboga sta. 240).

DISTRIBUTION: western and central Pacific, including Pitcairn Group.

REMARKS: This species was often misidentified as Cheilinus rhodochrous. Randall and Parenti (1999) proposed the rejection of Cheilinus polygramma in order to conserve O. unifasciatus.

Oxycheilinus sp 1

DISTRIBUTION: Red Sea.

Oxycheilinus sp 2

DISTRIBUTION: New Caledonia, southeastern Australia.

Oxycheilinus sp 3

DISTRIBUTION: Indonesia.

Oxycheilinus sp 4

DISTRIBUTION: Rarotonga, Cook Ids.

Genus Oxyjulis Gill

Oxyjulis Gill, 1863: 223 (type-species, Halichoeres californicus Günther, by original designation).

One species.

Oxyjulis californica (Günther)

Julis modestus Girard, 1854: 151 (Monterey and San Diego, California; preoccupied by Julis modestus Bleeker, 1847 [= Halichoeres chloropterus (Bloch)]).
Halichoeres californicus Günther, 1861: 386 nomen novum for Julis modestus Girard.

DISTRIBUTION: California to Baja California.

Genus Paracheilinus Fourmanoir

Paracheilinus Fourmanoir in Roux-Estève & Fourmanoir, 1955: 199 (type-species, Paracheilinus octotaenia Fourmanoir, by original designation).

Genus revised by Randall & Lubbock (1981); 13 species. Red Sea to Hawaiian Ids and Fiji.

Paracheilinus angulatus Randall & Lubbock

Paracheilinus angulatus Randall & Lubbock, 1981: (21) 26, pl. 2, fig. D (Batangas, Luzon Id, Philippines).

DISTRIBUTION: Philippines.

Paracheilinus attenuatus Randall, 1999

Paracheilinus attenuatus Randall, 1999: 34, figs 2-6 (St François, Amirante Ids, Seychelles).

DISTRIBUTION: Seychelles and off Kenya.

Paracheilinus bellae Randall

Paracheilinus bellae Randall, 1988: 222, pls. 2, fig. D and 3, fig. H (Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Ids).

DISTRIBUTION: Marshall Ids.

Paracheilinus carpenteri Randall & Lubbock

Paracheilinus carpenteri Randall & Lubbock, 1981: 24, pl. 2, figs. A-B (Mactan Id, east of Cebu, Philippines).
Parachelinus sp. 2 Debelius & Kuiter, 1994: 232.

DISTRIBUTION: Philippines, Indonesia, and Taiwan.

Paracheilinus cyaneus Kuiter & Allen

Paracheilinus cyaneus Kuiter & Allen, 1999: 121, figs. 1-3 (Bandang Id, Banggai Ids, Indonesia).

DISTRIBUTION: Banggai Ids, Derawan Id, Sulawesi.

Paracheilinus filamentosus Allen

Paracheilinus filamentosus Allen, 1974: 452, fig. 2 (Kranket Id, Madang, New Guinea).

DISTRIBUTION: East Indies.

Paracheilinus flavianalis Kuiter & Allen

Paracheilinus flavianalis Kuiter & Allen, 1999: 123, figs. 4-7 (Scott Reef, Western Australia).

DISTRIBUTION: Indonesia, northwestern Australia.

Paracheilinus hemitaeniatus Randall & Harmelin-Vivien

Paracheilinus hemitaeniatus Randall & Harmelin-Vivien, 1977: 338, fig. 4 (Tuléar, Madagascar).

DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar and South Africa (photograph by Dennis King of a specimen from KwaZulu-Natal, P.C. Heemstra, pers. comm.).

Paracheilinus lineopunctatus Randall & Lubbock

Paracheilinus lineopunctatus Randall & Lubbock, 1981: 21, pl. 1, fig. B (Mactan Id, east of Cebu, Philippines).

DISTRIBUTION: Philippines.

Paracheilinus mccoskeri Randall & Harmelin-Vivien

Paracheilinus mccoskeri Randall & Harmelin-Vivien, 1977: 332, fig. 2 (Grande Comore, Comoro Ids).
Parachelinus sp. 1 Debelius & Kuiter, 1994: 232.

DISTRIBUTION: western Indian Ocean, Comores, Persian Gulf, Maldives to Fiji.

Paracheilinus octotaenia Fourmanoir

Paracheilinus octotaenia Fourmanoir in Roux-Estève & Fourmanoir, 1955: 199, fig. 1 (Abu Latt, Red Sea).

DISTRIBUTION: Red Sea.

Paracheilinus piscilineatus (Cornic)

Cirrhilabrus piscilineatus Cornic, 1987: 141 (Mauritius).

DISTRIBUTION: Mauritius.

Paracheilinus togeanensis Kuiter & Allen

Paracheilinus togeanensis Kuiter & Allen, 1999: 127, fig. 8 (Batudaka Id, Togean Islands, Indonesia).

DISTRIBUTION: Indonesia.

Genus Parajulis Bleeker

Parajulis Bleeker, 1865: 251 (type-species, Julis poecilepterus Temminck & Schlegel, by original designation).

One species.

Parajulis poecilepterus (Temminck & Schlegel)

Julis poecilepterus Temminck & Schlegel, 1845: 169, pl. 86 bis, fig. 1 (Bay of Sinabara, Japan).
Julis poecilopterus Richardson, 1846b: 260 (China).
Julis thirsites Richardson, 1846b: 260 (Canton, China).
Julìs pyrrhogramma Schlegel in Temminck & Schlegel, 1845: 170, pl. 86bis, fig. 2 (Nagasaki, Japan).

DISTRIBUTION: Korea, northern Japan at Hakodate to Taiwan and Hong Kong (but not Ryukyu Ids).

REMARKS: In a revision of Leptojulis, Randall & Ferraris (1981), wrote "According to Nguyen Tri Truc (pers. comm.), who wrote his Ph D dissertation on the osteology of Japanese labrid fishes, Julis poecilepterus should be placed in the monotypic genus Parajulis." Parajulis is distinguishable from Halichoeres by the following combination of characters: vertebral number 9-10+17-18; second anal pterygiophore lies before first haemal spine; juncture of dentaries sutured; two pairs of enlarged anterior canines on each jaw; teeth on side of jaws small; epiotic-parietal-frontal crest meet ridge of median groove far from the junction of frontal; D IX, 14; A III, 14. In the literature the specific name is often spelled as poecilopterus (Masuda et al., 1984: 209; Shen, 1993: 459; Kuiter and Randall, 1995: 113).

Genus Pictilabrus Gill

Pictilabrus Gill, 1891: 403 (type-species, Labrus laticlavius Richardson, by monotypy).

Revised by Russell (1988); 3 species. Southern Australia.

Pictilabrus brauni Hutchins & Morrison

Pictilabrus brauni Hutchins & Morrison, 1996: 39, figs. 1, 4, 7 (Cheyne Beach, Western Australia).

DISTRIBUTION: south coast of Western Australia.

Pictilabrus laticlavius (Richardson)

Labrus laticlavius Richardson, 1840: 26 (Tasmania).
Hemigymnus bleasdalei Castelnau, 1875: 38 (Adelaide).
Labrichthys labiosa Macleay, 1881: 88, pl. 1, fig. 2 (Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia).
Eupetrichthys gloveri Scott in Scott, Glover & Southcott, 1974: 303 (Thistle Id, South Australia).

DISTRIBUTION: New South Wales to western Australia.

Pictilabrus viridis Russell

Pictilabrus viridis Russell, 1988: 38, figs. 8,12-13, 15-18, 23; pl. 4e-f (Lucky Bay, Cape La Grande, W.A.).

DISTRIBUTION: southwestern Australia.

Genus Polylepion Gomon

Polylepion Gomon, 1977: 622 (type-species, Bodianus russelli Gomon & Randall, by original designation).

Two species. Eastern to western Pacific.

Polylepion cruentum Gomon

Polylepion cruentum Gomon, 1977: 624, figs. 1, 2 left, 3 (eastern Pacific off Quepos, Costa Rica).

DISTRIBUTION: Gulf of California to Costa Rica.

Polylepion russelli (Gomon & Randall)

Bodianus russelli Gomon & Randall, 1975: 444 (off Moku Manu, Oahu Id, Hawaiian Ids).

DISTRIBUTION: Hawaiian Ids, Society Ids, Marianas, and Okinawa (at depths over 100 m).

Genus Pseudocheilinops Schultz

Pseudocheilinops Schultz in Schultz et al., 1960: 128 (type-species, P. ataenia Schultz, by original designation).

One species.

Pseudocheilinops ataenia Schultz

Pseudocheilinops ataenia Schultz in Schultz et al., 1960: 129, fig. 94 (Talisse Id, Sulawesi, Indonesia).

DISTRIBUTION: Indonesia, Philippines, and Micronesia.

Genus Pseudocheilinus Bleeker

Pseudocheilinus Bleeker, 1862a: 409 (type-species, Cheilinus hexataenia Bleeker, by original designation).

Genus revised by Randall (1999a); 7 species; Indo-Pacific.

Pseudocheilinus citrinus Randall

Pseudocheilinus citrinus Randall, 1999: 5, pl. 1A (Pitcairn Id).

DISTRIBUTION: Cook, Austral and Pitcairn Ids.

Pseudocheilinus dispilus Randall

Pseudocheilinus dispilus Randall, 1999a: 10, pl. 1B,C (Réunion).

DISTRIBUTION: Réunion and Mauritius.

Pseudocheilinus evanidus Jordan & Evermann

Pseudocheilinus evanidus Jordan & Evermann, 1903: 192 (Hawaii, Hawaiian Ids).

DISTRIBUTION: Indo-Pacific, Red Sea to South Africa, Japan, Australia, Hawaiian and Marquesas Ids.

Pseudocheilinus hexataenia (Bleeker)

Cheilinus hexataenia Bleeker, 1857c: 84 (Indonesia).
Pseudocheilinus psittaculus, Kner & Steindachner 1867: 376 [21], pl. 3, fig. 7 (Phoenix Ids, Pacific).
Cossyphus echis Guichenot, 1869: 197, pl. 12, fig. 5 (Madagascar).

DISTRIBUTION: Indo-Pacific, Red Sea to South Africa, Ryukyus, Johnston Id, Australia, Lord Howe and Tuamotu Ids, but not at the Hawaiian Ids.

Pseudocheilinus ocellatus Randall, 1999

Pseudocheilinus ocellatus Randall: 1999a: 21, fig. 3, pls 1H, 2A (Laura Id, Majuro Atoll, Marshall Ids).

DISTRIBUTION: western-central Pacific, Japan and Pitcairn.

Pseudocheilinus octotaenia Jenkins

Pseudocheilinus octotaenia Jenkins, 1901: 64, fig. 22 (Honolulu, Oahu Id, Hawaiian Ids).
Pseudocheilinus margaretae Smith, 1956a: 929, fig.1 (Aldabra Id, Seychelles).

DISTRIBUTION: Indo-Pacific, from South Africa to Hawaiian Ids and Pitcairn Group.

Pseudocheilinus tetrataenia Schultz

Pseudocheilinus tetrataenia Schultz in Schultz et al., 1960: 167, fig. 98 (Reer Id, Bikini Atoll, Marshall Ids).

DISTRIBUTION: Islands of Oceania, including Hawaiian Ids and Pitcairn Ids.

Genus Pseudocoris Bleeker

Pseudocoris Bleeker, 1862a: 411 (type-species, Julis (Halichoeres) heteropterus Bleeker, by original designation).

Five species (Chen & Shao, 1995). Indo-Pacific.

Pseudocoris aurantiofasciata Fourmanoir

Pseudocoris aurantiofasciatus Fourmanoir, 1971: 130, fig. 2 (Rangiroa, Tuamotu Archipelago).

DISTRIBUTION: central and western Pacific.

Pseudocoris bleekeri (Hubrecht)

Coris bleekeri Hubrecht, 1876: 214 (Moluccas, Indonesia).
Coris philippina Fowler & Bean, 1928: 309, pl. 42 (Sulade Id, Philippines).
Julis albolumbata Schmidt, 1931: 87, fig. 8 (Okinawa Id).

DISTRIBUTION: Ryukyu Ids to Indonesia.

Pseudocoris heteroptera (Bleeker)

Julis (Halichoeres) heteropterus Bleeker, 1857c: 78 (Ambon Id, Moluccas Ids, Indonesia).

DISTRIBUTION: South Africa, Seychelles to western Pacific.

Pseudocoris ocellata Chen & Shao

Pseudocoris ocellatus Chen & Shao, 1995: 690, fig. 1 (Wanlitung, southern Taiwan).

DISTRIBUTION: Taiwan.

Pseudocoris yamashiroi (Schmidt)

Julis yamashiroi Schmidt, 1931: 85, fig. 5 (Okinawa).
Julis awayae Schmidt, 1931: 86, figs. 6-7 (Okinawa).

DISTRIBUTION: Indo-Pacific, Maldives to Japan and Samoa.

Genus Pseudodax Bleeker

Pseudodax Bleeker, 1861b: 229 (type-species, Odax moluccanus Valenciennes, by original designation).

One species.

Pseudodax moluccanus (Valenciennes)

Odax moluccanus Val., 1840: 305, pl. 408, fig. 2 (Moluccas Ids, Indonesia).
Odax borbonicus Val., 1840: 306 (Réunion Id).
Odax varius Val., 1840: 307 (Ulea, Caroline Ids).
Pseudodax moluccensis Günther, 1862: 208 (emendation).

DISTRIBUTION: Red Sea to South Africa, southern Japan, Society Ids, Marquesas and Tuamotu Ids.

REMARKS: Synonymy from Randall and Parenti (1999).

Genus Pseudojuloides Fowler

Pseudojuloides Fowler, 1949: 119 (type-species, Pseudojulis cerasina Snyder, by original designation).

Genus revised by Randall and Randall (1981); 11 species Red Sea to South Africa and Eastern Pacific.

Pseudojuloides argyreogaster (Playfair & Günther)

Pseudojulis argyreogaster Playfair & Günther, 1867: 95, pl. 12, fig. 2 (Zanzibar).

DISTRIBUTION: Zanzibar, Seychelles.

Pseudojuloides atavai Randall & Randall

Leptojulis sp. Randall, 1973: 198.
Pseudojuloides atavai Randall & Randall, 1981: 58, figs. 4-5 (Pitcairn Id).

DISTRIBUTION: French Polynesia, Pitcairn Group, Guam.

Pseudojuloides cerasinus (Snyder)

Pseudojulis cerasina Snyder, 1904: 528 (Honolulu)

DISTRIBUTION: Indo-Pacific, Red Sea to South Africa, Hawaiian Ids, and eastern Pacific.

Pseudojuloides elongatus Ayling & Russell

Pseudojuloides elongatus Ayling & Russell, 1977: 174, figs. 4-6, 8-10 (Poor Knights Ids, New Zealand).

DISTRIBUTION: Japan, New Zealand, Australia.

Pseudojuloides erythrops Randall & Randall

Pseudojuloides erythrops Randall & Randall, 1981: 71, figs. 13-14 (Mauritius).

DISTRIBUTION: Mauritius and Seychelles.

Pseudojuloides inornatus (Gilbert)

Pseudojulis inornatus Gilbert, 1890: 67 (off Baja California, Mexico).

DISTRIBUTION: Baja California.

REMARKS: David G. Smith examined the holotype and only known specimen of this species at the U.S. National Museum of Natural History and confirmed that the dentition is that of the genus Pseudojuloides. The description of the colour of the specimen in preservative by Gilbert does not match of any species of the genus.

Pseudojuloides kaleidos Kuiter & Randall

Pseudojuloides kaleidos Kuiter & Randall, 1995: 107, figs. 1-4 (Maldives).

DISTRIBUTION: Maldives and Indonesia.

Pseudojuloides mesostigma Randall & Randall

Pseudojuloides mesostigma Randall & Randall, 1981: 68, figs. 11-12 (Philippines).

DISTRIBUTION: East Indies and Philippines.

Pseudojuloides pyrius Randall & Randall

Pseudojuloides pyrius Randall & Randall, 1981: 62, figs. 6-7 (Tahuata, Marquesas Ids).

DISTRIBUTION: Marquesas Ids.

Pseudojuloides severnsi Bellwood & Randall

Pseudojuloides sp. 1: Masuda & Kobayashi (1994)
Pseudojuloides severnsi Bellwood & Randall, 2000: 1, figs 1-5 (Alor, Indonesia).

DISTRIBUTION: Ryukyu Ids and Alor, Indonesia.

Pseudojuloides xanthomos Randall & Randall

Pseudojuloides xanthomos Randall & Randall, 1981: 67, fig. 10 (Gunner's Quoin, Mauritius).

DISTRIBUTION: Mauritius.

Genus Pseudolabrus Bleeker

Pseudolabrus Bleeker, 1862a: 413 (type-species, Labrus rubiginosus Temminck & Schlegel, by original designation).
Lunolabrus Whitley, 1933: 86 (type-species, Labrus miles Bloch & Schneider, by original designation, proposed as a subgenus).

Genus revised by Russell (1988) and Mabuchi and Nakabo (1997); 11 species. South Pacific, except two species from Japan, Korea, Taiwan and coast of China.

Pseudolabrus biserialis (Klunzinger)

Labrichthys biserialis Klunzinger, 1880: 402 (King George Sound, Western Australia).

DISTRIBUTION: southwestern Australia.

Pseudolabrus eoethinus (Richardson)

Labrus eoethinus Richardson, 1846b: 255 (Canton, China).
Labrus rubiginosus, in part, Temminck & Schlegel, 1845: 165, pl. 86, fig. 1 (Japan; preoccupied by Labrus rubiginosus Risso, 1827 [= Symphodus sp.]).

DISTRIBUTION: Japan, Ogasawara Archipelago, and Korea to Hong Kong.

Pseudolabrus fuentesi (Regan)

Labrichthys fuentesi Regan, 1913: 371, pl. 58, fig. 2 (Easter Id).

DISTRIBUTION: Easter Id to Austral Ids.

Pseudolabrus gayi (Valenciennes)

Labrus gayi Val., 1839: 97 (Juan Fernández Ids).

DISTRIBUTION: Juan Fernandez Id and San Felix Id.

Pseudolabrus guentheri Bleeker

Pseudolabrus guentheri Bleeker, 1862: 131 (Australia).
Labrichthys australis Steindachner, 1866a: 476 (South Pacific).
Pseudolabrus richardsonii Steindachner, 1867b: 332 (Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia).
Labrichthys dorsalis Macleay, 1881: 87 (Sydney).
Labrichthys melanura Macleay, 1881: 89 (Sydney).
Labrichthys dux De Vis, 1883: 287 (Queensland).
Labrichthys cruentatus De Vis, 1885: 879 (Queensland).
Labrichthys maculatus De Vis, 1885: 881 (Moreton Bay, Queensland; preoccupied by Labrichthys maculata Macleay 1881 [= Austrolabrus maculatus]).
Labrichthys rex De Vis, 1885: 880 (Queensland).
Labrichthys sexlineatus De Vis, 1885: 880 (Queensland).

DISTRIBUTION: east coast of Australia.

REMARKS: Günther (1862: 507) included the description of Labrichthys guentheri Bleeker from Bleeker's manuscript proofsheet.

Pseudolabrus luculentus (Richardson)

Labrus luculentus Richardson, 1848: 130 (Norfolk Id).

DISTRIBUTION: New South Wales, Lord Howe Id, Kermadec Ids, Norfolk Id, and New Zealand.

Pseudolabrus miles (Forster)

Labrus miles Forster in Bloch & Schneider, 1801: 264 (New Zealand).
Julis ?rubecula Richardson (ex Solander), 1843c: 423 (Queen Charlotte Sound, New Zealand).
Julis ?rubiginosus Richardson (ex Solander and Parkinson), 1843c: 425 (New Zealand).
Labrichthys roseipunctata Hutton, 1880: 455 (Dunedin, New Zealand).
Pseudolabrus cossyphoides Steindachner, 1900: 176 (New Zealand).

DISTRIBUTION: New Zealand.

Pseudolabrus rubicundus (Macleay)

Labrus psittaculus Richardson 1840: 26 (Port Arthur, Tasmania; preoccupied by Labrus psittaculus Lacepède, 1801 [= Halichoeres bivittatus (Bloch)]).
Labrichthys rubicunda Macleay, 1881: 89 (King George Sound, Western Australia).
Labrichthys mortonii Johnston, 1885b: lxxxiv, xciv, 256 (mouth of Derwent River, Tasmania).

DISTRIBUTION: southeastern Australia.

Pseudolabrus semifasciatus (Rendahl)

Labrichthys semifasciatus Rendahl, 1921: 65 (Easter Id).

DISTRIBUTION: Easter Id.

Pseudolabrus sieboldi Mabuchi & Nakabo

Labrus rubiginosus Richardson, 1846: 255 (Japan; preoccupied by Labrus rubiginosus Risso, 1827 [= Symphodus sp.] and secondarily preoccupied by Julis ?rubiginosus Richardson, 1843 [= Pseudolabrus miles (Fortser)]) .
Labrus rubiginosus (in part) Temminck & Schlegel, 1846: 165 (Japan; preoccupied by Labrus rubiginosus Risso, 1827 and Labrus rubiginosus Richardson, 1846).
Pseudolabrus sieboldi Mabuchi & Nakabo, 1997: 323 (Morode Beach, Ehime Pref., Japan).

DISTRIBUTION: southern Japan and Taiwan.

REMARKS: Mabuchi and Nakabo (1997) regarded Labrus japonicus Houttuyn, 1782 as a nomen dubium and proposed the new name P. sieboldi for the Japanese species most authors have identified as P. japonicus (Houttuyn).

Pseudolabrus torotai Russell & Randall

Pseudolabrus torotai Russell & Randall, 1981: 437, fig. 4 (Rapa Id, South Pacific).

DISTRIBUTION: Rapa.

Genus Pteragogus Peters

Pteragogus Peters, 1855: 451 (type-species, Cossyphus opercularis Peters, by monotypy).
Duymaeria Bleeker, 1856a: 52 (type-species, Duymaeria amboinensis Bleeker, by subsequent designation).
Labrastrum Guichenot, 1860: 153 (type-species, Ctenolabrus flagellifer Valenciennes, by original designation).

Eight species (one undescribed). Indo-West Pacific.

Pteragogus aurigarius (Richardson)

Ctenolabrus aurigarius Richardson, 1845: 90, pl. 45, figs. 1-2 (China seas near Canton).
Ctenolabrus rubellio Richardson, 1845: 93, pl. 45, fig. 3 (China seas near Canton).
Crenilabrus spilogaster Bleeker, 1854d: 416 (Nagasaki).
Duymaeria japonica Bleeker, 1856a: 53 (Nagasaki).

DISTRIBUTION: Japan and Taiwan.

Pteragogus cryptus Randall

Pteragogus cryptus Randall, 1981b: 83 ( Eilat, Israel, Gulf of Aqaba).

DISTRIBUTION: Indo-Pacific, Red Sea to Samoa.

Pteragogus enneacanthus (Bleeker)

Crenilabrus enneacanthus Bleeker, 1853a: 120 (Ambon).
Duymaeria amboinensis Bleeker, 1856a: 54 (Ambon Id).

DISTRIBUTION: East Indies.

Pteragogus flagellifer (Valenciennes)

Labrus ramentosus Forsskål, 1775: 34 (Yemen, Red Sea).
Ctenolabrus flagellifer Val., 1839: 240 (no locality).
Crenilabrus nematopterus Bleeker, 1851b: 250 (Banda Neira, Banda Ids, Indonesia).
Cossyphus filamentosus Peters, 1855: 435 (Mozambique).
Duymaeria caeruleomaculata Günther, 1862: 122 (Aneityum [Aneiteum] Id, Vanuatu [New Hebrides]).

DISTRIBUTION: Indo-Pacific, Red Sea to South Africa and western Pacific.

REMARKS: synonymy from Smith (1957a). Parenti & Randall (1998) proposed that the little-used name Labrus ramentosus Forsskål be suppressed .

Pteragogus guttatus (Fowler & Bean)

Duymaeria guttata Fowler & Bean, 1928: 218 (Samar Id, Philippines).

DISTRIBUTION: Philippines, Indonesia and Palau.

Pteragogus pelycus Randall

Cossyphus opercularis Peters, 1855: 451 (Mozambique; preoccupied by Cossyphus opercularis Guichenot, 1847 [= Bodianus opercularis (Guichenot)]).
Pteragogus pelycus Randall, 1981b: 82, pl. 1, figs. 1-2 nomen novum for Cossyphus opercularis Peters.

DISTRIBUTION: Western Indian Ocean, Red Sea to South Africa, Madagascar, Mauritius, and Seychelles; also eastern Mediterranean from Israel (Golani & Sonin) to Rhodes Id, Greece (Corsini & Economidis, 1999).

Pteragogus taeniops (Peters)

Cossyphus taeniops Peters, 1855: 453 (Mozambique).

DISTRIBUTION: southern Mozambique to Zanzibar.

Pteragogus sp 1

DISTRIBUTION: presently known only from Ogasawara Ids (Randall et al., 1997).

Genus Semicossyphus Günther

Semicossyphus Günther, 1861: 384 (type-species, Cossyphus reticulatus Valenciennes, by subsequent designation).
Pimelometopon Gill, 1864: 58 (type-species, Labrus pulcher Ayres, by original designation).

Three species; Japan and eastern Pacific. Gomon (1997) considered Pimelometopon as a synonym, but according to Maurizio Protti (who is currently reviewing the labroids of Chile) it is a valid genus.

Semicossyphus darwini (Jenyns)

Cossyphus darwini Jenyns, 1842: 100, pl. 20 (Galápagos).
Labrus aper Valenciennes, 1846: pl. 8, fig. 1 (Galápagos Ids; preoccupied by Labrus aper Retzius, 1800 [= Labrus bergylta Ascanius]; description published later [Valenciennes, 1855: 338]).
Trochocopus canis Philippi, 1887: 570 [38], pl. 7, fig. 3 (Iquique, Valparaíso, Chile).
Dentex maculatus Perez Canto, 1886: 12 (Valparaiso).

DISTRIBUTION: Ecuador to Chile, including Galápagos Ids.

REMARKS: synonymy from M. Protti (pers. comm.).

Semicossyphus pulcher (Ayres)

Labrus pulcher Ayres, 1854: 174 (San Diego, California).

DISTRIBUTION: California to Gulf of California.

Semicossyphus reticulatus (Valenciennes)

Cossyphus reticulatus Val., 1839: 139 (Japan).
Semicossyphus robecchii Steindachner & Bellotti in Steindachner & Döderlein, 1887: 271 (Yokohama).

DISTRIBUTION: Japan, Korea and China.

Genus Stethojulis Günther

Stethojulis Günther, 1862: 386 (type-species, Julis strigiventer Bennett, by subsequent designation).
Hinalea Jordan & Jordan, 1922: 69 (type-species Julis axillaris Quoy & Gaimard, by original designation).
Rhytejulis Fowler & Bean, 1928: 232, 241 (type-species, Labrus trilineatus Bloch & Schneider, by original designation).

Genus revision by Randall (2000); 10 species. Red Sea to eastern Pacific.

Stethojulis albovittata (Bonnaterre)

Labrus albovittatus Bonnaterre, 1788: 108, pl. 98 (no locality).
Labrus koelreuteri Walbaum, 1792: 262 (no locality).

DISTRIBUTION: Red Sea and western Indian Ocean.

Stethojulis balteata (Quoy & Gaimard)

Julis balteatus Quoy & Gaimard, 1824: 267, pl. 56, fig.1 (Maui, Hawaiian Ids).
Julis axillaris Quoy & Gaimard, 1824: 272 (Hawaiian Ids).

DISTRIBUTION: Hawaiian Ids.

Stethojulis bandanensis (Bleeker)

Julis (Halichoeres) bandanensis Bleeker, 1851b: 254 (Banda Neira, Banda Ids, Indonesia).
?Julis sukl Montrouzier, 1857: 473 (Woodlark Id)
Stethojulis fulvoventris Seale, 1901a: 92 (Guam).
Stethojulis rubromacula Scott, 1959: 87, fig. 7 (Shark Bay, Western Australia).
Stethojulis linearis Schultz in Schultz et al., 1960: 214, pl. 107, fig. E (Enyu Id, Bikini Atoll, Marshall Ids).

DISTRIBUTION: western Pacific to islands of the tropical eastern Pacific.

Stethojulis interrupta (Bleeker)

Labrus chlorocephalus Bloch & Schneider 1801: 254 (India).
Julis (Halichoeres) interruptus Bleeker, 1851b: 252 (Banda Neira, Banda Ids, Indonesia).
Julis (Halichoeres) kalosoma Bleeker, 1852c: 289 (Ambon Id, Moluccas Ids, Indonesia).
Stethojulis kallosoma Bleeker, 1862b: 290 (unjustified emendation of Julis (Halichoeres) kalosoma Bleeker).
Stethojulis zatima Jordan & Seale, 1905: 788, fig. 9 (Negros, Philippines).

DISTRIBUTION: Indo-West Pacific from South Africa to the Philippines, Indonesia and eastern Australia.

REMARKS: the holotype of Labrus chlorocephalus (ZMB 2619, 54 mm SL) was examined by H.-J. Paepke with a key to species of Stethojulis by Randall and Kay (1974), and he concluded that it is Stethojulis interrupta. Randall and Parenti (1999) proposed the rejection of the name Labrus chlorocephalus in order to conserve the well known Stethojulis interrupta.

Stethojulis maculata Schmidt

Stethojulis maculatus Schmidt, 1931: 81, pl. 5, fig. 1 (Kominato, Amami-Oshimo Id, Ryukyu Ids, Japan).

DISTRIBUTION: anti-equatorial; Ryukyu Ids, Fiji, Norfolk Id.

Stethojulis marquesensis Randall, 2000

Stethojulis marquesensis Randall, 2000: 20, fig. 5, pls III C, D (Uaa Huka, Marquesas Ids).

Distribution: Marquesas Islands.

Stethojulis notialis Randall

Stethojulis notialis Randall, 2000: 22, fig. 7, pls IC, D (Nukulau Id, Fiji Ids).

DISTRIBUTION: Fiji Islands, New Caledonia, Norfolk Id.

Stethojulis strigiventer (Bennett)

Julis strigiventer Bennett, 1832c: 184 (Mauritius).
Julis (Halichoeres) renardi Bleeker, 1851b: 253 (Banda Neira, Banda Ids, Indonesia).
Stethojulis psacas Jordan & Snyder, 1902: 629, fig. 5 (Naha, Okinawa Id, Ryukyu Ids, Japan).

DISTRIBUTION: South Africa to western Pacific and Samoa.

Stethojulis terina Jordan & Snyder

Stethojulis terina Jordan & Snyder, 1902: 631, fig. 6 (Misaki, Kanagawa Pref., Sagami Sea, Japan).
Stethojulis trossula Jordan & Snyder, 1902: 633, fig. 7 (Misaki, Kanagawa Pref., Sagami Sea, Japan).

DISTRIBUTION: Honshu, Japan to Taiwan and Hainan

Stethojulis trilineata (Bloch & Schneider)

Labrus trilineatus Bloch & Schneider, 1801: 253 (India).
Julis sebanus Val., 1839: 474 (no locality).
Julis (Halichoeres) phekadopleura Bleeker, 1849b: 8 (Boleling, northern Bali, Indonesia).
Julis (Halichoeres) casturi Bleeker, 1852g: 768 (Ujung Pandang, Celebes, Indonesia).
Julis sukl Montrouzier, 1857: 473 (Woodlark Id).
Halichoeres sebae Kner, 1860: 12, pl. 1, fig. 9 (no locality).
Stethojulis casturi Günther, 1881: 255 (Oceania: Palau, Yap, and Futuna).
Stethojulis phecadopleura Martens, 1876: 397 (Ambon, Moluccas Ids, Indonesia).
Stethojulis filholi Sauvage, 1880: 225 (Fiji Ids).

DISTRIBUTION: Maldives, to western Pacific and Samoa.

Genus Suezichthys Smith

Suezia Smith, 1957a: 100, 106 (type-species, Labrichthys caudovittatus Steindachner, by original designation, preoccupied in Crustacea).

Suezichthys Smith, 1958: 319 (replacement name for Suezia Smith, 1957).

Genus revised by Russell (1985); 10 species, and one undescribed species. Indo-Pacific.

Suezichthys arquatus Russell

Suezichthys arquatus Russell, 1985: 15, pl. 3, figs A-B); Figs. 1, 6c, 7b (Poor Knights Id, New Zealand).

DISTRIBUTION: New Zealand, New Caledonia, eastern Australia, Lord Howe Id, and Norfolk Id; also recorded from Honshu, Japan (Araga et al., 1988) and Ogasawara Ids (Randall et al. (1997).

Suezichthys aylingi Russell

Suezichthys aylingi Russell, 1985: 5, pl. 1, figs A-B (Poor Knights Id, New Zealand).

DISTRIBUTION: New Zealand and southeastern Australia.

Suezichthys bifurcatus Russell

Suezichthys bifurcatus Russell, 1986: 59, figs. 1-2 (Great Australian Bight, 34°20'-34°21'S, 123°42-123°43'E).

DISTRIBUTION: western Australia.

Suezichthys caudavittatus (Steindachner)

Labrichthys caudavittatus Steindachner, 1898a: 199 (Suez, Red Sea).
Labrichthys caudovittatus Steindachner, 1898b: 783, pl. 1 (further description and illustration).

DISTRIBUTION: Red Sea, Somalia, and Persian Gulf.

REMARKS: Spelt caudovittatus by Dor (1984: 208) and Russell (1985: 10).

Suezichthys cyanolaemus Russell

Suezichthys cyanolaemus Russell, 1985: 13, pl. 2, figs. C-D; fig. 7a (Rottnest Id, Western Australia).

DISTRIBUTION: southwestern Australia.

Suezichthys devisi (Whitley)

Guntheria devisi Whitley, 1941: 36, fig. 24 (Queensland).

DISTRIBUTION: eastern Australia.

REMARKS: Russell (1985) regarded this species as a synonym of S. gracilis, but it is now considered valid (R.H. Kuiter, 1993 and B.C. Russell, pers. comm.).

Suezichthys gracilis (Steindachner & Döderlein)

Labrichthys gracilis Steindachner & Döderlein, 1887: 273 (Tokyo, Japan).

DISTRIBUTION: Persian Gulf, Viet Nam, Taiwan, Japan, and Korea.

Suezichthys notatus (Kamohara)

Pseudolabrus notatus Kamohara, 1958: 8, pl. 3, fig. 2 (Okinoshima, Kochi Pref., Japan).
Suezichthys tripunctatus, in part, Randall & Kotthaus, 1977: 34 (Oahu Id, Hawaiian Ids).

DISTRIBUTION: Japan, Australia, Hawaiian Ids.

Suezichthys russelli Randall

Suezichthys russelli Randall, 1981: 90, pl. 2, fig. 5 (Ras Abu-Galum, Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea).
Suezichthys tripunctatus, in part, Randall & Kotthaus, 1977: 34 (Indian Ocean paratypes).

DISTRIBUTION: Red Sea to Kenya.

Suezichthys soelae Russell

Suezichthys soelae Russell, 1985: 9, pl. 2, figs, A-B (Northwest Shelf [20°29.4'S, 116°10.0'E], Australia).

DISTRIBUTION: northwestern Australia, Okinawa and Ogasawara Ids (Randall et al., 1997) .

Suezichthys sp 1

DISTRIBUTION: southwestern Australia.

REMARKS: species currently under study by J.B. Hutchins.

Genus Symphodus Rafinesque

Symphodus Rafinesque, 1810a: 41 (type-species, S. fulvescens Rafinesque, by subsequent designation).
Corycus Cuvier, 1814: 89 (type-species, Lutjanus rostratus Bloch, by subsequent designation; spelt Coricus in Cuvier, 1816: 263)
Crenilabrus Oken (ex Cuvier), 1817: 1182a (type-species, Labrus lapina Forsskål, by subsequent designation).

Ten species (Bauchot & Quignard, 1973; Gomon & Forsyth, 1990). Eastern Atlantic, Mediterranean, and Black Sea.

Symphodus bailloni (Valenciennes)

?Labrus pirca Walbaum 1792: 265 (no locality [Adriatic Sea]).
Crenilabrus donovani Val., 1839: 39 (Brittany).
Crenilabrus bailloni Val., 1839: 191 ( La Manche, France).

DISTRIBUTION: Eastern Atlantic from North Sea to Mauritania, and western Mediterranean.

REMARKS: Labrus pirca Walbaum was based on a fish described but not named by Brünnich (1768: 97). Bloch & Schneider (1801: 256) reported Labrus pirca from the Adriatic Sea. Tortonese (1970) suggested that Labrus pirca may represent an older name for Symphodus bailloni (Valenciennes); the combination Symphodus pirca was also used by Jordan (1890).

Symphodus cinereus (Bonnaterre)

Labrus cinereus Bonnaterre, 1788: 118 (Mediterranean).
Labrus griseus Gmelin, 1789: 1296 (Mediterranean).
Labrus rubellio Walbaum 1792: 264 (no locality).
Lutjanus cornubicus Risso, 1810: 267 (Nice, France).
Lutjanus massa Risso, 1810: 274, pl. 8, fig. 26 (Nice).
Lutjanus cotta Risso, 1810: 282 (Nice, France).
?Labrus fucii Rafinesque, 1810a: 38 (Sicily, Italy).
Labrus fuscus Pallas, 1814: 266 (Crimea, Ukraine; preoccupied by Labrus fuscus Gmelin, 1789 [= S. mediterraneus (Linnaeus)], Labrus fuscus Walbaum, 1792 [= S. mediterraneus] and Labrus fuscus Lacepède, 1801 [= Thalassoma trilobatum (Lacepède)]).
Labrus fraenatus Pallas 1814: 270 (ad littore Taurica [coast of Ukraine]).
?Labrus simus Pallas 1814: 271 (Tauriae [Ukraine]).
?Labrus donzella Nardo, 1824: 254 (Adriatic Sea; preoccupied by Labrus donzella Rafinesque, 1810a [= Thalassoma pavo (Linnaeus)]).
?Lutianus core Nardo, 1827: 30 (Adriatic Sea; nomen novum for Labrus donzella Nardo).
Crenilabrus fraenatus Bennett, 1835: 91 (Black Sea).
Crenilabrus staitii Nordmann, 1840: 452, pl. 18, fig. 2 (Odessa, Ukraine).
Crenilabrus pusillus Nordmann, 1840: 454, pl. 18, fig. 2 (Lustdorff, Odessa, Ukraine).

DISTRIBUTION: eastern Atlantic from bassin d'Arcachon to Gibraltar; Mediterranean; the subspecies S. cinereus staitii is found also in the Black Sea.

REMARKS: Labrus griseus Gmelin and Labrus rubellio Walbaum are based on Labrus n. 75 of Brünnich (1768: 58). Bonaparte's (1846) listing of Labrus simus as a synonym was questioned by Günther (1862). Labrus donzella Nardo (described independently of Rafinesque) is a probable synonym of Symphodus cinereus. Lutianus core is a replacement name listed afterward as Crenilabrus core Nardo (1860).

Symphodus doderleini Jordan

Crenilabrus tinca Val., 1837: 199 (Mediterranean Sea; based on Labrus tinca (non Linnaeus): Brünnich, 1768: 55; secondarily preoccupied in Symphodus by Labrus tinca Linnaeus.
Symphodus doderleini Jordan, 1890: 618 (probably near Marseille, France).

DISTRIBUTION: Mediterranean, Bosphorus, Marmara Sea.

Symphodus mediterraneus (Linnaeus)

Perca mediterranea Linnaeus, 1758: 291 [Mediterranean].
Labrus coeruleovittatus Bonnaterre, 1788: 117 (Mediterranean).
Labrus serpentinus Bonnaterre, 1788: 117 (Mediterranean).
Labrus fuscus Gmelin 1789: 1295 (Mediterranean).
Labrus unimaculatus Gmelin, 1789: 1295 (Mediterranean).
Lutjanus bidens Bloch, 1790: 123, pl. 251, fig. 1 (no locality).
Labrus erithrophthalmus Walbaum 1792: 263 (no locality; based on Labrus no. 73 Brünnich (1768: 57) and Labrus unimaculatus Gmelin).
Labrus fuscus Walbaum 1792: 263 (no locality; based on Labrus no. 72 Brünnich (1768: 56); preoccupied by Labrus fuscus Gmelin, 1789).
Labrus mediterraneus Bloch & Schneider (ex Brunnich) 1801: 255 (Mediterranean Sea).
Lutjanus brunnichii Lacepède, 1802: 184, 222 (Mediterranean Sea).
Lutjanus massiliensis Lacepède, 1802: 184, 222 (Mediterranean Sea).
Labrus pittima Rafinesque, 1810a: 36 (Sicily, Italy).
Lutjanus chlorosochrus Risso, 1810: 275, pl. 8, fig. 27 (Nice, France).
Labrus bidens Nardo, 1824b: 253 (Adriatic Sea).
Crenilabrus nigrescens Risso, 1827: 263 (Nice, France).
Crenilabrus boryanus Risso, 1827: 320 (Nice, France).
Crenilabrus pictus Lowe, 1838: 186 (Madeira).

DISTRIBUTION: Mediterranean and Marmara Sea; eastern Atlantic from Portugal to Morocco, Madeira, and Azores.

REMARKS: The holotype of Lutjanus chlorosochrus is lost (Bauchot, 1963); based on Risso's original description, the first author concluded that it is Symphodus mediterraneus. Nardo (1824) added "nobis" to the name Labrus bidens and doubted that his species was the same as Lutjanus bidens Bloch.

Symphodus melanocercus (Risso)

Lutjanus melanocercus Risso, 1810: 283 (Saint Hospice , near Villefranche, France, Mediterranean).
Crenilabrus caeruleus Risso, 1827: 316, pl. 10, fig. 25 (probably Mediterranean).
Crenilabrus cyanospilatus Cocco, 1840: 242 (Sicily, Italy).
Crenilabrus melanoxanthurus Cocco, 1840: 243 (Sicily).

DISTRIBUTION: Mediterranean and Marmara Sea.

REMARKS: Facciolà (1916) synonymized Crenilabrus cyanospilatus and C. melanoxanthurus with S. melanocercus.

Symphodus melops (Linnaeus)

Labrus melops Linnaeus, 1758: 286 (southern Europe).
Labrus rone Ascanius, 1772: 6, pl. 14 (Norway).
Labrus gibbosus Bonnaterre, 1788: 112, pl. 99, fig. 403 (Seas of Great Britain).
Labrus goldsinny Bonnaterre, 1788: 112, pl. 99, fig. 404 (Seas of Great Britain).
Labrus gibbus Gmelin, 1789: 1295 (Great Britain).
?Labrus cornubius Gmelin, 1789: 1297 (England).
Lutjanus norwegicus Bloch, 1791: 11, pl. 256 (Norway).
Labrus tesselatus Bloch, 1792: 8, pl. 291, fig. 1 (Norway).
Perca maculosa Retzius, 1800: 337 (Sweden).
Labrus ascanii Shaw, 1803: 512 (Northern Seas; nomen novum for Labrus rone Ascanius 1771).
Crenilabrus couchii Val., 1839: 178 (no locality).
Crenilabrus pennantii Val., 1839: 178 (no locality).
Crenilabrus locaninus Gulia, 1861: 16 (Malta).

DISTRIBUTION: western Mediterranean and Adriatic Sea, northeastern Atlantic from Norway to Morocco.

REMARKS: The text for Lutjanus norwegicus Bloch, 1791 refers to pl. 256 in which the name Lutianus norve is used. This species was spelled norvegicus in Bloch's Ichthyologie (1797: 9) and Lacepède (1802: 233). Günther (1862) listed Perca maculosa as a synonym. Crenilabrus locaninus Gulia is a new synonym.

Symphodus ocellatus (Forsskål)

?Labrus ocellaris Linnaeus 1758: 285 (no locality).
Labrus ocellatus Forsskål, 1775: 37 (Smyrne, Turkey).
Labrus olivaceus Bonnaterre, 1788: 117 (Mediterranean).
Labrus reticulatus Bonnaterre, 1788: 117 (Mediterranean).
Labrus guttatus Bonnaterre 1788: 118 (Mediterranean).
Labrus guttatus Gmelin, 1789: 1296 (no locality; preoccupied by Labrus guttatus Bonnaterre 1788).
Labrus venosus Gmelin, 1789: 1296 (Mediterranean Sea).
Labrus olivaceus Walbaum 1792: 263 (no locality; preoccupied by Labrus olivaceus Bonnaterre, 1788).
Labrus venosus Walbaum, 1792: 264 (no locality; preoccupied by Labrus venosus Gmelin, 1789).
Labrus guttatus Walbaum 1792: 265 (no locality; preoccupied by Labrus guttatus Bonnaterre 1788, Labrus guttatus Gmelin 1789 and Labrus guttatus Bloch 1791 [=Halichoeres argus (Bloch & Schneider)].
Labrus rubens Bloch & Schneider (ex Brunnich) 1801: 256 (Mediterranean Sea).
Labrus mendovella Rafinesque 1810b: 23, 54 (Sicily).
?Lutianus ruber Rafinesque,1810b: 63 (Sicily).
?Lutianus flavus Rafinesque, 1814: 18 (Mediterranean)
Labrus perspicillatus Pallas, 1814: 267 ("Mari Tauricam Chersonesum circumfluente" [Crimea, Ukraine]).
Labrus dubbius Nardo, 1824a: 255 (Adriatic Sea).
Lutianus eques Nardo, 1827: 30 (Adriatic Sea; nomen novum for Labrus dubbius Nardo).
Crenilabrus littoralis Risso, 1827: 322 (Nice).
Crenilabrus rissoi Val., 1839: 197 (Naples, Palermo, Sicily, Italy).
Crenilabrus morelli Nordmann, 1840: 459, pl. 18, fig. 5 (Sevastopol and Yalta, Crimea, Ukraine).
Crenilabrus argenteostriatus Nordmann, 1840: 461, pl. 18, fig. 4 (Sevastopol, Crimea, Ukraine).
?Scarus maculatus Gronow in Gray, 1854: 63 (no locality).
Crenilabrus dubius Gulia, 1861: 13 (Malta).
Crenilabrus schemberianus Gulia, 1861: 13 (Malta).
Crenilabrus zeraphinus Gulia, 1861: 13 (Malta).
?Crenilabrus aurantiacus Cocco in Facciolà, 1885: 231 (Messina, Sicily, Italy).
Crenilabrus bertini Pras, 1961: 12 (southwest of Les Salins d'Hyères, Mediterraneas coast of France).

DISTRIBUTION: Mediterranean, Black Sea and Sea of Azov.

REMARKS: Labrus ocellaris Linnaeus probably represents the current Symphodus ocellatus (Forsskål); as reported by Valenciennes (1839), the status remains doubtful due to the inadequate description. Crenilabrus aurantiacus Cocco was reported as a synonym by Facciolà (1916) but it is regarded as unidentifiable by di Caporiacco (1921). Labrus reticulatus Bonnaterre, Labrus venosus Gmelin, and Labrus venosus Walbaum are all based on Labrus n. 74 (Brünnich, 1768: 58). Labrus rubens Bloch & Schneider is based on Labrus n. 71 (Brünnich, 1768: 56) already described by Bonnaterre as Labrus olivaceus. Labrus olivaceus Walbaum and Labrus guttatus Walbaum are based on Labrus n. 71 and n. 76 (Brünnich, 1768: 56 & 59), respectively. Labrus mendovella Rafinesque is a synonym as proposed by Cocco (Facciolà, 1885). Lutianus flavus Rafinesque is a probable synonym. Scarus maculatus Gronow is based in part on Labrus ocellaris Linnaeus; Ninni (1912) placed the species Labrus dubbius Nardo (spelled dubius in Nardo 1824b) into synonymy with Symphodus rostratus. However, Nardo (1824a) includes in his description typical features of ocellatus, such as the presence of a large red-ringed blue spot on the opercle and another small dark spot at the caudal fin base. Lutianus eques, a new name for Labrus dubbius, was thereafter spelled Coricus aeques (Nardo, 1860). Crenilabrus dubius, Crenilabrus schemberianus andCrenilabrus zeraphinus are new synonyms.

Symphodus roissali (Risso)

Lutjanus roissali Risso, 1810: 276, pl. 8, fig. 28 (Nice).
Lutjanus alberti Risso, 1810: 277 (Nice).
Labrus oculusperdix Rafinesque 1810a: 239 (Sicily).
Labrus aeruginosus Pallas, 1814: 264 ("Meridionali Tauriae" [Crimea, Ukraine]).
Labrus capistratus Pallas, 1814: 269 ("Sinu Theodosiano" [Crimea, Ukraine]).
Crenilabrus tigrinus Risso, 1827: 317, pl. 10, fig. 26 (Nice).
Crenilabrus quinquemaculatus Risso, 1827: 324, pl. 10, fig. 23 (Nice).
Crenilabrus arcuatus Risso, 1827: 328, pl. 16 (Nice).

DISTRIBUTION: Mediterranean, Black Sea, Atlantic coast of Spain.

Symphodus rostratus (Bloch)

?Labrus scina Forsskål, 1775: 36 (Istanbul, Turkey).
Lutjanus rostratus Bloch, 1791: 7, pl. 254, fig. 2 (no locality).
Lutjanus virescens Bloch, 1791: 5, pl. 254, fig. 1 (no locality).
Symphodus fulvescens Rafinesque, 1810a: 41 (Sicily).
?Labrus macrostomus Rafinesque 1810a: 36 (Sicily).
?Labrus pitimoides Rafinesque 1810a: 36 (Sicily).
?Labrus verdolidus Rafinesque, 1810a: 36 (Sicily).
Lutjanus rubescens Risso, 1810: 271 (Nice).
Lutjanus lamarckii Risso, 1810: 281, pl. 9, fig. 29 (Nice).
Labrus acatirostreus Nardo, 1824a: 254 (Adriatic Sea).
Coricus brama Nordmann, 1840: 464, pl. 20, fig. 1 (Ukraine).

DISTRIBUTION: Mediterranean and Black Sea.

REMARKS: Jordan (1890: 623) used Symphodus scina as the valid name for this species. This decision was followed by some authors (Dieuzeide & Novella, 1955: 95; Svetovidov, 1964: 331) and used in popular guides (e.g. Costa, 1991: 340). Tortonese (1970) wrote "...the name applied by Forsskål cannot be maintained because the author indicated the lateral line as interrupted...". Labrus macrostomus, Labrus pitimoides and Labrus verdolidus are synonyms according to Bonaparte (1846) and Cocco (Facciolà, 1885). Labrus acatirostreus is perhaps a mispelling for "acutirostreus"; however, Nardo (1824a) spelt acatirostreus three times in Latinized form and again in a later publication (Nardo, 1824b). The name was later changed to Lutianus acutirostreus (Nardo, 1827: 30), and it is here recognized as a new synonym of rostratus.

Symphodus tinca (Linnaeus)

Labrus tinca Linnaeus, 1758: 285 (British Seas)
Labrus lapina Forsskål, 1775: 36 (Istanbul, Turkey).
Lutjanus linkii Bloch, 1790: 127, pl. 252 (no locality; spelt linckii on plate).
Labrus violaceus Bloch & Schneider, 1801: 248 (nomen novum for Lutjanus linkii Bloch, 1790).
?Labrus flavescens Bloch & Schneider 1801: 260 (no locality).
Labrus tancoides Lacepède, 1801: 439 (British rivers).
Lutjanus geofroyius Risso, 1810: 261, pl. 8, fig. 25 (Nice).
?Labrus caliophthalmus Rafinesque 1810a: 37 (Sicily).
?Labrus chrysostoma Rafinesque 1810a: 37 (Sicily).
?Labrus lappanoides Rafinesque 1810a: 39 (Sicily).
?Labrus lappanus Rafinesque 1810a: 39 (Sicily).
?Labrus chlorophthalmus Rafinesque 1810a: 40 (Sicily).
?Labrus marmoratus Rafinesque 1810a: 41 (Sicily; preoccupied by Labrus marmoratus Lacepède, 1801 in Cirrhitidae).
Labrus polychrous Pallas, 1814: 262 ("Ponto").
Labrus niger Nardo 1824b: 253 (Adriatic Sea).
Labrus sanguineus Nardo 1824b: 254 (Adriatic Sea).
Crenilabrus geoffroi Risso, 1827: 314 (Nice).
Crenilabrus propinquus Gulia, 1861: 17 (Malta).

DISTRIBUTION: Mediterranean, northeastern Atlantic from Spain to Morocco.

REMARKS: Labrus chlorophthalmus, Labrus chrysostoma and Labrus lappanoides are probable synonyms (Cocco in Facciolà, 1885). Most of the labrid species descriptions by Rafinesque are inadequate, consequently they were not included in the checklist of north-eastern and Atlantic and the Mediterranean (Bauchot, pers. comm.). In the Histoire Naturelle des Poissons de Cuvier et Valenciennes, Valenciennes (1839) cites Rafinesque only two times. At page 188 he wrote: "...Je ne fais mention de cet auteur (Rafinesque) que pour avertir le lecteur qu'il m'a été impossible de reconnaître la plupart des espèces mentionnées dans son ouvrage". Crenilabrus propinquus Gulia is a variant of Lutjanus geofroyius Risso. Nardo (1827) placed sanguineus and niger as synonyms of Labrus pavo Brünnich (nec Linneaus), 1768. The name Labrus pavo was often used in the literature for the fish known as Labrus tinca; Valenciennes (Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1839: 149) in redescribing this species as Crenilabrus pavo nob. commented (page 154) "Il me semble donc que l'on pourrait regarder le labrus tinca comme étant en quelque sorte, par la pensée d'Artedi, le nom qui doit Ãtre attribué à l'espèce décrite dans ce chapitre". Bonaparte (1846) emended Crenilabrus geoffroi to Crenilabrus geoffroyi.

Genus Tautoga Mitchill

Tautoga Mitchill, 1814: 23 (type-species, Tautoga niger Mitchill, by subsequent designation).
Hiatula Lacepède, 1800:522 (type-species, Hiatula gardeniana Lacepède, by monotypy, preoccupied by Hiatula Modeer 1792 in Mollusca, not replaced).

One species (Jordan et al., 1930).

Tautoga onitis (Linnaeus)

Labrus onitis Linnaeus, 1758: 286 (no locality).
Labrus hiatula Linnaeus, 1766: 475 (Carolina, U.S.A.).
Labrus carolinus Bonnaterre, 1788: 113 (Carolina).
Labrus subfuscus Walbaum, 1792: 254 (North America).
Hiatula gardeniana Lacepède, 1800: 522, 523 (Carolina).
Labrus americanus Bloch & Schneider, 1801: 261 (New York).
Tautoga niger Mitchill, 1814: 23 (New York).
Tautoga niger var. alius Mitchill, 1814: 24 (New York).
Tautoga niger var. fuscus Mitchill, 1814: 24 (New York).
Tautoga niger var. rubens Mitchill, 1814: 24 (New York).
Labrus tautoga Mitchill, 1815: 399, pl. 1, fig. 1 (unneeded replacement for Tautoga niger Mitchill 1814).

DISTRIBUTION: Atlantic coast of North America from Nova Scotia to North Carolina.

Genus Tautogolabrus Günther

Tautogolabrus Günther, 1862: 89, 90 (type-species, Ctenolabrus burgall Günther, by monotypy, proposed as a subgenus).

Two species; Atlantic. The genus needs revision.

Tautogolabrus adspersus (Walbaum)

Labrus burgall Schöpf, 1788: 155 (New York).
Labrus adspersus Walbaum, 1792: 254 (New York).
Tautoga caerulea Mitchill, 1814: 24 (New York).
Labrus chogset Mitchill, 1815: 402, pl. 3, fig. 2 (New York).
Labrus chogset var. fulva Mitchill, 1815: 403 (New York).
Ctenolabrus uninotatus Val., 1839: 239 (New York).

DISTRIBUTION: northwestern Atlantic from Newfoundland to Chesapeake Bay.

REMARKS: Labrus burgall is an available name (Eschmeyer, 1997) that has not been used since Günther (1862: 90). In Jordan's (1890) revision of the European and American Labridae the name adspersus was used.

Tautogolabrus brandaonis (Steindachner)

Ctenolabrus (Tautogolabrus) brandaonis Steindachner, 1867a: 64 (Brazil).

DISTRIBUTION: Brazil.

Genus Terelabrus Randall & Fourmanoir

Terelabrus Randall & Fourmanoir, 1998:248 (type-species, Terelabrus rubrovittatus Randall & Fourmanoir, by original designation).

One species.

Terelabrus rubrovittatus Randall & Fourmanoir

Terelabrus rubrovittatus Randall & Fourmanoir, 1998: 249, fig. 1 (Bulari Pass, New Caledonia).

DISTRIBUTION: Western Pacific: New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea, Bali and Palau.

Genus Thalassoma Swainson

Thalassoma Swainson, 1839: 172, 224 (type-species, Scarus purpureus Forsskål, by monotypy, proposed as a subgenus).
Chloricthys Swainson, 1839: 173, 232 (type-species, Labrus bifasciatus Bloch, by subsequent designation, proposed as a subgenus).
Bermudichthys Nichols, 1920: 62 (type-species, Bermudichthys subfurcatus Nichols, by original designation).
Pseudojulops Fowler, 1941: 271 (type-species, Pseudojulis trifasciatus Weber, by original designation).

Twenty-six species (Gomon & Forsyth, 1990; Allen, 1995b; A. Brito pers. comm.). Indo-Pacific (17 species), Atlantic (5 species) and eastern Pacific (4 species). The genus was revised by Heiser (1981) in his unpublished dissertation.

Thalassoma amblycephalum (Bleeker)

Julis (Julis) amblycephalus Bleeker, 1856d: 83 (Java).
Julis (Julis) melanochir Bleeker, 1857c: 77 (Indonesia).
Thalassoma melanochir Fowler, 1904: 537, pl. 20, middle fig. (Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia).
Pseudojulis trifasciatus Weber, 1913: 380, fig. 76 (Tiur, Nusa Laut, Karkaralong Ids, Indonesia).
Thalassoma marnae Schultz, 1943: 203, fig.17 (Hull Id, Phoenix Ids).

DISTRIBUTION: Indo-Pacific, South Africa to Japan, Australia and central Pacific.

Thalassoma ascensionis (Quoy & Gaimard)

Julis ascensionis Quoy & Gaimard, 1834: 706, pl. 20, fig. 5 (Ascension Id).
?Julis newtoni Osorio, 1891: 127 (São Tomé Id, Gulf of Guinea, West Africa).

DISTRIBUTION: Ascension Id and Canary Ids.

REMARKS: Julis newtoni Osorio may represent a valid species of Thalassoma (A. Brito, pers. comm.).

Thalassoma ballieui (Vaillant & Sauvage)

Julis ballieui Vaillant & Sauvage, 1875: 284 (Hawaiian Ids).
Julis obscura Günther, 1880: 61, pl. 26, figs. A-B (Honolulu, Oahu Id, Hawaiian Ids).
Julis verticalis Smith & Swain, 1882: 135 (Johnston Id, central Pacific).

DISTRIBUTION: Hawaiian Ids and Johnston Id.

Thalassoma bifasciatum (Bloch)

Labrus bifasciatus Bloch, 1791: 131, pl. 283 ("East Indies" [actually West Indies]).
Labrus torquatus Walbaum, 1792: 245 (Antilles).
Labrus bifasciatus var torquatus Bloch & Schneider, 1801: 243 (Antilles).
Julis detersor Val., 1839: 408 (Santo Domingo and Martinique Id, West Indies).
Labrus ornatus Gronow in Gray, 1854: 83 (Antilles and American Ocean; preoccupied by Labrus ornatus Carmichael, 1819 [= Nelabrichthys ornatus]).
Julis gillianus Poey, 1860: 214 (Cuba).
Julis nitida Günther, 1862: 190 (Jamaica).
Julis nitidissima Goode, 1877: 293 (Bermuda).
Bermudichthys subfurcatus Nichols, 1920: 62 (Bermuda).

DISTRIBUTION: Bermuda, North Carolina, Florida, Gulf of Mexico, West Indies and Caribbean to Venezuela.

REMARKS: Labrus torquatus Walbaum is a new synonym.

Thalassoma cupido (Temminck & Schlegel)

Julis cupido Temminck & Schlegel, 1845: 170, pl. 86 bis, fig. 3 (Nagasaki, Japan).

DISTRIBUTION: Japan, Korea, and Taiwan.

Thalassoma duperrey (Quoy & Gaimard)

Julis duperrey Quoy & Gaimard, 1824: 268, pl. 56, fig. 2 (Hawaiian Ids).
Julis caeruleocephalus Cuvier, 1829: 259 (no locality).
Julis clepsydralis Smith & Swain, 1882: 136 (Johnston Id).
Thalassoma pyrrhovinctum Jenkins, 1901: 51, fig. 7 (Honolulu, Oahu Id, Hawaiian Ids).

DISTRIBUTION: Hawaiian Ids and Johnston Id.

Thalassoma genivittatum (Valenciennes)

Julis genivittatus Val., 1839: 416 (Mauritius, Madagascar).
Julis commersoni Val., 1839: 418 (Mauritius, Madagascar)
Julis matthoei Val., 1839: 419 (Mauritius).
Julis bicolor Günther, 1862: 184 (no locality [Mauritius]).
Thalassoma mascarenum Fricke, 1999: 437, figs 6A, 7A (Réunion).

DISTRIBUTION: Mauritius and South Africa.

REMARKS: Bauchot (1963: 61) stated that Smith (1957a) was in error to identify Julis matthoei as Xiphocheilus gymnogenys Günther. We follow Heiser (1981) in regarding J. matthoei as an aberrant T. genivittatum. T. mascarenum is a synonym according to Randall and Smith (ms. in preparation).

Thalassoma grammaticum Gilbert

Thalassoma grammaticum Gilbert, 1890: 68 (Socorro and Clarion Ids, Revillagigedo Ids, off western Mexico).

DISTRIBUTION: Gulf of California to Panama and Galápagos Ids.

REMARKS: Randall (1995b) showed that Thalassoma grammaticum is the correct name for the eastern Pacific labrid fish misidentified as Thalassoma lutescens (Lay & Bennett) by recent authors.

Thalassoma hardwicke (Bennett)

Labrus quindecimaculeatus Lacepède, 1801: 432, 480, pl. 25, fig. 1 (Gulf of India, nomen dubium).
Sparus hardwicke Bennett J.W., 1830: pl. 12 (Sri Lanka).
Julis dorsalis Quoy & Gaimard, 1834: 713, pl. 15, fig. 5 (Mauritius).
Julis semifasciatus Val., 1839: 448 (Mauritius).
Julis prostigma Kuhl & van Hasselt in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1839: 451 (Java, Indonesia).
Labrus pulcherrimus Forster in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1839: 451 (Tahiti, Society Ids).
?Julis erythropterus Val., 1839: 464 (no locality).
Julis (Julis) urostigma Bleeker, 1853c: 287 (Cauer, Sumatra, Indonesia).
Julis (Julis) schwanenfeldii Bleeker, 1853c: 288 later spelled schwanefeldii by Bleeker (Cauer, Sumatra).
Halichoeres iris Seale, 1910: 522 (Jolo Id, Philippines).

DISTRIBUTION: Indo-Pacific, South Africa to Tahiti.

REMARKS: Sparus hardwickii Bennett, 1841 and Thalassoma hardwickii of later authors are incorrect spellings (Eschmeyer & Pethiyagoda, 1996). See Bauchot (1963: 89) for discussion of Labrus quindecimaculeatus Lacepède.

Thalassoma hebraicum (Lacepède)

Labrus hebraicus Lacepède, 1801: 454, 526, pl. 29, fig. 3 (Mauritius).
Julis cingulata Quoy & Gaimard, 1834: 711, pl. 15, fig. 3 (Mauritius).
Julis blochii Val., 1839: 422 (no locality).

DISTRIBUTION: western Indian Ocean.

REMARKS: Julis blochii is based on Labrus lunaris Bloch (1791: pl. 281) and the specimen labeled by Cuvier and Valenciennes at the MNHN is Thalassoma hebraicum Lacepède (Bauchot, 1963: 76).

Thalassoma heiseri Randall & Edwards

Thalassoma heiseri Randall & Edwards, 1984: 15, fig. 1B, 3 (Pitcairn Id, southern Pacific).

DISTRIBUTION: Pitcairn Group and Tuamotu Archipelago.

Thalassoma jansenii (Bleeker)

Julis (Julis) jansenii Bleeker, 1856b: 56 (Indonesia).

DISTRIBUTION: Maldives to Micronesia and Fiji.

Thalassoma loxum Randall & Mee

Thalassoma loxum Randall & Mee, 1994: 303, pls. 1-5 (South coast, Hoone's Bay, Oman, Arabian Sea).

DISTRIBUTION: southern Oman to Gulf of Oman.

Thalassoma lucasanum (Gill)

Julis lucasanus Gill, 1862: 142 (Cape San Lucas, Baja California, Mexico).
Thalassoma steindachneri Jordan, 1890: 654 (Acapulco, Mexico).
Thalassoma caeruleomarginata Fowler, 1944a: 265, fig. 233 (Perlas Ids, Panama, eastern Pacific).

DISTRIBUTION: Baja California to Panama and Galápagos.

Thalassoma lunare (Linnaeus)

Labrus lunaris Linnaeus, 1758: 283 (India).
Scarus gallus Forsskål, 1775: 26 (Yemen, Red Sea).
Labrus zeylanicus Forster, 1781: 24 (Sri Lanka).
Labrus viridis Bloch 1791: 129, pl. 282 (Japan; preoccupied by Labrus viridis Linnaeus, 1758).
?Labrus polyodon Walbaum 1792: 250 (no locality).
?Labrus polyodon Bloch & Schneider 1801: 263 (no locality; preoccupied by Labrus polyodon Walbaum).
Trichopus arabicus Shaw, 1803: 390 (Arabian Sea).
Julis maculata Lesson, 1828: 402 (Caroline Ids).
Julis porphyrocephala Bennett, 1832b: 183 (Sri Lanka).
Julim [sic] lutescentem Bennett, 1832b: 184 (Sri Lanka).
Julis hardwickii Gray, 1832: pl. 92, fig. 1 (no locality).
Julis trimaculatus Rüppell, 1835: 13 (Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea; preoccupied by Julis trimaculatus Quoy & Gaimard, 1834 [=Halichoeres trimaculatus]).
?Chlorichthys grayii Swainson, 1839: 232 (no locality).
Julis meniscus Val., 1839: 415 (Seychelles, India, Macao).
?Julis mertensii Val., 1839: 421 (Ulea, Caroline Ids).
Julis (Julis) celebicus Bleeker, 1855e: 313 ( Indonesia).
Julis rapan Montrouzier, 1857: 473 (Woodlark Id).
Julis gracilis Steindachner, 1863b: 1190 (Java, Indonesia).
Julis truncatus Cartier, 1874: 105 (Cebu, Philippines).
Julis ventralis De Vis, 1885: 884 (Queensland, Australia).
?Julis cyanoventor Saville-Kent, 1893: 296, pl. 16, fig.14 (Rocky Id, Cape Flattery, Queensland, Australia).
Thalassoma cupido bipunctatum Vasiliu, 1931: 349, pl. 10, fig. 11 (Galle, Sri Lanka).
Thalassoma herrei Seale, 1935: 369, pl. 23, fig. 2 (Tulagi, Florida Id, Solomon Ids).

DISTRIBUTION: Indo-Pacific, Red Sea to South Africa, Persian Gulf, Japan, Australia and central Pacific.

REMARKS: Labrus polyodon Walbaum and Labrus polyodon Bloch are based on Seba (Thes. III n. 3 and n. 4, tab. 31) and might represent this species. Bleeker (1862f) listed Julis hardwickii Gray as a synonym. The first author and Jeff Johnson of the Queensland Museum determined that Julis ventralis De Vis is a synonym. Thalassoma cupido bipunctatum Vasiliu is a subadult of T. lunare. Julis cyanoventor Saville-Kent is a probable synonym (R.H. Kuiter, pers. comm.). Chlorichthys grayii Swainson appears to be a new name for Julis hardwickii Gray.

Thalassoma lutescens (Lay & Bennett)

?Labrus semilunatus Lacepede 1804: 205, 211 (Australia).
Julis lutescens Lay & Bennett (ex Solander), 1839: 65, pl. 19, fig. 2 (Mauritius; Tahiti; Ryukyu Ids, Japan).
Julis aneitensis Günther, 1862: 183 (northeastern coast of Australia; Norfolk Id; Vanuatu [New Hebrides]).
Julis melanoptera Günther, 1862: 183 ([Sri Lanka]).
Thalassoma neanis Jordan & Evermann in Jordan & Snyder, 1907: 214, pl. 12, fig. 2 (Honolulu, Oahu Id).
Thalassoma cranei Herre, 1935: 412 (Tenibuli, Ysabel Id, Solomon Ids).
Julis whitmii Günther, 1909: 291, pl. 148, fig. A (Raiatea, Society Ids).

DISTRIBUTION: central and eastern Pacific to Oman.

REMARKS: Information of the type of Julis melanoptera was provided by A.C. Gill (pers. comm.).

Thalassoma noronhanum (Boulenger)

Julis noronhana Boulenger, 1890: 483 (Fernando de Noronha, Brazil).

DISTRIBUTION: Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, Brazil, and coast of Brazil.

Thalassoma pavo (Linnaeus)

Labrus pavo Linnaeus, 1758: 283 (Mediterranean, Syria).
Labrus syriacus Bloch & Schneider, 1801: 244 (Syria).
?Labrus donzella Rafinesque 1810a: 39 (Sicily, Italy).
?Labrus imperialis Rafinesque 1810a: 40 (Sicily).
Labrus leo Rafinesque, 1810a: 37 (Sicily, Itlay).
Julis squamismarginatus Bowdich, 1825: 234, fig. 53 (Gambia river, West Africa).
Julis turcica Risso, 1827: 312, pl. 9, fig. 21 (Nice, France).
Julis unimaculata Lowe, 1840: 37 (Madeira).
Julis unimaculata var. lineolata Lowe, 1840: 37 (Madeira).
Julis unimaculata var. taeniata Lowe, 1840: 37 (Madeira).
Julis turcica var. lemniscata Lowe, 1843: 1 (Madeira).
Julis turcica var. torquata Lowe, 1843: 1, pl. 1 ( Madeira).
Julis vulgaris Valenciennes, 1843: 65 (Canary Ids; preoccupied by Julis vulgaris Fleming 1828 [= Coris julis Linnaeus)] and Julis vulgaris Valenciennes, 1839 [= Coris julis Linnaeus]).

DISTRIBUTION: Mediterranean and eastern Atlantic from Portugal to Cape Lopez, Gabon, including Azores, Madeira, and Canary Ids.

REMARKS: synonymy from Gomon and Forsyth (1990). Cocco (Facciolà,1885) recognized Labrus donzella Rafinesque as a synonym.

Thalassoma purpureum (Forsskål)

Scarus purpureus Forsskål, 1775: 27 (Jeddah, Red Sea).
Scarus purpuratus Shaw, 1803: 397 (Arabian Seas; unjustified emendation for Scarus purpureus Forsskål).
Julis quadricolor Lesson, 1828: 400 (Tahiti, Matavai and Borabora).
Scarus georgii Bennett J.W., 1830: pl. 24 (Sri Lanka).
Scarus georgiiquarti Bennett [J.W.], 1841: pl. 24 (Sri Lanka).
Julis semicoeruleus Rüppell, 1835: 10, pl. 3, fig. 1 (Jidda [Jeddah], Saudi Arabia, Red Sea).
Julis umbrostygma Rüppell, 1835: 11, pl. 3, fig. 2 (Mohila and Jidda [Jeddah], Saudi Arabia, Red Sea).
Julis aeruginosus Val., 1839: 441 (Mauritius).
Julis cyanogaster Val. (ex Solander) in Cuv. & Val., 1839: 444 (Tahiti, Society Ids).
Julis erythrogaster Val. (ex Solander) in Cuv. & Val., 1839: 447 (Ulea, Caroline Ids).
Thalassoma immanis Fowler, 1900: 488, pl. 18, fig. 2 (Caroline (Thornton) Id, [Line Ids, not Caroline Ids]).
Thalassoma berendti Seale, 1901b: 15, fig. 7 (Honolulu, Hawaiian Ids).
Julis punctatus Seale, 1901a: 91 (Guam, Mariana Ids).

DISTRIBUTION: Indo-Pacific: Red Sea to South Africa, Sri Lanka, Japan, Australia, Hawaiian Ids and Easter Id.

Thalassoma quinquevittatum (Lay & Bennett)

Julis coris Lesson, 1828: 404 (Caroline Ids).
Scarus quinquevittatus Lay & Bennett, 1839: 66, pl. 19, fig. 3 (Ryukyu Ids, Japan).
Julis guentheri Bleeker, 1862b: 279 (Sulawesi, Indonesia).
Thalassoma albolineum Nichols, 1941: 1, fig. 6 (Bali, Indonesia).

DISTRIBUTION: South Africa and Western Indian Ocean to central Pacific including Hawaiian Ids.

REMARKS: Julis coris Lesson is an earlier name for Thalassoma quinquevittatum. Although there is no type specimen, Lesson's description is sufficient to identify it as the species long known as T. quinquevittatum. Valenciennes (1839) used Julis coris for Coris aygula Lacepède. Randall and Parenti (1999) included J. coris Lesson among the old labrid names that should be suppressed in order to conserve names long accepted as valid.

Thalassoma robertsoni Allen

Thalassoma sp. Allen & Robertson, 1994: 207.
Thalassoma robertsoni Allen, 1995b: 75, figs. 1-2 (Clipperton Id, 10°18'N, 109°13'W).

DISTRIBUTION: Clipperton Id (eastern Pacific).

Thalassoma rueppellii (Klunzinger)

Julis purpureus (nec Forsskål) Rüppell, 1828: 25 ( Red Sea, misidentification).
Julis rueppellii Klunzinger, 1871: 536 ( Egypt, Red Sea).
Thalassoma klunzingeri Fowler & Steinitz, 1956: 278, fig. 24 (Eilat, Israel, Gulf of Aqaba).

DISTRIBUTION: Red Sea.

Thalassoma sanctaehelenae (Valenciennes)

Julis sanctaehelenae Val., 1839: 382 (St. Helena Id).
Julis lessonii Val., 1839: 384 (St. Helena Id).

DISTRIBUTION: St. Helena Id, South Atlantic.

Thalassoma septemfasciatum Scott

Thalassoma septemfaciata Scott, 1959: 84, fig. 4 (Shark Bay, Western Australia).

DISTRIBUTION: western Australia.

Thalassoma trilobatum (Lacepède)

Labrus trilobatus Lacepède, 1801: 454, 526, pl. 4, fig. 3 (Indo-Pacific Ocean).
Labrus fuscus Lacepède, 1801: 437, 493 (Mauritius; preoccupied by Labrus fuscus Gmelin, 1789 and Labrus fuscus Walbaum, 1792 [= Symphodus mediterraneus (Linnaeus, 1758)]).
Sparus hemisphaericus Shaw, 1803: 454 (Indian Seas).
Sparus brachiatus Shaw, 1803: 456 (Indian Seas).
Julis bicatenatus Bennett, 1832a: 167 (Mauritius).
Julis formosus Val., 1839: 439 (Mauritius).
Julis souleyetii Val., 1839: 457 (Mauritius, Hawaiian Ids).
Julis abhortani Val., 1839: 459 (Mauritius).
Julis aran Montrouzier, 1856: 474 (Woodlark Id).

DISTRIBUTION: Indo-Pacific, South Africa to central Pacific, including Hawaiian Ids and Pitcairn Group.

REMARKS: Sparus hemisphaericus Shaw and Sparus brachiatus Shaw were reported as synonyms of Labrus fuscus Lacepède by Swain (1883: 305).

Thalassoma virens Gilbert

Thalassoma virens Gilbert, 1890: 68 (Socorro Id, Revilla Gigedo [Revillagigedo] Ids, off western Mexico).
Thalassoma socorroense Gilbert, 1890: 69 (Socorro Id).

DISTRIBUTION: Revillagigedo Ids and Clipperton Id.

Genus Wetmorella Fowler & Bean

Wetmorella Fowler & Bean, 1928: 211 (type-species, Wetmorella philippina Fowler & Bean, by original designation).

Two species (Randall, 1983a). Indo-Pacific.

Wetmorella albofasciata Schultz & Marshall

Wetmorella albofasciata Schultz & Marshall, 1954: 446, pl. 12 (Mabul Id, Philippines).
Wetmorella philippina, in part, Fowler & Bean, 1928: 211, pl. 17 (Little Santa Cruz, Zamboanga, Philippines).

DISTRIBUTION: Indo-Pacific, including Hawaiian Ids.

Wetmorella nigropinnata (Seale)

Cheilinus nigropinnatus Seale, 1901a: 86 (Guam).
Wetmorella philippina (in part) Fowler & Bean, 1928: 211 (Little Santa Cruz, Zamboanga, Philippines).
Wetmorella philippina bifasciata Schultz & Marshall, 1954: 441, pl. 12, figs. A-B; fig. 53 (Suakin, Sudan).
Wetmorella ocellata Schultz & Marshall, 1954: 444, pl. 12, figs. D-E (Rongelap Atoll, Marshall Ids).
Wetmorella triocellata Schultz & Marshall, 1954: 447, fig. 54 (Rapurapu Id, Philippines).

DISTRIBUTION: Indo-Pacific, including Red Sea.

Genus Xenojulis de Beaufort

Xenojulis de Beaufort, 1939: 415 (type-species Xenojulis montillai de Beaufort, by original designation).

One species.

Xenojulis margaritaceus (Macleay)

Platyglossus margaritaceus Macleay, 1883b: 274 (Hood Bay, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea).
Halichoeres macleayi Jordan & Seale, 1906:303 (unneeded replacement for Platyglossus margaritaceus Macleay, thought to be preoccupied by Julis margaritaceus Valenciennes when both in Halichoeres).
Xenojulis montillai de Beaufort, 1939: 417, fig. 3 (Balawan, La Union Province, Luzon Id, Philippines).
Halichoeres sexmaculatus Fowler, 1946: 166, fig. 34 (Aguni Shima, Ryukyu Ids, Japan).

DISTRIBUTION: Ryukyu Ids, Philippines, New Guinea, and western Australia.

Genus Xiphocheilus Bleeker

Xiphocheilus Bleeker, 1856e: 223 (type-species, Xiphocheilus typus Bleeker, by monotypy)
Xiphochilus Günther, 1862:98 (unjustified emendation).

One species (Gomon, 1997).

Xiphocheilus quadrimaculatus (Günther)

Xiphochilus quadrimaculatus Günther, 1880: 45, pl. 20, fig. C (Arafura Sea).
Xiphocheilos typus Bleeker, 1856e: 224 (Nias, Indonesia).

DISTRIBUTION: India, Indonesia, northwestern Australia, South China Sea, New Caledonia.

Genus Xyrichtys Cuvier

Xyrichtys Cuvier, 1814: 87 (type-species, Coryphaena novacula Linnaeus, by subsequent designation).
Novacula Cuvier, 1815a: 324 (type-species, Coryphaena novacula Linnaeus, by monotypy and by absolute tautonymy).
Xirichthys Cuvier, 1829: 262 (Xyrichthys of later authors)
Amorphocephalus Bowdich, 1825: xii, 238 (type-species, Amorphocephalus granulatus Bowdich, by monotypy).
Iniistius Gill, 1862: 143 (type-species, Xyrichthys pavo Valenciennes, by original designation).
Xyrula Jordan, 1890: 656 (type-species, Xyrichthys jessiae Jordan, by original designation).
Duohemipteronotus Fowler, 1956: 281 (type-species, Hemipteronotus evides Jordan & Richardson, by original designation, proposed as a subgenus).

REMARKS: Randall and Bauchot (1993) showed that the use of Hemipteronotus Lacepède for species of Xyrichtys is incorrect, as Lacepède's name was intended for the pilotfish (Naucrates ductor). They proposed that Hemipteronotus be suppressed, and it was placed on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Generic Names in Zoology (Opinion, 1799). The genus is in need of revision to determine the identity of some Indo-Pacific species; Randall (1965a) reviewed the Western Atlantic species; 28 species are provisionally listed here (including 1 undescribed species). Some 22 species (including 4 species endemic to the Eastern Pacific) are Indo-Pacific; 6 species are known from the Atlantic.

Xyrichtys aneitensis (Günther)

Novacula aneitensis Günther, 1862: 176 (Aneityum [Aneiteum] Id, Vanuatu [New Hebrides]).
Hemipteronotus liogenys Fowler, 1904: 539, pl. 20, lower fig. (Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia).

DISTRIBUTION: Indo-Pacific, Maldives to Samoa.

Xyrichtys baldwini (Jordan & Evermann)

Hemipteronotus baldwini Jordan & Evermann, 1903: 192 (Honolulu, Oahu Id, Hawaiian Ids).
Hemipteronotus jenkinsi Snyder, 1904: 530, pl 10, fig. 19 (Puako Bay, Hawaii Id, Hawaiian Ids).
Hemipteronotus evides Jordan & Richardson, 1909: 196, pl. 72 (Kao-Hsiung, Taiwan).
Hemipteronotus maculosus Fourmanoir, 1967: 268, fig. 2 (Vietnam).

DISTRIBUTION: Hawaiian Ids and Viet Nam.

REMARKS: Hemipteronotus maculosus is a new synonym.

Xyrichtys bimaculatus Rüppell

Xyrichthys bimaculatus Rüppell, 1829: 43, pl. 10 (Bay of Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea).
Novacula punctulata Val., 1840: 73 (Bombay, India).
Hemipteronotus hypospilus Schultz in Schultz et al., 1960: 150, fig. 97 (Makasser, Sulawesi [Celebes], Indonesia).

DISTRIBUTION: Red Sea, India, and Indonesia.

REMARKS: synonymy from Randall (1981b).

Xyrichtys blanchardi (Cadenat & Marchal)

Novaculichthys blanchardi Cadenat & Marchal, 1963: 1293, fig. 42 (Ascension Id).

DISTRIBUTION: Ascension and St. Helena, South Atlantic.

REMARKS: Reported from St. Helena by Edwards and Glass (1987).

Xyrichtys celebicus (Bleeker)

Novacula celebica Bleeker, 1856b: 61 ( Indonesia).
Xyrichtys sp. 2 Shen & Yeh, 1987: 65, figs. 13-14 (Taiwan).

DISTRIBUTION: East Indies, Taiwan, to Marshall Ids.

Xyrichtys cyanifrons Valenciennes

Xyrichthys cyanifrons Val., 1840: 46 (Pondicherry, India).
Novacula rufa Day, 1873: 238 (Madras, India).

DISTRIBUTION: Pondichéry, southern India.

Xyrichtys dea Temminck & Schlegel

Xirichthys dea Temminck & Schlegel, 1845: 171, pl. 87 (Japan).
Xyrichthys margaritatus Fourmanoir, 1967: 267, fig. 1 (Vietnam).

DISTRIBUTION: Japan, China, Viet Nam, Indonesia and Australia.

Xyrichtys geisha Araga & Yoshino

Hemipteronotus sp. 2 Masuda et al., 1975: 306, pl. 111 I.
Xyrichtys geisha Araga & Yoshino, 1986: 75, fig. 1 (outer margin of Okinawa Trough, Japan, depth ca. 100 m).

DISTRIBUTION: Japan.

Xyrichtys incandescens Edwards & Lubbock

Xyrichtys incandescens Edwards & Lubbock, 1981: 233, fig. 1 (Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, Brazil).

DISTRIBUTION: Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, Brazil.

Xyrichtys jacksonensis (Ramsay)

Novacula jacksonensis Ramsay, 1881: 198 (Manly Beach, Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia).

DISTRIBUTION: Australia and Lord Howe Id..

Xyrichtys javanicus (Bleeker)

Novacula javanica Bleeker, 1862b: 305 (Java, Indonesia).

DISTRIBUTION: Red Sea and Indonesia.

Xyrichtys martinicensis Valenciennes

Xyrichthys martinicensis Val., 1840: 49 (Martinique Id).
Xyrichthys lineatus Val., 1840: 50 (Martinique Id).
Xyrichthys modestus Poey, 1867: 238 (Havana, Cuba).
Xyrichthys venustus Poey, 1876: 152 (Martinique Id).
Xyrichthys infirmus Bean, 1891: 199, pl. 29, fig. 2 (Cozumel, Yucatán, Mexico).
Xyrichthys niveilatus Jordan & Evermann, 1903: 194 (Cozumel, Yucatán, Mexico).

DISTRIBUTION: Bermuda, Florida, West Indies, Carribean, Yucatan to Venezuela.

REMARKS: synonymy from Randall (1965a).

Xyrichtys melanopus (Bleeker)

Novacula melanopus Bleeker, 1857c: 82 (Ambon Id, Moluccas Ids, Indonesia).
Novacula spilonotus Bleeker, 1857c: 83 (Ambon Id).

DISTRIBUTION: Red Sea and western Pacific.

Xyrichtys mundiceps Gill

Xyrichthys mundiceps Gill, 1862: 143 (Baja California).

DISTRIBUTION: Baja California, Mexico.

Xyrichtys niger (Steindachner)

Novacula (Iniistius) nigra Steindachner, 1900: 176 (Honolulu, Oahu Id, Hawaiian Ids).
Iniistius verater Jenkins, 1901: 55, fig. 12 (Honolulu).

DISTRIBUTION: Red Sea and Hawaiian Ids.

REMARKS: a probable synonym of Xyrichtys pavo Valenciennes (Randall & Earle, MS).

Xyrichtys novacula (Linnaeus)

Coryphaena novacula Linnaeus, 1758: 262 (Mediterranean).
Coryphaena psittacus Linnaeus, 1766: 448 (Carolina, U.S.A.).
Coryphaena lineata Gmelin, 1789: 1195 (Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A.).
Coryphaena lineolata Rafinesque, 1810a: 33 (Sicily, Italy).
Novacula coryphaenoides Schinz in Cuvier, 1822: 430 nomen novum for Coryphaena novacula Linnaeus.
Amorphocephalus granulatus Bowdich, 1825: 238, fig. 36 (Bona Vista, Madeira).
Novacula coryphena Risso, 1827: 334 (Mediterranean; substitute name for Coryphaena novacula Linnaeus).
Xyrichthys uniocellatus Agassiz in Spix & Agassiz, 1829: 97, pl. 55 (Brazil).
Xyrichthys cultratus Val., 1840: 37, pl. 391 (Martigues, Montpelier, Ivica, Seide).
Xyrichthys vitta Val., 1840: 51 (no locality).
Xyrichthys vermiculatus Poey, 1860: 215 (Havana, Cuba).
Xyrichthys argentimaculata Steindachner, 1861: 134 (Cape of Good Hope, South Africa; [locality dubious]).
Xyrichthys rosipes Jordan & Gilbert, 1884: 27 (Key West, Florida, U.S.A.).
Xyrichthys jessiae Jordan, 1888: 698 (off Tampa Bay, Florida, U.S.A.).
Hemipteronotus copei Fowler, 1901: 508, pl. 20, fig. 1 ("Oahu, Hawaiian Ids" [locality questionable]).
Xyrichthys binghami Mowbray, 1925: 1, fig. 1 (Double-headed Shot Cat, Cay Sal Bank, Bahamas).

DISTRIBUTION: Western Atlantic: Bermuda, North Carolina to Brazil, including Gulf of Mexico, West Indies and Caribbean. Mediterranean and Eastern Atlantic from Spain to Gulf of Guinea, including Madeira and Canary Ids.

REMARKS: synonymy from Randall (1965a) and Gomon and Forsyth (1990). The status of Novacula coryphaenoides is discussed by Daget (1968).

Xyrichtys pavo (Valenciennes)

Xyrichthys pavo Val., 1840: 61, pl. 394 (Mauritius).
Xyrichthys pavoninus Val., 1840: 63 (Hawaiian Ids).
Novacula tessellata Val., 1840: 74 (Mauritius).
Novacula immaculata Val., 1840: 75 (Mauritius).
Xyrichthys puniceus Richardson, 1846b: 261 (China).
Novacula tetrazona Bleeker, 1859a: 169 (Bali, Indonesia).
Iniistius mundicorpus Gill, 1862: 145 (Baja California).
Novacula (Xirichthys) carneoflava Peters, 1877: 843 (Dana Id).
Iniistius cacatua Waite, 1901: 41, pl. 7 (Lord Howe Id).
Iniistius leucozonus Jenkins, 1901: 54, fig. 11 (Honolulu).
Novacula temporalis Regan, 1905: 392, pl. 6, fig. 3 (Réunion).
Xyrichthys panamensis Fowler, 1944a: 267, fig. 234 (Perlas Ids, Panama, Eastern Pacific).

DISTRIBUTION: Indo-Pacific, Red Sea to eastern Pacific.

REMARKS: Iniistius leucozonus Jenkins is a new synonym.

Xyrichtys pentadactylus (Linnaeus)

Coryphaena pentadactyla Linnaeus, 1758: 261 (India).
Xirichthys cyanirostris Guerin-Meneville 1829-38: 27, pl. 43, fig. 3 (Pondicherry, India).
Novacula sexmaculata Val., 1840: 72 (Bombay, India).

DISTRIBUTION: Red Sea to western Pacific.

REMARKS: Coryphaena pentadactyla was redescribed by Valenciennes (1840: 69) as Novacula pentadactyla. Xirichthys cyanirostris Guerin-Meneville and Novacula sexmaculata Valenciennes are synonyms according to Bleeker (1862f) and Bauchot (1963), respectively.

Xyrichtys rajagopalani

Venkataramanujam, Venkataramani & Ramanathan

Xyrichtys rajagopalani Venkataramanujam, Venkataramani & Ramanathan, 1987: 47, fig. 1 (Tamil Nadu, India).

DISTRIBUTION: southern India.

Xyrichtys sanctaehelenae (Günther)

Novacula sanctaehelenae Günther, 1868: 228 (St. Helena).

DISTRIBUTION: St. Helena and Ascension Id.

Xyrichtys splendens Castelnau

Xyrichthys splendens Castelnau, 1855: 28, pl. 5, fig. 2 (Bahia, Brazil).
Xyrichthys ventralis Bean, 1891: 198, pl. 29, fig. 1 (Cozumel, Yucatán, Mexico).

DISTRIBUTION: Bermuda, Florida, Yucatán, Caribbean and West Indies to Brazil.

Xyrichtys trivittatus Randall & Cornish

Xyrichtys sp. 1 Shen & Yeh, 1987: 64, fig. 12 (Taiwan).
Xyrichtys pavo (nec Valenciennes): Shen, 1997: 469, pl. 156, fig. 5 (same photo used by Shen & Yeh (1987).
Xyrichtys trivittatus Randall & Cornish, 2000: 19, fig. 1 (Hong Kong).

DISTRIBUTION: Hong Kong and Taiwan.

Xyrichtys twistii (Bleeker)

Novacula twistii Bleeker, 1856c: 381 (Indonesia).
?Novacula stockumii Reuvens, 1895: 131 (Indonesia).
Hemipteronotus nigromaculatus Herre, 1933: 20 (Jolo, Sulu Archipelago, Philippines).
Hemipteronotus sp. 1 Masuda et al., 1975: 305, pl.111 C.

DISTRIBUTION: Japan, Indonesia.

Xyrichtys umbrilatus (Jenkins)

Hemipteronotus umbrilatus Jenkins, 1901: 53, fig. 10 (Honolulu, Oahu Id, Hawaiian Ids).

DISTRIBUTION: Hawaiian Ids.

Xyrichtys verrens (Jordan & Evermann)

Hemipteronotus verrens Jordan & Evermann, 1902: 354, fig. 22 (Keerun, Taiwan).
Hemipteronotus caeruleopunctatus Yu, 1968: 129, fig. 54 (Koahsiung, Taiwan).

DISTRIBUTION: Japan, Taiwan.

REMARKS: Synonymy from Shen and Yeh (1987).

Xyrichtys victori Wellington

Xyrichtys victori Wellington, 1992: 1054, figs. 1-2 (Punta Espejo, Marchena Id, Galápagos Ids).

DISTRIBUTION: Galápagos Ids.

Xyrichtys wellingtoni Allen & Robertson

Xyrichtys wellingtoni Allen & Robertson, 1995: 80, fig. 1 (Clipperton Id, 10°18'N, 109°13'W).

DISTRIBUTION: Clipperton Id, Central Pacific.

Xyrichtys sp 1

DISTRIBUTION: Galápagos Ids.

REMARKS: This species is under study by B.C. Victor and G.M. Wellington.

Family SCARIDAE Rafinesque, 1810a

(Parrotfishes)

The Family Scaridae (also known as the Callyodontidae) is represented in all shallow tropical seas. Most scarids (75%) occur in the Indo-Pacific Region. Some widely distributed tropical species (e.g. Scarus ghobban) may be found in subtropical waters, and one species (Sparisoma cretense) enters the temperate waters of the Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea.

Characters that define the Scaridae are as follows:

Body oblong to moderately elongate, somewhat compressed. Mouth rather small, terminal, not protractile; teeth fused to form a pair of sharp-edged plates, resembling a parrot's beak, covered to a varying degree by lips; one or two small laterally projecting canine teeth may be present posteriorly on dental plates in adults. Pharyngeal dentition unique, the interlocking upper pharyngeal bone with 1-3 rows of molariform teeth on a convex surface which bears against the molar-studded concave surface of the single lower pharyngeal bone. Dorsal fin continuous, with 9 spines and 10 soft rays, anal fin with 3 spines and 9 soft rays, caudal fin with 11 branched rays, and pelvic fin with one spine and 5 rays. Scales large, cycloid, with 22-24 in longitudinal series; those of lateral line with arborescent tubes; lateral line continuous or interrupted below rear of dorsal fin, usually with 18 scales in upper section and 6 scales in lower portion. Head naked, except for scales on cheek. Parrotfishes have a very long intestine and no true stomach, characters related to their herbivorous diet.

Generally found on coral reefs and rocky substrata with heavy algal cover, or seagrass beds. Parrotfishes feed mainly on seagrasses and algae (especially on dead coral substrates), but a few of the larger species feed in part on live coral. Sex reversal is associated with colour changes, as in the Labridae, and colour patterns of many species change greatly from juvenile to adult. Nevertheless, colour patterns of live fish are very important in classification.

TAXONOMY

Usually two subfamilies, Sparinae and Sparisomatinae, have been recognized. However, according to recent phylogenetic analysis, this distinction appears no longer justified (Bellwood, 1994). Ten genera and 90 species, 2 of which are undescribed are recognized here. Bellwood (1994) revised the generic classification; Randall & Bruce (1983) reviewed western Indian Ocean species (Hoover, 1995 added another species from Oman); and Choat and Randall (1986) reviewed the parrotfishes of the Great Barrier Reef. Although we believe the oldest available names are correct for the species of Scaridae, there are many later names not yet confidently placed with the correct senior synonym. Some of these were imperfectly described, thus requiring examination of the holotypes. Even when holotypes are available, the loss of colour pattern in preserved specimens makes identification difficult. A revision of all Indo-Pacific species will still be a difficult task.

Genus Bolbometopon Smith

Bolbometopon Smith, 1956b: 8 (type-species, Scarus muricatus Valenciennes, by original designation).

One species.

Bolbometopon muricatum (Valenciennes)

Scarus muricatus Val., 1840: 208 (Java, Indonesia).
Callyodon shimoniensis Smith, 1953: 622, pl. 15-16 (Shimoni, Kenya).

DISTRIBUTION: Indo-Pacific, Red Sea to Mozambique, Maldives, Samoa and Line Ids.

Genus Calotomus Gilbert

Calotomus Gilbert, 1890: 70 (type-species, Calotomus xenodon Gilbert, by original designation).
Scaridea Jenkins, 1903: 468 (type-species, Scaridea zonarcha Jenkins, by original designation).

Genus revised by Bruce & Randall (1985); 4-5 species (see remarks under C. viridescens). Red Sea to South Africa, Japan, Australia and eastern Pacific.

Calotomus carolinus (Valenciennes)

Callyodon carolinus Val., 1840: 291 (Caroline Ids).
Callyodon genistriatus Val., 1840: 293 (no locality).
Callyodon sandwicensis Val., 1840: 295 (Hawaiian Ids).
Callyodon brachysoma Bleeker, 1861b: 244 (Indonesia).
Calotomus xenodon Gilbert, 1890: 70 (Socorro Id, Revillagigedo Ids, off western Mexico).
Calotomus irradians Jenkins, 1901: 58, fig. 15 (Honolulu).
Calotomus snyderi Jenkins, 1903: 467, fig. 25 (Honolulu).
Scarichthys rarotongae Seale, 1906: 59, fig. 8 (Cook Ids).
Cryptotomus albimarginatus Fourmanoir & Guézé, 1961: 19, fig. 6 (Réunion Id).

DISTRIBUTION: Indo-Pacific, South Africa to Oman, Hawaiian Ids, and eastern tropical Pacific.

REMARKS: Calatomus carolinus may be a synonym of C. viridescens (Rüppell) (Randall & Anderson, 1993).

Calotomus japonicus (Valenciennes)

Callyodon japonicus Val., 1840: 294, pl. 406 (Japan).
Calotomus cyclurus Jenkins, 1903: 465, fig. 24 ("Hawaiian Islands"; error for Japan (Bruce & Randall, 1985)).

DISTRIBUTION: Japan, Korea and Hawaiian Ids.

Calotomus spinidens (Quoy & Gaimard)

Scarus spinidens Quoy & Gaimard, 1824: 289 (Waigeo [Waigiou], Indonesia).
Callyodon waigiensis Val., 1840: 296 (unneeded replacement for Scarus spinidens Quoy & Gaimard).
Callyodon hypselosoma Bleeker, 1855c: 425 (Ambon Id, Moluccas Ids, Indonesia).
Callyodon moluccensis Bleeker, 1861b: 243 (Sulawesi [Celebes], Ternate, Batjan, Timor, Ambon, Ceram and Banda, Indonesia).

DISTRIBUTION: Indo-Pacific, South Africa, Chagos, Maldives, to Marshall Ids and Tonga.

Calotomus viridescens (Rüppell)

Scarus (Calliodon) viridescens Rüppell, 1835: 23, pl. 7, fig. 2 (Jidda [Jeddah], Saudi Arabia, Red Sea).

DISTRIBUTION: Red Sea, Chagos, Maldives; might be Indo-Pacific (see Remarks under C. carolinus).

Calotomus zonarchus (Jenkins)

Scaridea zonarcha Jenkins, 1903: 468, fig. 26 (Honolulu).
Scaridea balia Jenkins, 1903: 469, fig. 27 (Honolulu).
Scaridea aerosa Jordan & Snyder, 1907: 215, fig. 4 (Honolulu, Oahu Id, Hawaiian Ids).
Scaridea farrandi Jordan [E.K.], 1925: 28, pl. 1, fig. 4 (Honolulu, Oahu Id, Hawaiian Ids).

DISTRIBUTION: Hawaiian Ids.

Genus Cetoscarus Smith

Cetoscarus Smith, 1956b: 16 (type-species, Scarus pulchellus Rüppell, by original designation).

One species.

Cetoscarus bicolor (Rüppell)

Scarus bicolor Rüppell, 1829: 82, pl. 21, fig. 3 (Jeddah).
Scarus pulchellus Rüppell, 1835: 25, pl. 8, fig. 3 (Jidda [Jeddah], Saudi Arabia, Red Sea).
Scarus ocellatus Val., 1840: 278 (Caroline Ids).
Scarus roseiceps Val., 1840: 279 (Ulea, Caroline Ids).
Callyodon scriptus Gronow in Gray, 1854: 85 (Indian Ocean).
Pseudoscarus nigripinnis Playfair & Günther, 1867: 105, pl. 15, fig. 2 (Zanzibar).
Scarus ophthalmistius Herre, 1933: 21 (Philippines).

DISTRIBUTION: Indo-Pacific, Red Sea to Chagos, Maldives, and Caroline Ids.

Genus Chlorurus Swainson

Chlorurus Swainson, 1839: (173) 227 (type-species, Scarus gibbus Rüppell, by monotypy, proposed as a subgenus).
Pseudoscarus Bleeker, 1861b: 230 (type-species, Scarus microrhinos Bleeker, by subsequent designation).
Xanothon Smith, 1956b: 4 (type-species, Callyodon bipallidus Smith, by original designation).
Ypsiscarus Schultz, 1958: 33, 47 (type-species, Callyodon oedema Snyder, by original designation; proposed as a subgenus).

A valid genus (Bellwood, 1994); 17 species; Indo-Pacific.

Chlorurus atrilunula (Randall & Bruce)

Scarus atrilunula Randall & Bruce, 1983: 9, pl. 4, figs. A-B (Shimoni, Kenya).

DISTRIBUTION: Known only from Kenya to South Africa.

Chlorurus bleekeri (de Beaufort)

Scarus quoyi (nec Valenciennes) Bleeker, 1853e: 607 (Ternate, Moluccas, Indonesia).
?Scarus cyanotaenia Bleeker, 1854b: 197 (Jakarta).
Callyodon bleekeri de Beaufort, 1940: 318 (nomen novum for Scarus quoyi Bleeker).

DISTRIBUTION: Northwestern Australia to Fiji.

REMARKS: Scarus cyanotaenia Bleeker, 1854b is an initial phase of Chlorurus, most likely C. bleekeri.

Chlorurus bowersi (Snyder)

Callyodon bowersi Snyder, 1909: 602 (Okinawa, Japan).

DISTRIBUTION: Ryukyus, Philippines, Java and Palau.

Chlorurus capistratoides (Bleeker)

Scarus capistratoides Bleeker, 1847: 162 (Jakarta).

DISTRIBUTION: Indonesia to Maldives and Chagos Ids.

REMARKS: regarded as Scarus japanensis by Randall and Nelson (1979); corrected by Randall (1992b).

Chlorurus cyanescens (Valenciennes)

Scarus cyanescens Val., 1840: 254 (Mauritius).
Pseudoscarus chloromelas Playfair & Günther, 1867: 109, pl. 15, fig. 1 (Zanzibar).

DISTRIBUTION: Zanzibar to South Africa., Madagascar and Mauritius.

Chlorurus enneacanthus (Lacepède)

Scarus enneacanthus Lacepède, 1802: 2, 6 (Mauritius).
Scarus capitaneus Cuvier, 1829: 265 (Mauritius).

DISTRIBUTION: Mozambique, Mauritius, Chagos, Maldives.

Chlorurus frontalis (Valenciennes)

Scarus frontalis Val., 1840: 280 (Strong Id, Caroline Ids).
Pseudoscarus jonesi Street, 1877: 80 (Palmyra Id, Hawaiian Ids).
Scarus lupus Fowler, 1900: 491, pl. 18, fig. 1 ("Caroline Id" [Thornton] Id [Line Ids.], South Pacific).
Scarus brighami Bryan & Herre, 1903: 131 (Marcus Id, west Pacific).
Callyodon latax Jordan & Seale, 1906: 329, pl. 49 (Apia, Upolu Id, Western Samoa).

DISTRIBUTION: Great Barrier Reef and islands of Oceania.

REMARKS: synonymy from Wass (1984), Choat and Randall (1986) and Randall in Böhlke (1984).

Chlorurus genazonatus (Randall & Bruce)

Scarus genazonatus Randall & Bruce, 1983: 19, pl. 6, figs. E-F (Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea).

DISTRIBUTION: Red Sea.

Chlorurus gibbus (Rüppell)

Scarus gibbus Rüppell, 1829: 81, pl. 20, fig. 2 (Red Sea).

DISTRIBUTION: Red Sea.

Chlorurus japanensis (Bloch)

Scarus japanensis Bloch, 1789: 244 (Japan or Java).
Scarus viridis Bloch, 1790: 29 (Japan or Java, Indonesia; preoccupied by Scarus viridis Bonnaterre 1788 [= Sparisoma viride (Bonnaterre, 1788)]).
Scarus blochii Val., 1840: 219 (nomen novum for Scarus viridis Bloch 1790).
Callyodon pyrrhurus Jordan & Seale, 1906: 314, fig. 55 (Pago Pago, American Samoa).
Callyodon abacurus Jordan & Seale, 1906: 324, pl. 33 (Pago Pago, American Samoa).
Callyodon philippinus Fowler, 1918: 66, fig. 26 (Philippines).

DISTRIBUTION: western Pacific to Samoa.

REMARKS: synonymy from Randall and Nelson (1979); they erred however in listing Scarus capistratoides Bleeker as a junior synonym of japanensis.

Chlorurus microrhinos (Bleeker)
Scarus microrhinos Bleeker, 1854b: 200 (Indonesia).
Callyodon ultramarinus Jordan & Seale in Seale, 1906: 63, fig. 16 (Mangareva Id, Tuamotu Ids).

DISTRIBUTION: western and central Pacific.

REMARKS: Synonymized with Scarus gibbus by Choat and Randall (1986); corrected by Randall (1992b).

Chlorurus oedema (Snyder)

Callyodon oedema Snyder, 1909: 603 (Okinawa, Japan).

DISTRIBUTION: Japan to Indonesia.

Chlorurus perspicillatus (Steindachner)

Scarus perspicillatus Steindachner, 1879: 32 (Hawaiian Ids).
Scarus ahula Jenkins, 1901: 61, fig. 19 (Honolulu).
Scarus miniatus Jenkins, 1901: 62, fig. 20 (Honolulu).
Scarus barborus Jordan & Evermann, 1903: 197 (Honolulu, Oahu Id, Hawaiian Ids).
Callyodon borborus Jordan & Evermann, 1905: 349, fig. 150 (unjustified emendation of Scarus barborus).
Scarus kraussi Jordan [E.K.], 1925: 30, pl. 2, fig. 1 (Honolulu, Oahu Id, Hawaiian Ids).
Scarus leucostigma Jordan, Evermann & Tanaka, 1927: 676, pl. 24, fig. 2 (Honolulu, Oahu Id, Hawaiian Ids).

DISTRIBUTION: Hawaiian Islands.

Chlorurus rhakoura Randall & Anderson

Chlorurus sp. Anderson, 1996: 60.
Chlorurus rhakoura Randall & Anderson, 1997: 157 (off Trincomalee, Sri Lanka).

DISTRIBUTION: Sri Lanka.

Chlorurus sordidus (Forsskål)

Scarus sordidus Forsskål, 1775: 30 (Red Sea).
Scarus nigricans Val., 1840: 213 (Red Sea).
Scarus erythrodon Val., 1840: 255 (Mauritius).
Scarus variegatus Val., 1840: 256 (Mauritius).
Scarus purpureus Val., 1840: 277 (Ulea, Caroline Ids; preoccupied by Scarus purpureus Forsskål, 1775 [= Thalassoma purpureum (Forsskål)]).
Scarus spilurus Val., 1840: 279 (Caroline Ids).
?Scarus sumbawensis Bleeker, 1848: 638 (Indonesia).
Scarus gymnognathos Bleeker, 1853d: 498 (Jakarta).
Scarus celebicus Bleeker, 1854e: 253 (Indonesia)
Pseudoscarus margaritus Cartier, 1874: 105 (Cebu, Philippines).
Pseudoscarus goldiei Macleay, 1883a: 590 (New Guinea).
Pseudoscarus platodoni Seale, 1901a: 96 (Guam).
Callyodon cyanogrammus Jordan & Seale, 1906: 330, fig. 63 (Apia, Upolu Id, Western Samoa).
Pseudoscarus vitriolinus Bryan, 1906: 27, fig. 4 (Honolulu, Oahu Id, Hawaiian Ids).
Callyodon rostratus Seale, 1910: 524 (Philippines).
Callyodon albipunctatus Seale, 1910: 526 (Philippines).
Scaridea leucotaeniata Fowler, 1944b: 180, fig. 35 (Vanuatu [New Hebrides]).
Callyodon bipallidus Smith, 1955: 936 (Mozambique).
Xanothon bipallidus Smith, 1956b: 5, pl. 41, fig. D (Pinda, Mozambique).

DISTRIBUTION: Indo-Pacific, Red Sea to South Africa, Maldives, Oman, Hawaiian Ids and Pitcairn Group.

REMARKS: Scarus sumbawensis Bleeker is an initial phase of Chlorurus, possibly C. sordidus.

Chlorurus strongylocephalus (Bleeker)

Scarus strongylocephalus Bleeker, 1854f: 439 (Jakarta).
Pseudoscarus microcheilos Bleeker, 1861b: 231 (Jakarta).

DISTRIBUTION: Kenya, Mozambique, Madagascar, Chagos, Seychelles, Maldives, Oman, and Indonesia.

REMARKS: Synonymized with S. gibbus by Randall & Bruce (1983), Choat & Randall (1986); corrected by Randall (1992b). Not known from Red Sea.

Chlorurus troschelii (Bleeker)

Scarus troschelii Bleeker, 1853d: 498 (Jakarta, Indonesia).
?Psudoscarus rhoduropterus Bleeker, 1861b: 233 (Makasar Sulawesi [Celebes], Indonesia).

DISTRIBUTION: Indonesia to Thailand.

REMARKS: Psudoscarus rhoduropterus Bleeker is an initial phase of Chlorurus, possibly C. troschelii.

Genus Cryptotomus Cope

Cryptotomus Cope, 1871: 462 (type-species, Cryptotomus roseus Cope, by monotypy).

One species.

Cryptotomus roseus (Cope)

Cryptotomus roseus Cope, 1871: 462, figs. 1, 1a (St. Martin Id, West Indies).
Cryptotomus crassiceps Bean, 1906: 32 (Bermuda).

DISTRIBUTION: Bermuda, South Carolina to Florida, West Indies and Caribbean to southern Brazil.

REMARKS: synonymy from Schultz (1958).

Genus Hipposcarus Smith

Hipposcarus Smith, 1956b: 17 (type-species, Scarus harid Forsskål, by original designation).

Two species; Indo-Pacific.

Hipposcarus harid (Forsskål)

Scarus harid Forsskål, 1775: 30 (Red Sea).
Scarus mastax Rüppell, 1829: 80, pl. 21, fig. 2 (Red Sea).
Petronason longicauda Swainson, 1839:226 (based on Scarus mastax Rüppell).
Scarus latus Val. (ex Ehrenberg) in Cuv. & Val., 1840: 245 (Red Sea).
Scarus ruppelii Val., 1840: 259 (Red Sea).
Scarus cyanurus Val., 1840: 261 (Jeddah, Saudi Arabia).
Hipposcarus harid vexillus Smith, 1959: 277, fig. 9 (Shimoni, Kenya).

DISTRIBUTION: Western Indian Ocean, Red Sea to Mozambique, Seychelles, Maldives, Mauritius, Chagos.

REMARKS: synonymy from Smith (1956a) and Dor (1984).

Hipposcarus longiceps (Valenciennes)

Scarus longiceps Val., 1840: 241 (Waigiou, Indonesia).
Scarus pinguirostratus Fowler, 1904: 541, pl. 21, upper fig. (Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia).
Scarus macrocheilos Bleeker, 1854a: 60 (Indonesia).
Hipposcarus schultzi Smith, 1959: 277, fig. 8 (Murcielagos Bay, Philippines).

DISTRIBUTION: western Pacific to French Polynesia.

Genus Leptoscarus Swainson

Leptoscarus Swainson, 1839: 172, 226 (type-species, Scarus vaigiensis Quoy & Gaimard, by monotypy; proposed as a subgenus).
Scarichthys Bleeker, 1859c: xvii, 106 (type-species, Scarus naevius Valenciennes, by subsequent designation).

Genus revised by Bruce & Randall (1985). One species.

Leptoscarus vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard)

Scarus vaigiensis Quoy & Gaimard, 1824: 288 (Waigeo [Waigiou], Indonesia).
Scarus (Calliodon) coeruleopunctatus Rüppell, 1835: 24, pl. 7, fig. 3 (Jidda [Jeddah], Saudi Arabia, Red Sea).
Scarus rubronotatus Val. (ex Ehrenberg) in Cuv. & Val., 1840: 212 (Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea).
Scarus auritus Val., 1840: 218 (Java, Indonesia).
Scarus naevius Val., 1840: 253 (Seychelles).
Scarus bottae Val., 1840: 262 (Jeddah, Red Sea).
Calliodon chlorolepis Richardson, 1845: 137, pl. 64, figs. 4-7 (Hong Kong, China).

DISTRIBUTION: Indo-Pacific, Red Sea to South Africa and Easter Id.

Genus Nicholsina Fowler

Nicholsina Fowler, 1915a: 3 (type-species, Cryptotomus beryllinus Jordan & Swain, by original designation; proposed as a subgenus).
Xenoscarus Evermann & Radcliffe, 1917: 129 (type-species, Xenoscarus denticulatus Evermann & Radcliffe, by original designation).

Two species (Schultz, 1958). Atlantic and eastern Pacific.

Nicholsina usta (Valenciennes)

Callyodon ustus Val., 1840: 286, pl. 405 (Brazil).
Callyodon auropunctatus Val., 1840: 290 (Santo Domingo).
Scarus dentiens Poey, 1861: 422 (Cuba).
Calliodon retractus Poey, 1868: 345 (Cuba).
Cryptotomus beryllinus Jordan & Swain, 1884: 101 (Havana, Cuba; Key West, Florida, U.S.A.).
Nicholsina usta collettei Schultz, 1968: 2, pl. 1 (off Guinea, west Africa, 9°53'N ,15°56'W).

DISTRIBUTION: two subspecies, N. usta usta Valenciennes, from Bermuda, New Jersey to northern Gulf of Mexico to Brazil; and N. usta collettei from Senegal to at least Annobón Id off Gabon (Randall, 1990).

Nicholsina denticulata (Evermann & Radcliffe)

Xenoscarus denticulatus Evermann & Radcliffe, 1917: 129, pl. 12, fig. 1 (Lobos de Afuera Id, Peru).
Xenoscarus hubbsi Harry, 1950: 147, figs. 2-3 (Guaymas, Sonora, Gulf of California, Mexico).

DISTRIBUTION: Baja California to Peru and Galápagos Ids.

Genus Scarus Forsskål

Scarus Forsskål, 1775: x, 25 (type-species, Scarus psittacus Forsskål, by subsequent designation).
Callyodon Scopoli (ex Gronow), 1777: 449 (type-species Scarus croicensis Bloch, by subsequent designation).
Petronason Swainson, 1839: 172, 226 (type-species, Scarus psittacus of Rüppell, by subsequent designation).
Erychthys Swainson, 1839: 172, 226 (type-species, Scarus croicensis Bloch, by subsequent designation; proposed as a subgenus).
Hemistoma Swainson, 1839: 172, 226 (type-species, Hemistoma reticulata Swainson, by monotypy, proposed as a subgenus).
Loro Jordan & Evermann, 1896: 418 (type-species, Scarus guacamaia Cuvier, by original designation).
Margaritodon Smith, 1956b: 15 (type-species, Callyodon verweyi de Beaufort [= Scarus festivus], by original designation).
Scarops Schultz, 1958: 17, 18 (type-species, Scarus rubroviolaceus Bleeker, by original designation).
Xenoscarops Schultz, 1958: 16, 23 (type-species, Scarus perrico Jordan & Gilbert, by original designation; proposed as a subgenus).

Fifty-one species, 2 of which are undescribed; circumtropical.

Scarus altipinnis (Steindachner)

Pseudoscarus altipinnis Steindachner, 1879: 18 (type localities, Gilbert [Kingsmill] Ids and Hawaiian Ids).
Callyodon waitei Seale, 1906: 60, fig. 15 (Tahiti).
Pseudoscarus brevifilis Günther, 1909: 327 (Tahiti and Apamana [Abemana], Gilbert Ids).

DISTRIBUTION: central and western Pacific.

Scarus arabicus (Steindachner)

Pseudoscarus arabicus Steindachner, 1902: 318 (Al Mukallä, Yemen, Gulf of Aden).

DISTRIBUTION: Arabian Sea; Gulf of Aden to Pakistan.

Scarus caudofasciatus (Günther)

Pseudoscarus caudofasciatus Günther, 1862: 238 (Mauritius).
Callyodon rubrofasciatus Smith, 1956b: 10, pl. 43, fig. 1 (Shimoni, Kenya).

DISTRIBUTION: Red Sea to South Africa and western Indian Ocean.

Scarus chameleon Choat & Randall

Scarus lunula (non Snyder): Choat & Robertson, 1975: 264.
Scarus chameleon Choat & Randall, 1986: 199, pl. 3, figs. C-D; pl. 9, figs. D-H (Sumilon Id, Cebu, Philippines).

DISTRIBUTION: western Australia to Philippines and Fiji.

Scarus chinensis (Steindachner)

Pseudoscarus chinensis Steindachner, 1867b: 585 (Ningbo [Ningpo], Zhejiang province, China).

DISTRIBUTION: coasts of China.

REMARKS: This species was recognized by Bleeker (1873), Reeves (1927), Chu (1931), and Fowler (1956); known only from the holotype. The colour description is unlike that of any known species of Scarus; therefore we regard the species as probably valid.

Scarus coelestinus Valenciennes

Scarus coelestinus Val., 1840: 180 (St. Thomas, Virgin Ids, West Indies).
Scarus rostratus Poey, 1860: 221 (Cuba; preoccupied by Scarus rostratus Shaw, 1803).
Pseudoscarus simplex Poey, 1865: 185 (Cuba).
Pseudoscarus plumbeus Bean, 1912: 125 (Bermuda).

DISTRIBUTION: Bermuda, South Florida, Caribbean, West Indies to Brazil.

Scarus coeruleus (Bloch)

Coryphaena coerulea Bloch, 1786: 148, pl. 176 (Bahamas and Antilles).
Calliodon gibbosus Bloch & Schneider, 1801: 313 (Carolina, U.S.A.).
Scarus loro Bloch & Schneider, 1801: 288 (South America).
Scarus trilobatus Lacepède, 1802: 5, 21 (Martinique).
Sparus holocyaneos Lacepède, 1802: 45, 141 (Martinique)
Scarus obtusus Poey, 1860: 217 (Cuba).
Scarus nuchalis Poey, 1860: 220 (Cuba).

DISTRIBUTION: Bermuda, Maryland to Florida, Caribbean, West Indies to Brazil; absent from Gulf of Mexico.

Scarus collana Rüppell

Scarus collana Rüppell, 1835: 25, pl. 8, fig. 2 (Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea).
Scarus collaris Val., 1840: 265 (error for collana).
Pseudoscarus ismailius Kossmann & R¬uber, 1877: 410 (Red Sea).
Scarus ghardaqensis Bebars, 1978: 78, fig. 2 (Al-Ghardaqa, Egypt, Red Sea).

DISTRIBUTION: Red Sea.

Scarus compressus (Osburn & Nichols)

Callyodon compressus Osburn & Nichols, 1916: 171, fig. 13 (Concepción Bay, Baja California, Mexico).

DISTRIBUTION: Gulf of California to Ecuador including Galápagos Ids.

Scarus dimidiatus Bleeker

Scarus dimidiatus Bleeker, 1859b: 17 (Doreh, New Guinea).
Callyodon zonularis Jordan & Seale, 1906: 321, fig. 60 (Pago Pago, American Samoa).
Callyodon fumifrons Jordan & Seale, 1906: 326, pl. 34 (Pago Pago, American Samoa).

DISTRIBUTION: Indonesia to Ryukyus, and Samoa.

Scarus dubius Bennett

Scarus dubius Bennett, 1828b: 37 (Hawaiian Ids).
Scarus formosus Val., 1840: 283 (Hawaiian Ids).
Scarus bennetti Val., 1840: 270 (Hawaiian Ids).
Scarus lauia Jordan & Evermann, 1903: 196 (Hawaii Id).

DISTRIBUTION: Hawaiian Ids.

Scarus falcipinnis (Playfair)

Pseudoscarus falcipinnis Playfair, 1868: 865, fig. 3 (Seychelles).
Callyodon pindae Smith, 1956b: 11, pl. 45, fig. 1 (Pinda, Mozambique).
Callyodon improvisus Smith, 1956b: 12, pl. 41, fig. E (Mahé, Seychelles).

DISTRIBUTION: Seychelles, Oman, Mozambique, Mauritius. The juvenile Scarus falcipinnis from Chagos (Winterbottom et al., 1989) may be S. prasiognathos.

Scarus ferrugineus Forsskål

Scarus ferrugineus Forsskål, 1775: 29 (Dahab, northwest coast of Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea).
Scarus coerulescens Val., 1840: 230 (Red Sea).
Scarus aeruginosus Val., 1840: 257 (Red Sea).
Pseudoscarus augustinus Kossmann & Räuber, 1877: 409 (Red Sea).
Scarus marshalli Schultz, 1958: 88 (Mersa Sheikh Sa'ad, Red Sea).

DISTRIBUTION: Red Sea to Persian Gulf.

Scarus festivus Valenciennes

Scarus festivus Val., 1840: 282 (no locality).
Callyodon lunula Snyder, 1908: 99 (Okinawa, Japan).
Callyodon verweyi de Beaufort in Weber & de Beaufort, 1940: 298 (Jakarta [Batavia], Java, Indonesia).

DISTRIBUTION: South Africa, Maldives to Tuamotu Ids.

Scarus flavipectoralis Schultz

Scarus flavipectoralis Schultz, 1958: 52, pl. 9 (Pagapas Bay, Luzon Id, Philippines).

DISTRIBUTION: Philippines to Great Barrier Reef, Caroline and Marshall Ids.

Scarus forsteni (Bleeker)

Pseudoscarus forsteni Bleeker, 1861b: 238 (Indonesia).
Callyodon laxtoni Whitley, 1948: 94 (Ocean Id, Australia).

DISTRIBUTION: western Pacific to Pitcairn Group.

REMARKS: Regarded as a synonym of Scarus tricolor by Randall and Bruce (1983); further studies have shown that S. forsteni is valid (Choat & Randall, 1986). C. laxtoni is tentatively placed in the synonymy based on meristics, body shape and emarginate caudal fin.

Scarus frenatus Lacepède

Scarus frenatus Lacepède, 1802: 3, 13, pl. 1, fig. 2 (Indo-Pacific Ocean).
Scarus sexvittatus Rüppell, 1835: 26 (Jeddah, Red Sea).
Callyodon upolensis Jordan & Seale, 1906: 319, fig. 59 (Apia, Upolu Id, Western Samoa).
Callyodon vermiculatus Fowler & Bean, 1928: 472, pl. 49 (Tidore Id, south of Ternate Id, Indonesia).
Scarus randalli Schultz, 1958: 97, pls. 19c, 27a; fig. 20 (Onotoa Atoll, Gilbert Ids).

DISTRIBUTION: Indo-Pacific, including Red Sea.

Scarus fuscocaudalis Randall & Myers

Scarus sp. Myers, 1989: 198.
Scarus sp. Debelius & Kuiter, 1994: 238.
Scarus fuscocaudalis Randall, & Myers, 2000: 222, pl. 1 (Guam).

DISTRIBUTION: East Indies, Palau, Guam, Philippines, and Ryukyu Ids, Japan.

Scarus fuscopurpureus (Klunzinger)

Pseudoscarus forsskalii var. fuscopurpureus Klunzinger, 1871: 567 (Al-Quseir [Kosseir], Egypt, Red Sea).
Pseudoscarus collana var. eques Steindachner, 1903: 151 (Al Mukallä, Yemen, Gulf of Aden).

DISTRIBUTION: Red Sea to Persian Gulf.

Scarus ghobban Forsskål

Scarus ghobban Forsskål, 1775: 28 (Jeddah, Red Sea).
Scarus guttatus Bloch & Schneider (ex Sonnerat), 1801: 294 (Indian Seas).
Scarus maculosus Lacepède, 1802: 5, 21, pl. 1, fig. 3 (Mauritius).
Scarus pepo Bennett J.W., 1830: pl. 28 (Sri Lanka).
Hemistoma reticulata Swainson, 1839: 226, fig. 77 (nomen novum for Scarus pepo Bennett).
Scarus lacerta Val., 1840: 217 (Pondicherry, India).
Scarus dussumieri Val., 1840: 252 (Seychelles).
Scarus scabriusculus Val., 1840: 271 (Java, Indonesia).
Scarus magrathii Bennett, 1841: pl. 28 (Sri Lanka).
Scarus pyrrostethus Richardson, 1846b: 262 (China).
Scarus haridoides Bleeker, 1855b: 344 (Indonesia).
Pseudoscarus cantori Bleeker, 1861b: 240 (Indonesia).
Pseudoscarus nudirostris Alleyne & Macleay, 1877: 346, pl. 17, fig. 1 (Cape Grenville, Queensland, Australia).
?Pseudoscarus papuensis Macleay, 1883: 590 (Papua New Guinea).
Pseudoscarus flavipinnis De Vis, 1885: 886 (Cape York, Queensland, Australia).
Pseudoscarus californiensis Pellegrin, 1901: 163 (La Paz Bay, Baja California, Mexico, Gulf of California).
Scarus noyesi Heller & Snodgrass, 1903: 206, pl. 9 (Isabela Id [Albemarle Id], Galápagos Ids).
Pseudoscarus garretti Günther, 1909: 306, pl. 153, fig. C (Gilbert [Kingsmill] Ids).
Pseudoscarus natalensis Gilchrist & Thompson, 1909: 259 (Natal, South Africa).
Scarus pyrrostethus australianus Paradice in Paradice & Whitley, 1927: 103, pl. 14 (Northern Australia).
Scarus azureus Meek & Hildebrand, 1928: 742, pl. 72, fig. 1 (Panama City market, Panama).
Scarus toshi Whitley, 1933: 61 (Queensland, Australia).
Callyodon fuscocuneus Fowler, 1935: 158, fig. 128 (Bangkok, Thailand).
Callyodon apridentatus Smith, 1956b: 14, pl. 44, fig. F (Malindi, Kenya).
Callyodon speigleri Smith, 1956b: 14 (Indo-Pacific).
Scarus fehlmanni Schultz, 1969: 24, fig. 2 (Strait of Jubal, 27°16'40"N, 33°46'50"E, Red Sea).

DISTRIBUTION: Indo-Pacific, Red Sea to South Africa and eastern Pacific.

REMARKS: No type of Pseudoscarus papuensis Macleay has been found. From the size of 16 inches, colour description, "crescent-shaped" caudal fin, 3 rows of scales on cheek, and noting that Scarus ghobban is not among the 14 scarids listed by Macleay, the best prospect would be ghobban. However, one would have to accept an error by Macleay for 13 instead of 15 pectoral rays, and the upper lip should cover more than half, not less than half, of the upper dental plate.

Scarus globiceps Valenciennes

Scarus globiceps Val., 1840: 242 (Tahiti, Society Ids).
Scarus lepidus Jenyns, 1842: 108 (Tahiti, Society Ids).
Pseudoscarus spilonotus Kner, 1868: 31 (Fiji Ids).
Pseudoscarus strigipinnis De Vis, 1885: 886 (Cardwell, Queensland, Australia).
Pseudoscarus fuscus De Vis, 1885: 887 (Queensland).
Scarus pronus Fowler, 1900: 490, pl. 18, fig. 3 (Caroline (Thornton) Id, [Line Ids]).

DISTRIBUTION: Indo-Pacific, South Africa to Fiji Ids.

REMARKS: synonymy from Randall and Choat (1980). The holotype of P. strigipinnis is in poor condition; it is considered S. globiceps based on the colour pattern described by De Vis and cheek scale counts.

Scarus gracilis (Steindachner)

Pseudoscarus gracilis Steindachner, 1869: 125 (China).

DISTRIBUTION: China.

REMARKS: Like Scarus chinensis, this species is also from China and known only from the type material. It was recognized as valid by Bleeker (1873), Reeves (1927), Chu (1931), and Fowler (1956). Steindachner mentioned a dark stripe from snout to caudal fin, bordered broadly above by yellowish green. No fish with this colour pattern is known to us, although it may prove to be the initial phase of S. chinensis.

Scarus guacamaia Cuvier

Scarus guacamaia Cuvier, 1829: 265 (Cuba).
Scarus turchesius Val., 1840: 181 (Puerto Rico).
Scarus pleianus Poey, 1861: 293 (St. Thomas, Virgin Ids).

DISTRIBUTION: Bermuda, South Florida, and Bahamas to Argentina; absent from Gulf of Mexico.

REMARKS: synonymy from Schultz (1969).

Scarus hoefleri (Steindachner)

Pseudoscarus hoefleri Steindachner, 1881: 159 (Gorée, Senegal).

DISTRIBUTION: Eastern tropical Atlantic.

REMARKS: this species was illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1881b.

Scarus hypselopterus Bleeker

Scarus hypselopterus Bleeker, 1853d: 496 (Indonesia).
Scarus javanicus Bleeker, 1854b: 198 (Java, Indonesia).
Scarus moensi Bleeker, 1860c: 54 (Sulawesi, Indonesia).
Callyodon ogos Seale, 1910: 527 (Philippines).

DISTRIBUTION: Ryukyu Ids to Indonesia and Palau.

Scarus iseri (Bloch)

Callyodon iseri Bloch, 1789: 245 (St. Croix, Virgin Ids).
Scarus croicensis Bloch, 1790: 27, pl. 221 (St. Croix Id).
Scarus insulaesanctaecrucis Bloch & Schneider, 1801: 285 (St. Croix Id, Virgin Ids, West Indies).
Calliodon lineatus Bloch & Schneider, 1801: 312, pl. 62, fig. 2 (no locality; plate apparently mislabeled as Callyodon striatus).
Scarus punctulatus Val., 1840: 195 (Martinique Id, W.I.).
Scarus diadema Val., 1840: 198 (Martinique Id, W.I.).
Scarus alternans Val., 1840: 200 (Martinique Id, W.I.).
Scarus flavomarginatus Val., 1840: 202 (Martinique Id)
Scarus aracanga Günther, 1862: 209 (Jamaica).
Callyodon margarita Fowler, 1917: 133, fig. 2 (Colón, (Atlantic) Panama).

DISTRIBUTION: Bermuda, North Carolina to Florida, northeast Gulf of Mexico, West Indies and Caribbean to northern South America.

REMARKS: The specific name iseri was regarded by Randall and Nelson (1979) as an inadvertent error for iserti. However, Bloch spelled iseri three times in Latinized form, so it can be argued that there was no inadvertent error. Later it was named Scarus croicensis by Bloch (1790). Many authors used croicensis as the valid name for this species. Valid as iserti in recent literature (Smith-Vaniz et al, 1999).

Scarus koputea Randall & Choat

Scarus koputea Randall & Choat, 1980: 409, figs, 29-31 (Fatu Hiva, Marquesas Ids).

DISTRIBUTION: Marquesas Ids.

Scarus longipinnis Randall & Choat

Scarus longipinnis Randall & Choat, 1980: 414, figs. 32-33 (Pitcairn Id, South Pacific).

DISTRIBUTION: Great Barrier Reef to Pitcairn Ids and Rapa.

Scarus niger Forsskål

Scarus niger Forsskål, 1775: 28 (Red Sea).
?Scarus chadri Lacepède, 1802: 2, 12 (Arabia).
Scarus nuchipunctatus Val., 1840: 224 (Indian Seas).
Scarus limbatus Val., 1840: 271 (Macao).
?Scarus makaravar Montrouzier, 1857: 475 (Woodlark Id).
Pseudoscarus flavomarginatus Kner, 1865b: 262, pl. 10, fig. 2 (Java, Indonesia).
Pseudoscarus niger var. viridis Klunzinger, 1871: 570 (Al-Quseir [Kosseir], Egypt, Red Sea).
Pseudoscarus madagascariensis Steindachner, 1887a: 230 (Madagascar).
Callyodon maoricus Jordan & Seale, 1906: 328, pl. 48, fig. 3 (Pago Pago, American Samoa).
Pseudoscarus godeffroyi Günther, 1909: 326, pl. 159 (Society Ids).
Callyodon lineolabiatus Fowler & Bean, 1928: 457, pl. 47 (Butauanan Id, Philippines).

DISTRIBUTION: Indo-Pacific, Red Sea to South Africa and Society Ids.

REMARKS: synonymy from Choat and Randall (1986). Lacepède (1802) described Scarus chadri as a new name for Scarus niger Forsskål; however, he described the fish as having no spinous rays. Scarus makaravar was doubtfuly identified as a synonym of S. niger by Fowler (1928).

Scarus obishime Randall & Earle

Scarus obishime Randall & Earle, 1993: 288, figs. 1-2 (Tatsumi-wan, Chichi-jima, Ogasawara Ids).

DISTRIBUTION: Ogasawara Ids, Japan.

Scarus oviceps Valenciennes

Scarus oviceps Val., 1840: 244 (Tahiti, Society Ids).
Pseudoscarus zonatus Macleay, 1883: 591 (New Guinea).
Pseudoscarus knerii Steindachner, 1887a: 231 (Auckland [?], New Zealand).
Callyodon lazulinus Jordan & Seale, 1906: 333, fig. 65 (Apia, Upolu Id, Western Samoa).

DISTRIBUTION: Philippines to Great Barrier Reef, Marshall Ids and French Polynesia.

REMARKS: Pseudoscarus knerii was illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1887b: 64, Pl. 4, figs. 1-1a. Steindachner described knerii from two specimens: a 30 cm fish from "Auckland" that Kner (1865b: 261) regarded as a variety of Scarus aeruginosus Valenciennes, and a 16 cm fish from ?Madagascar. The Madagascar locality is certainly in error because S. oviceps is a Pacific species. The Auckland locality is highly unlikely for an adult, as a few subtropical reef fishes are known from the north island of New Zealand, but most only as juveniles that do not survive their first winter. Scarus oviceps is a tropical species not known from any islands near New Zealand (Lord Howe, Norfolk, or the Kermadecs).

Scarus ovifrons Temminck & Schlegel

Scarus ovifrons Temminck & Schlegel, 1846: 173, pl. 88 (Tokyo Bay, Japan).

DISTRIBUTION: southern Japan and Taiwan.

Scarus perrico Jordan & Gilbert

Scarus perrico Jordan & Gilbert, 1882b: 357 (Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico).
Callyodon microps Osburn & Nichols, 1916: 170, fig. 12 (Santa Catalina Id, Gulf of California, Mexico).
Scarus dubius Hildebrand, 1946: 351, fig. 72 (Lobos de Afuera Bay, Peru; preoccupied by Scarus dubius Bennett, 1828).
Scarus hildebrandi Kanazawa, 1952: 203 nomen novum for Scarus dubius Hildebrand.

DISTRIBUTION: Gulf of California to Peru.

REMARKS: Synonymy from Schultz (1958).

Scarus persicus Randall & Bruce

Scarus persicus Randall & Bruce, 1983: 25, pl. 6, figs. G-H (Bahrain fish market, Persian Gulf).

DISTRIBUTION: Persian Gulf and south coast of Oman.

Scarus prasiognathos Valenciennes

Scarus prasiognathos Val., 1840: 272 (New Ireland Id, Bismarck Archipelago).
Scarus chlorodon Jenyns, 1842: 105, pl. 21 (Cocos-Keeling Ids, Indian Ocean).
Scarus singaporensis Bleeker, 1852a: 69 (Singapore).
Scarus janthochir Bleeker, 1853b: 139 (Ternate, Moluccas, Indonesia; Jakarta, Java, Indonesia).

DISTRIBUTION: Maldives and Chagos to Indonesia and Ryukyu Ids.

Scarus psittacus Forsskål

Scarus psittacus Forsskål, 1775: 29 (Jeddah, Red Sea).
Scarus venosus Val., 1840: 212 (Réunion Id).
Scarus hertit Ehrenberg in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1840: 215 (Lohaja; Suez; Djedda [Jeddah], Red Sea).
Scarus taeniurus Val., 1840: 257 (Mauritius).
Scarus forsteri Val., 1840: 275 (Tahiti, Society Ids).
Pseudoscarus forskalii Klunzinger, 1871: 566 (nomen novum for Scarus psittacus Forsskål).
Scarus balinensis Bleeker, 1849b: 8 (Bali, Indonesia).
Scarus bataviensis Bleeker, 1857b: 342 (Indonesia).
?Pseudocarus [sic] oktodon Bleeker, 1861b: 235 (Butung [Buton], Indonesia).
Pseudoscarus filholi Sauvage, 1880: 225 (Fiji Ids).
Pseudoscarus labiosus Macleay, 1883a: 591 (Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea)
Scarus gilberti Jenkins, 1901: 59, fig. 17 (Hawaiian Ids).
Scarus brunneus Jenkins, 1901: 59, fig. 16 (Honolulu).
Scarus jenkinsi Jordan & Evermann, 1903: 195 (Honolulu).
Callyodon erythacus Jordan & Seale, 1906: 318, fig. 58 (Apia, Upolu Id, Western Samoa).
Callyodon hornbosteli Fowler, 1925: 16 (Guam).
Scarus galena Jordan [E.K.], 1925: 32 (Honolulu).
Xanothon carifanus Smith, 1956b: 6, pl. 42, fig. D (Kenya).
Xanothon parvidens Smith, 1956b: 7, pl. 45, fig. E (Bazaruto Id, Mozambique).

DISTRIBUTION: Indo-Pacific, Red Sea to South Africa, Oman, Maldives, Mauritius, Réunion, Chagos, Japan, Australia, Hawaiian Ids and Fiji.

REMARKS: synonymy from Randall and Ormond (1978) and Choat and Randall (1986).

Scarus quoyi Valenciennes

Scarus quoyi Val., 1840: 273 (Bismarck Archipelago).
Callyodon mutabilis Gronow in Gray, 1854: 86 (Ambon Id, Moluccas Ids, Indonesia).
Scarus chrysopomus Bleeker, 1847: 163 (Indonesia).
Pseudoscarus moresbyensis Macleay, 1883a: 591 (Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea).
Callyodon hadji Seale, 1910: 525 (Philippines).

DISTRIBUTION: India and Moluccas to western Pacific.

Scarus rivulatus Valenciennes

Scarus rivulatus Val., 1840: 223 (Java, Indonesia).
Scarus fasciatus Val., 1840: 222 (Moluccas, Indonesia).
Scarus arcuatus Val., 1840: 276 (Thailand).
Scarus micrognathos Bleeker, 1847: 164 (Indonesia).
Scarus rivulatoides Bleeker, 1847: 163 (Java, Indonesia).
Pseudoscarus flavolineatus Alleyne & Macleay, 1877: 346, pl. 16, fig. 3 (Queensland, Australia).

DISTRIBUTION: western Australia to Thailand, Ryukyu Ids; New Caledonia, Palau, Norfolk and Kermadecs Ids..

REMARKS: synonymy from Randall and Choat (1980) and Choat and Randall (1986). Bleeker chose Scarus rivulatus as the valid name, with Scarus rivulatoides and Scarus micrognathos in the synonymy.

Scarus rubroviolaceus Bleeker

Scarus rubroviolaceus Bleeker, 1847: 162 (Indonesia).
Pseudoscarus frontalis Macleay, 1883a: 590 (New Guinea; secondarily preoccupied by Scarus frontalis Val. 1840).
Pseudoscarus jordani Jenkins, 1901: 63, fig. 21 (Honolulu)
Scarus paluca Jenkins, 1901: 60, fig. 18 (Honolulu).
Scarus calus Fowler, 1904: 542, pl. 21 (Indonesia).
Callyodon macleayi Jordan & Seale in Seale, 1906: 331 (nomen novum for Pseudoscarus frontalis Macleay).
Callyodon ruberrimus Jordan & Seale, 1906: 316, fig. 56 (Pago Pago, American Samoa).
Pseudoscarus heliotropinus Bryan, 1906: 23, fig. 3 (Honolulu market, Oahu Id, Hawaiian Ids).
Pseudoscarus rostratus Günther, 1909: 315, pl. 154 (Society Ids).
Callyodon africanus Smith, 1955: 19, pl. 3, fig. 26 (Kenya).

DISTRIBUTION: South Africa to eastern Pacific.

Scarus russelii Valenciennes

Scarus russelii Val., 1840: 234 (Vizagapatam, India).
Xanothon fowleri Smith, 1956b: 5, pl. 42, fig. G (East Africa [Pinda, Mozambique]).

DISTRIBUTION: India, Mozambique, South Africa, Chagos.

REMARKS: Xanothon fowleri Smith is a synonym according to Randall and Bruce (1983).

Scarus scaber Valenciennes

Scarus scaber Val., 1840: 239 (Mauritius).
Scarus pectoralis Val., 1840: 269 (Jeddah, Red Sea).
Pseudoscarus flavomaculatus Bliss, 1883: 57 (Mauritius).

DISTRIBUTION: Red Sea to Oman, South Africa, Maldives, Mauritius and Chagos.

Scarus schlegeli (Bleeker)

Pseudoscarus schlegeli Bleeker, 1861b: 242 (Indonesia).
Pseudoscarus pentazona Bleeker, 1861b: 241 (Indonesia).
Scarus cypho Seale, 1901a: 95 (Guam, Mariana Ids).

DISTRIBUTION: western and central Pacific.

Scarus spinus (Kner)

Pseudoscarus spinus Kner, 1868: 31 (Kandavu, Fiji Ids).
Callyodon kelloggii Jordan & Seale, 1906: 327, fig. 62 (Apia, Upolu Id, Western Samoa).

DISTRIBUTION: western Pacific to Micronesia and Samoa.

Scarus taeniopterus Desmarest

Scarus taeniopterus Desmarest in Bory de Saint-Vincent 1831: 244 (Cuba).
Pseudoscarus lineolatus Poey, 1867: 239 (Cuba).
Scarus virginalis Jordan & Swain, 1884: 88 ( Cuba).
Scarus bollmani Jordan & Evermann, 1887: 470 (off Pensacola, Florida, Gulf of Mexico, U.S.A.
Scarus emblematicus Jordan & Rutter, 1897: 122 (Kingston, Jamaica).

DISTRIBUTION: Bermuda, South Florida, West Indies and Caribbean to Brazil.

REMARKS: synonymy from Schultz (1958).

Scarus tricolor (Bleeker)

Scarus tricolor Bleeker, 1847: 164 (Jakarta, Indonesia).
Scarus cyanognathus Bleeker, 1847: 164 (Indonesia).
Callyodon elerae Jordan & Seale, 1907: 31, fig. 11 (Cavite, Luzon Id, Philippines).
Callyodon latifasciatus Seale & Bean, 1907: 237, fig. 7 (Zamboanga, Philippines).
Callyodon viridibusius Fowler & Bean, 1928: 459, pl. 48 (Uki, Bouro Id, Moluccas Ids, Indonesia).
Scarus visayanus Herre, 1933: 22 (Philippines).
Callyodon mus Smith, 1956b: 13, pl. 41, fig. B (Kenya).
Callyodon urbanus Smith, 1959: 272, pl. 42, fig. J; fig. 3 (Shimoni, Kenya).

DISTRIBUTION: Kenya to South Africa, Maldives, Chagos, to western Pacific, Micronesia, Samoa, and Line Ids.

REMARKS: synonymy from Randall and Bruce (1983). Scarus visayanus Herre is a new synonym of tricolor.

Scarus vetula Bloch & Schneider

Scarus vetula Bloch & Schneider, 1801: 289 (no locality).
Scarus acutus Poey, 1860: 216 (Havana, Cuba).
Scarus superbus Poey, 1860: 218 (Cuba).
Pseudoscarus gnathodus Poey, 1867: 240 (Cuba).
Scarus cuzamilae Bean, 1891: 196, pl. 29, fig. 4 (Cozumel, Yucatán, Mexico).
Scarus nigrescens Meek & Hildebrand, 1928: 743, pl. 72, fig. 2 (Porto Bello, Atlantic coast of Panama).
Scarus roseiventer Fowler, 1944a: 116, pl. 16 (Courtown Key, Caribbean Sea).

DISTRIBUTION: Bermuda, Florida, Gulf of Mexico, West Indies, and Caribbean to Brazil.

REMARKS: synonymy from Schultz (1958) and Randall in Böhlke (1984).

Scarus viridifucatus (Smith)

Callyodon viridifucatus Smith, 1956b: 9, 12, pl. 42, figs. B, I (Shimoni, Kenya).
Callyodon malindiensis Smith, 1956b: 9, 13, pl. 45H (Malindi, Kenya).

DISTRIBUTION: Kenya to Maldives, Chagos, and Indonesia.

Scarus xanthopleura Bleeker

Scarus xanthopleura Bleeker, 1853d: 499 (Indonesia).
Scarus atropectoralis Schultz, 1958: 79, pl. 15, fig. A (Buka Id, Sulawesi [Celebes], Indonesia).

DISTRIBUTION: western Pacific to Palau and Marshall Ids.

REMARKS: synonymy from Randall (1997).

Scarus zufar Randall & Hoover

Scarus zufar Randall & Hoover, 1995: 684, pl. 1 (Oman).

DISTRIBUTION: southern Oman.

Scarus sp 1

Scarus sp. Winterbottom et al., 1989: 59, fig. 368.

DISTRIBUTION: Chagos Archipelago.

REMARKS: The 205 mm SL specimen from Peros Banhos was examined by the second author, but he was unable to identify it with any species presently known.

Scarus sp 2

DISTRIBUTION: Andaman Sea and Sumatra.

REMARKS: to be described by M. Westneat, U. Satapoomin, and J.E. Randall.

Genus Sparisoma Swainson

Sparisoma Swainson, 1839: 172, 227 (type-species, Scarus abildgaardii Bloch, [= Sparisoma chrysopterum] by monotypy; proposed as a subgenus).
Scarus Bleeker (nec Forsskål), 1849: 4, 9, 42, 44 (type-species, Labrus cretensis Linnaeus, by subsequent designation).
Callyodontichthys Bleeker, 1861b: 230 (type-species, Scarus flavescens Bleeker by subsequent designation).
Euscarus Jordan & Evermann, 1896: 416 (type-species, Labrus cretensis Linnaeus, by original designation; proposed as a subgenus).

Atlantic; 9 species (Randall, 1990; Cervigón et al., 1993).

Sparisoma atomarium (Poey)

Scarus atomarius Poey, 1861: 423 (Havana, Cuba).

DISTRIBUTION: Bermuda, Florida, Gulf of Mexico, West Indies, Honduras to northern South America.

REMARKS: Validity shown by Randall (1965b).

Sparisoma aurofrenatum Valenciennes

Scarus aurofrenatus Val., 1840: 191 (Santo Domingo).
Scarus miniofrenatus Poey, 1861: 379, 393 nomen novum for Scarus aurofrenatus Valenciennes.
Scarus distinctus Poey, 1861: 423 (Havana, Cuba).
Scarus erythrinoides Guichenot, 1865: 10 (Santo Domingo).
Scarus oxybrachius Poey, 1868: 342 (Havana, Cuba).

DISTRIBUTION: Bermuda, Florida, West Indies, Caribbean, Central America to Brazil.

Sparisoma chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider)

Sparus abildgaardi Bloch, 1791: 22, pl. 259 (St. Croix Id, Virgin Ids, West Indies).
Scarus chrysopterus Bloch & Schneider, 1801: 286, pl. 57 (American Seas).
Scarus chloris Bloch & Schneider, 1801: 289 (Cuba).
Scarus flavescens Bloch & Schneider, 1801: 290 (Cuba).
?Scarus virens Val., 1840: 203 (Martinique Id).
Scarus squalidus Poey, 1860: 218 (Cuba).
Scarus lateralis Poey, 1860: 219 (Cuba).
Scarus brachialis Poey, 1861: 345 (Cuba).
Scarus maschalespilos Bleeker, 1862c: 127 (Suriname).
Sparisoma lorito Jordan & Swain, 1884: 95 (Cuba).
Sparisoma elongatum Meek & Hildebrand, 1928: 757, pl. 74, fig. 2 (market at Panama City, Panama; specimen probably caught on Atlantic side of Panama).

DISTRIBUTION: Bermuda, Florida, West Indies, Central America to Brazil.

REMARKS: Rodrigo L. Moura and J.E. Randall have prepared a petition to the International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature (Case 3051) to reject the name Sparisoma abildgaardi in order to conserve Sparisoma chrysopterum. They discovered that the true abildgaardi is not the initial phase of viride, as generally accepted (Randall, 1990), but an older name for chrysopterum. Scarus virens is a probable synonym of S. chrysopterum (Randall, 1990).

Sparisoma cretense (Linnaeus)

Labrus cretensis Linnaeus, 1758: 282 (Crete).
Labrus xantherythrus Rafinesque 1810a: 40 (Sicily).
Scarus canariensis Valenciennes, 1838: pl. 17, fig. 2 (Canary Ids).
Scarus rubiginosus Val., 1840: 171 (Canary Ids; Madeira).
Scarus mutabilis Lowe, 1838: 187 (Madeira).
Scarus siculus Cocco, 1846: 748 (Sicily, Italy).
Scarus rubiginoides Guichenot, 1865: 8 (Canary Ids).

DISTRIBUTION: Mediterranean (sporadic) and eastern Atlantic from Portugal to Senegal.

REMARKS: the description of Scarus canariensis was published after the plate (Valenciennes, 1843: 68).

Sparisoma griseorubra Cervigón

Sparisoma griseorubra Cervigón, 1982: 5 (Coast of Sur de la isla de Cubagua, Venezuela).

DISTRIBUTION: apparently known only from the type locality (Cervigón et al., 1993).

Sparisoma radians (Valenciennes)

Scarus radians Val., 1840: 206 (Mexico).
Scarus lacrimosus Poey, 1861: 422 (Havana, Cuba).
Callyodontichthys bleekeri Steindachner, 1863a: 1111, pl. 24, figs 2-2b (Bahia, Brazil).
Sparisoma cyanolene Jordan & Swain, 1884: 98 (Key West, Florida, U.S.A.).
Sparisoma xystrodon Jordan & Swain, 1884: 99 (Key West, Florida, U.S.A.).
Scarus hoplomystax Cope, 1871: 462 (St. Martin, W.I.).
Sparisoma niphobles Jordan & Bollmann, 1889: 551 (Green Turtle Cay, Bahamas).
Sparisoma abbotti Fowler, 1915b: 258, fig. 2 (St. Vincent Id, West Indies).
?Scaridea octodon Fowler, 1928: 368, fig.59 ("Hawaiian Ids"; type locality evidently erroneous).

DISTRIBUTION: Bermuda, North Carolina to Florida, Bahamas, Antilles, Central America to Venezuela.

Sparisoma rubripinne (Valenciennes)

Scarus rubripinnis Val., 1840: 199 (Santo Domingo).
?Scarus circumnotatus Poey, 1861: 423 (Cuba).
Scarus spinidens Guichenot, 1865: 15 (Bahia, Brazil; preoccupied by Scarus spinidens Quoy & Gaimard 1824 [= Calotomus spinidens (Quoy & Gaimard]).
Scarus truncatus Poey, 1868: 339 (Havana, Cuba).
?Scarus emarginatus Poey, 1868: 340 (Havana, Cuba).
Scarus (Scarus) axillaris Steindachner, 1878: 384, pl. 3, fig. 1 ("probably coast of North Australia" [evidently an error]).
Sparisoma rhomaleum Meek & Hildebrand, 1928: 754, pl. 74, fig. 1 (Colón market, (Atlantic) Panama).
Sparisoma pachycephalum Longley in Longley & Hildebrand, 1941: 215, pl. 28, fig. 2 (Tortugas, Florida, U.S.A.; new name for Sparisoma flavescens (nec Bloch & Schneider) Jordan & Swain, 1884).

DISTRIBUTION: Bermuda, North Carolina to Florida, West Indies, Central America to Brazil; also eastern Atlantic from Senegal to Gulf of Guinea.

REMARKS: Scarus circumnotatus and Scarus emarginatus are doubtful synonyms (Randall, 1990).

Sparisoma strigatum (Günther)

Scarus strigatus Günther, 1862: 212 (no locality [probably St. Helena]).

DISTRIBUTION: St. Helena (eastern Atlantic).

Sparisoma viride (Bonnaterre)

Scarus viridis Bonnaterre, 1788: 96, pl. 50, fig. 193 (Bahamas).
Scarus coccineus Bloch & Schneider, 1801: 289 (Cuba).
Scarus catesby Lacepède, 1802: 4, 16 (Carolina, U.S.A.).
Sparus aureoruber Lacepède, 1802: 56 (Martinique Id).
Scarus frondosus Agassiz in Spix and Agassiz, 1829: 98, pl. 54 (Bahia, Brazil).
Scarus amplus Ranzani, 1842: 324, pl. 25 (Brazil).
Scarus melanotis Bleeker, 1862c: 126 (St. Croix Id, W.I.).

DISTRIBUTION: Bermuda, Florida, Gulf of Mexico, West Indies, and Central America to Brazil.

NON-LABROID FISHES ORIGINALLY

DESCRIBED IN LABROID GENERA

Ctenolabrus ? knoxi Hutton, 1873 = Girella tricuspidata Quoy & Gaimard, Kyphosidae (B. Russell, 1996).
Julis horsfieldii Valenciennes, 1839 = Labracinus cyclophthalmus (Mòller & Troschel), Pseudochromidae (Gill & Randall, 1999).
Labrus ciavolus Rafinesque 1810 = Spicara maena (Linnaeus), Centracanthidae.
Labrus loeflingii Walbaum, 1792 = unidentifiable serranid.
Labrus spinosus Mitchill, 1814 = Trachinotus falcatus (Linnaeus), Carangidae (C. L. Smith, pers. comm.).
Scarus maxillosus Zouiew (1782: 230 ( Mediterranean and Red Sea; does not correspond with any known labrid or scarid species).

SPECIES INCERTAE SEDIS

LABRIDAE

Coryphaena virens Linnaeus, 1766: 448 (Asiatic Sea). Wheeler (1991) examined the probable holotype in the Zoological Museum of the University of Uppsala and regarded it as an undetermined Hemipteronotus (= Xyrichtys). If the locality indicated by Linnaeus is correct, then this fish is unlikely to be the Atlantic-Mediterranean species Xyrichtys novacula (Linnaeus) as proposed by some authors. This Linnean name should be regarded as a nomen oblitum.

Crenilabrus chrysophrus Risso, 1827: 319 (Nice); type lost (Bauchot, 1963). This species is an unidentifiable Symphodus; the synonymy with Symphodus mediterraneus (Linnaeus) proposed by Carus (1893) was not confirmed.

Crenilabrus intermedius, C. serranoides, & C. serranus described by Gulia, 1861: 14, 15 (Malta) are unidentifiable Symphodus.

Julichthys inornata De Vis, 1885: 884 (Great Barrier Reef, Australia). The dorsal-fin count of 11 spines and 11 soft-rays and the 2 anal-fin spines given for this species by De Vis do not match any labrid fish known from the Great Barrier Reef. The description of the colour, in particular the mention of dark brown dots posteriorly on the body, suggests that De Vis may have had a female Halichoeres chloropterus (Bloch). With no type extant to check the dorsal-fin count (as well as the count of 2 anal spines), we assume these counts were in error or aberrant.

Julis (Julis) girardi Bleeker, 1858-59a: 168 (Boleling, northern Bali, Indonesia). Bleeker described the genus Pseudojulis principally from the lack of a canine tooth at the corner of the mouth of Julis girardi. Randall (1978) redescribed the holotype of the type-species of the genus, Pseudojulis girardi, BMNH 1864.5.15.13, 67.5 mm SL. He noted that there is no canine tooth at the corner of the mouth of Halichoeres bimaculatus Rüppell, (type-species of Halichoeres and now a junior synonym of H. zeylonicus), at a length of 115 mm SL or less. Nor could he find any differences in external morphology of P. girardi and H. zeylonicus. The unusual striped pattern of Bleeker's illustration of P. girardi in Atlas Ichthyologique (1862), vol. 1, pl. 33, fig. 3, with a narrow dark mid-lateral stripe on the body curving dorsally on the head behind the eye would seem species specific. However, extensive collecting in Indonesia by the second author and colleagues has failed to yield any labrid fish with this colour pattern. Randall (1978) noted that no trace of the dark stripe remains on the holotype of P. girardi, but the triangular blackish spot still persists at the upper base of the pectoral fin. We now believe that P. girardi is the initial phase of H. zeylonicus or its Pacific counterpart, H. hartzfeldii (Bleeker), both of which occur in Indonesia (Rudie H. Kuiter, pers. comm.), that the stripe of the holotype of P. girardi was yellow or orange in life, hence did not persist in preservative, and that it was inaccurately portrayed as curving upward on the head. All of the meristic data of the holotype of P. girardi fit the modal data of H. zeylonicus and H. hartzfeldii.

Julis pavoninus Val., 1839: 483 (no locality [East Indies]; based on a drawing of Renard, this species is an unidentifiable Halichoeres [Pietsch, 1995]).

Labrus citrinus Walbaum 1792: 261 (Japan; based on Labrus japonicus Houttuyn (see below).

Labrus coromandelicus Bloch & Schneider 1801: 244 (Tranquebar, India). The fin counts of D IX,10 and A II,12 do not fit any known labrid species.

Labrus ephippium Val., 1839: 96 ("Java" [erroneous]). M. Boeseman examined the holotype at the Netherlands Royal Museum of Leyden. He wrote (Bauchot, 1963): "I believe that it represents a species from Atlantic or Mediterranean Sea, even though I am unable to identify it precisely. It appears very similar to Labrus bergylta Ascanius, but the lateral line is slightly different (39-40 tubules vs 41-47)".

Labrus gouanii Lacepède, 1801: 433, 480 (no locality); an unidentifiable species.

Labrus japonicus Houttuyn, 1782: 324 (Japan). The original description of Labrus japonicus agrees with no Japanese labrid fish (Mabuchi & Nakabo, 1997). The labrid fish formerly known as Pseudolabrus japonicus (Houttuyn) comprises two distinct species, Pseudolabrus sieboldi Mabuchi & Nakabo, 1997 and Pseudolabrus eoethinus (Richardson, 1846).

Labrus javensis Bloch & Schneider 1801: 243 (no locality given). Assuming (from the name) that this fish was from Java, it probably is a species of Bodianus. The description may pertain to any of a number of species, although "head scaled" may restrict it to species that have predorsal scales extending to in front of the eye. There are several species of Bodianus in the Indonesian region that have this characteristic.

Labrus lineatus Walbaum 1792: 247 (no locality; preoccupied by Labrus lineatus Bonnaterre, 1788 [= Labrus mixtus Linnaeus]). Species unidentifiable.

Labrus macrolepidotus Walbaum 1792: 266 (no locality; preoccupied by Labrus macrolepidotus Bloch, 1791 (= Novaculichthys macrolepidotus); an unidentifiable species based on Gronov. Mus. I n. 86.

Labrus maculosus Gronow in Gray 1854: 81 (Indian Ocean); species unidentifiable.

Labrus malacopterus Forster 1795: 15 (India); species unidentifiable. Reported by Bloch and Schneider (1801: 286).

Labrus melanotus Rafinesque 1810a: 40, pl. 12, fig. 4 (Sicily); regarded by Bonaparte (1846) as Labrus coeruleus Risso (= Labrus merula Linnaeus) and by Jordan (1890: 617) as a questionable synonym of Symphodus melanocercus. Species unidentifiable.

Labrus perioides Walbaum 1792: 260 (no locality); unidentifiable.

Labrus pictus Gronow in Gray 1854: 80 preoccupied by Labrus pictus Bloch & Schneider, 1801 (= Coris picta) (Indian Ocean). Günther (1862) placed this species in the genus Platyglossus (= Halichoeres). Species unidentifiable.

Labrus porcus Rafinesque, 1810a: 37 (Sicily); regarded as a questionable synonym of Symphodus melanocercus by Cocco (Facciolà, 1885: 231) or Labrus viridis by Jordan (1890: 610); this species remains unidentifiable.

Labrus quinquemaculatus Bloch, 1792: 10, pl. 291, fig. 2 (Norway); unidentifiable (Quignard, 1966).

Labrus reticulatus Walbaum, 1792: 266 (no locality; preoccupied by Labrus reticulatus Bonnaterre, 1788 [= Symphodus ocellatus]). Regarded by Jordan (1890: 617) as a questionable synonym of Symphodus melops. Species unidentifiable.

Labrus rubiginosus Risso 1827: 306 (Nice); no type; an unidentifiable species of Symphodus (Bauchot, 1963).

Labrus scarus Linnaeus, 1758: 282 (Greece; Sicily); unidentifiable (Monod, 1973: 444, footnote 3).

Labrus ?tagiselem Montrouzier, 1857: 469 (Woodlark Id, southwestern Pacific); Fowler (1928: 346) mentioned this imperfectly described species under the account of Coris angulata Lacepède (= Coris aygula Lacepède).

Labrus tetraodon Bloch & Schneider 1801: 263 (no locality); based on Seba; a species not identifiable as any labrid we know today. It could be a Chromis according to Cuvier and Valenciennes (1840: 4).

Labrus tinea Forsskål, 1775: xv (Istanbul, Turkey); species unidentifiable.

Labrus unicolor Bloch & Schneider 1801: 268 (no locality); an unidentifiable labrid with interrupted lateral line.

Labrus variegatus Nardo, 1824b: 253 (Adriatic Sea); preoccupied by Labrus variegatus Gmelin, 1789 [= Labrus mixtus Linnaeus]. Apparently described independently of Gmelin, 1789; replaced by Lutianus manis Nardo, 1827. An unidentifiable Symphodus possibly melops or roissali.

Leptojulis bimaculatus Kner & Steindachner, 1867: 378 (Chile); possibly a synonym of Halichoeres dispilus (Günther).

Lutianus erythrophthalmus Rafinesque, 1810b: 67 (Sicily, Italy); the fin ray counts are consistent with Ctenolabrus rupestris, but the description is inadequate to identify this species.

Lutjanus notatus Bloch, 1790: 125, pl. 251, fig. 2 (East Indies); type locality probably erroneous. With 14 dorsal fin spines and 8 soft rays this species might belong to Symphodus, as suggested by Valenciennes (1839: 217), who tentatively placed it in Crenilabrus. As pointed out by Valenciennes, nothing in the description is diagnostic and the affinities of this species are uncertain.

Xyrichthys virens Val., 1840: 47 ("Tahiti" [?]). Randall (1973) listed this as a valid species from the literature. It was described from a drawing attributed by Valenciennes to Sydney Parkinson (labeled "Coryphaena virens") and associated with Captain James Cook's first voyage. The colour descibed by Valenciennes is similar to that of female X. pentadactylus; however this species is not known from oceanic islands of the Pacific, so it may have been collected before the expedition got to the Pacific. Valenciennes did not realize that Coryphaena virens was a Linnean taxon presently regarded as an unidentifiable Xyrichtys (see above in this section).

SCARIDAE

Callyodon cretensis Bloch, 1789: 246 (?Crete); probably represents Scarus cretensis Bloch, 1790: 23, renamed by Valenciennes as Scarus striatus, an unidentifiable species.

Pseudoscarus maculiceps Peters, 1876: 443 (Mauritius); unidentifiable species (Randall & Bruce, 1983).

Pseudoscarus obscurus Castelnau, 1875: 41 (Queensland, Australia); unidentifiable species (Choat & Randall, 1986).

Pseudoscarus richardsoni Castelnau, 1875.42 (Queensland, Australia); unidentifiable species (Choat & Randall, 1986).

Pseudoscarus viridescens Castelnau, 1875: 42 (Queensland, Australia); unidentifiable species (Choat & Randall, 1986).

Scarus caninus Gronow in Gray, 1854: 63 (Mediterranean Sea); unidentifiable species.

Scarus capistratus Val. (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt) in Cuv. & Val., 1840: 239 (Java); unidentifiable species.

Scarus cruentatus Val., 1840: 277 (Ulea, Caroline Ids); unidentifiable species (Randall & Bruce, 1983).

Scarus evermanni Jordan in Jordan & Evermann, 1887: 469 (off Tampa Bay, Florida, U.S.A.; based on a fish from stomach of a predator); a synonym of Scarus croicensis according to Schultz (1958); we regard this species as unidentifiable.

Scarus denticulatus Lacepède, 1802: 3, pl. 1, fig. 1 (Indo-Pacific Ocean); unidentifiable species (Randall & Bruce, 1983).

Scarus humeralis Poey, 1861: 422 (Havana, Cuba); unidentifiable (Schultz, 1958).

Scarus kakatoe Lacepède, 1802: 3, 13 (Asiatic Sea, Crete, Syria, Egypt); unidentifiable species.

Scarus lunulatus Val., 1840: 268 (Red Sea); unidentifiable species (Randall & Bruce, 1983).

Scarus maculatus Gronow in Gray, 1854: 63 (no locality); unidentifiable species.

Scarus mentalis Val. (ex Ehrenberg) in Cuv. & Val., 1840: 233 (Red Sea); regarded as unidentifiable by Randall and Bruce (1983); synonymized with Chlorurus sordidus by Dor (1984).

Scarus mertensii Val., 1840: 281 (Ulea, Caroline Ids); based on a drawing; unidentifiable (Randall & Bruce, 1983).

Scarus quadrispinosus Val., 1840: 197 (Martinique Id, West Indies). Bauchot and Guibé (1960) considered this species a synonym of Scarus vetula. Mme Bauchot looked again at the dried, varnished, dark holotype. She corrected the count of pectoral rays from 11-13 to 14 or 15. She noted that there are only 2 rows of cheek scales. Valenciennes wrote that there was reason to suppose that the fish came from Brazil, but Bauchot (pers. comm.) added that it might also have come from the Pacific. If Brazil is the true locality, the total length given for the specimen, 28 pouces (= 760 mm), would apply to only two western Atlantic species, Scarus coelestinus and Scarus guacamaia; both of which have the same general morphology, 16 pectoral rays, 6 predorsal scales, and only rarely lack a third row of cheek scales. Lacking information on the colour pattern, and with some doubt of the true locality, this species is unidentifiable.

Scarus rostratus Shaw, 1803: 401 (no locality); unidentifiable species (Swain, 1883: 305).

Scarus striatus Val., 1840: 209 ("Les Indies"); a new name for the unidentifiable species figured and described by Bloch (1790) as Scarus cretensis.

Scarus trispinosus Val., 1840: 182 (Brazil); Bauchot and Guibé (1963) regarded the 760mm dried holotype, MNHN B.2041, believed to be from Brazil as unidentifiable.

UNAVAILABLE SPECIES NAMES

Anarchicas fusellus Nardo (ex Chierighini), 1847: col. 115 nomen nudum; in synonymy of Labrus giofredi Risso.
Callyodon ikan Montrouzier, 1857: 469 nomen nudum, in synonymy of Labroides dimidiatus (Valenciennes) (Fowler, 1928: 331).
Cheilinus aspersus Kittlitz, 1858: 113 nomen nudum, (Lagunor, Micronesia); mentioned by Fowler (1928: 359) under C. bimaculatus.
Cheilinus macrocheilus Kuhl & van Hasselt, in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1839: 311 nomen nudum; in synonymy of Tautoga melapterus.
Cheilinus reticulatus Kittlitz, 1858: 113 nomen nudum, (Lagunor, Micronesia); mentioned by Fowler (1928: 359) under C. bimaculatus.
Cheilinus signatus Kittlitz, 1858: 113 nomen nudum, (Lagunor, Micronesia; mentioned by Fowler (1928: 359) under C. bimaculatus.
Cheilinus taeniatus Lacepède, 1802; not found in Lacepède; Smith (1957a: 110) stated: "recorded by Wuitner (1936) from Mauritius. Name that can not be traced."
Chelinus cheilio Commerson in Lacepède, 1802: 433; appeared in footnote in the account of Cheilio auratus; not available (Eschmeyer et al., 1996).
Coricus rostratus var. punctulatus Nardo, 1860: 801 nomen nudum.
Coryphaena lineata Linnaeus, 1758: 448 (Carolina, U.S.A); Part of description, not a genus and species; it may date to Müller 1776 (Eschmeyer et al, 1997).
Cossyphus albomaculatus Gudger, 1929: 517, nomen nudum.
Cossyphus cerulaeus Johnston, 1891: 35 nomen nudum; in synonymy of Notolabrus tetricus (Richardson) (Russell, 1988).
Cossyphus terophorus Bleeker in Sauvage, 1891: 524 nomen nudum; listed in Fishes of Madagascar (Sauvage, 1891) but not treated; Smith (1957a) wrote"...a name that cannot be traced." Perhaps an error for Cossyphus zosterophorus Bleeker.
Crenilabrus elegans Kuhl & van Hasselt in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1839: 130 nomen nudum; in synonymy of Cossyphus mesothorax (Bloch & Schneider, 1801).
Crenilabrus elegans DeKay, 1840: 11 (New York, U.S.A.) nomen nudum.
Crenilabrus geoffroyi var. variegatus Risso in Bonaparte, 1846: 84 nomen nudum; manuscript name in synonymy of Crenilabrus roissali Risso. In his Catalog of fishes, Bonaparte (1846) listed several varieties of labrid fishes from a Risso manuscript. Most of them correspond to the varieties described but not named in the "Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe meridionale…" (Risso, 1827). The name variegatus applies to the description of Crenilabrus geoffroi var. I Risso (1827: 315).
Crenilabrus grassmultra Nilsson in Bonaparte, 1846: 85 nomen nudum; name in synonymy of Centrolabrus exoletus.
Crenilabrus hudsonicus DeKay, 1840: 11 (New York, U.S.A.); nomen nudum.
Crenilabrus lapina var. fasciatus Risso in Bonaparte, 1846: 83 nomen nudum; manuscript name in synonymy of Crenilabrus mediterraneus Val.; based on Crenilabrus lapina var. I Risso (1827: 314).
Crenilabrus lapina var. unicolor Risso in Bonaparte, 1846: 83 nomen nudum; manuscript name in synonymy of Crenilabrus mediterraneus Val.; based on Crenilabrus lapina var. II Risso (1827: 314).
Crenilabrus melops var. lugubris Risso in Bonaparte, 1846: 83, nomen nudum; in synonymy of Symphodus melops; based on Crenilabrus melops var. I (Risso, 1827: 310).
Crenilabrus melops var. superbus Risso in Bonaparte, 1846: 83 nomen nudum; in synonymy of Symphodus melops; based on Crenilabrus melops var. II (Risso, 1827: 310). .
Crenilabrus massiliensis var. tricolor Risso in Bonaprte, 1843: 85, nomen nudum; manuscript name in synonymy of Acantholabrus palloni. Name refers to Crenilabrus massiliensis var. I described by Risso (1827: 310).
Crenilabrus tigrinus var. rubiginosus Risso in Bonaparte, 1846: 84, nomen nudum; manuscript name in synonymy of Crenilabrus roissali Risso.
Crenilabrus tigrinus var. semimaculatus Risso in Bonaparte, 1846: 84 nomen nudum; manuscript name in synonymy of Crenilabrus roissali Risso.
Crenilabrus xanthomelanus Cocco in Bonaparte, 1846: 84, nomen nudum; in synonymy of Crenilabrus melanocercus Risso.
Elops fuscus Commerson in Cuv. & Val., 1840: 25, nomen nudum; name mentioned under Gomphosus fuscus.
Epibulus aureus Bleeker (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt), 1862f: 75, nomen nudum; in synonymy of Epibulus insidiator.
Julis granatinus Bleeker (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt), 1862f: 115 nomen nudum; in synonymy of Halichoeres poecila.
Julis giofredi var. argentata Risso in Bonaparte, 1846: 86, nomen nudum; in synonymy of Julis giofredi Risso and based on Julis giofredi var. I (Risso, 1827: 310).
Julis giofredi var. fuscoviolacea Risso in Bonaparte, 1846: 86, nomen nudum; in synonymy of Julis giofredi Risso and based on Julis giofredi var. II (Risso, 1827: 310).
Julis leucostictus Bleeker, 1862f: 134, nomen nudum; in synonymy of Stethojulis phekadopleura.
Julis mediterranea var. pallidula Risso in Bonaparte,1846: 86, nomen nudum; in synonymy of Julis mediterranea Risso.
Julis mediterranea var. viridula Risso in Bonaparte, 1846: 86, nomen nudum; in synonymy of Julis mediterranea Risso and based on Julis mediterranea var. I (Risso, 1827: 310).
Julis melanops Reinwardt in Bleeker, 1862f: 145, nomen nudum; in synonymy of Novaculichthys taeniurus.
Julis metager Tickell in Day, 1888: 802, nomen nudum; mentioned under Platyglossus metager Day 1888.
Julis perlatus Bleeker, 1862f: 124 nomen nudum; in synonymy of Halichoeres guttatus.
Julis speciosus var. unicolor Risso in Bonaparte, 1846: 86, nomen nudum, in synonymy of Julis speciosa Risso.
Labrichthys affinis Döderlein in Steindachner & Döderlein, 1887: 272, nomen nudum; in synonymy of Labrus rubiginosus Temminck & Schlegel.
Labrichthys cerulieus Saville-Kent, 1888: 47, nomen nudum; in synonymy of Notolabrus tetricus (Richardson) (Russell, 1988).
Labroides asellinus Richardson, 1843c: 426, nomen nudum.
Labrus arilca Richardson, 1848: 131, pl. 55, figs. 5-7 (Australia); not available (Eschmeyer et al., 1997: 139).
Labrus choirodon Kuhl & van Hasselt in Bleeker, 1862f: 162, nomen nudum; in synonymy of Choerops macrodon.
Labrus coccineus Forster in Bloch & Schneider, 1801: 264, nomen nudum; in synonymy of Labrus miles Forster.
Labrus cyprinaceus White, 1790: 264, pl.50, (Australia) nomen nudum; in synonymy of Notolabrus gymnogenis (Günther) Russell (1988).
Labrus cyprinoides Labillardière, 1800: 419, nomen nudum; in synonymy of Notolabrus parilus (Richardson) (Russell, 1988).
Labrus erythrogaster Solander in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1839: 447, nomen nudum; name mentioned in the account of Julis erythrogaster Valenciennes.
Labrus foetidus Nardo (ex Chiereghini) 1847: col. 123, nomen nudum; in synonymy of Symphodus tinca (Linnaeus).
Labrus formosus Solander in Lay & Bennett 1839: 66, nomen nudum.
Labrus hemichrysus Commerson in Lacepède, 1801: 473, nomen nudum; listed in synonymy of Labrus semiruber Lacepède.
Labrus lorius Parkinson in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1839: 412, nomen nudum; mentioned under account of Julis lunaris.
Labrus lutescens Bennett, 1832c: 184, nomen nudum; in synonymy of Julis porphyrocephala.
Labrus lutescens Solander in Richardson, 1846: 260, nomen nudum; in synonymy of Julis lunaris.
Labrus lutiolus Nardo (ex Chiereghini) 1847: col. 123, nomen nudum; in synonymy of Coricus rostratus Günther, 1862: 193.
Labrus nasutus Günther, 1862: 193, nomen nudum; name on specimen from Tahiti mentioned under Gomphosus varius.
Labrus nellus Nardo (ex Chiereghini) 1847: col. 123, nomen nudum; in synonymy of Acantholabrus palloni Risso, 1810.
Labrus orientalis Hasselquist, 1762: 394; not available, published in a rejected work (International Commission Zoological Nomenclature, Opinion 57).
Labrus pavo var. elegantissimus Risso in Bonaparte, 1846: 82 nomen nudum; in synonymy of Labrus mixtus; name refers to Labrus pavo var. I (Risso, 1827:310).
Labrus ornatus Solander in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1839: 412 nomen nudum; mentioned under account of Julis lunaris.
Labrus papagalus Nardo (ex Chiereghini) 1847: col. 123, nomen nudum; in synonymy of Labrus viridis Linnaeus.
Labrus radiatus Hemprich & Ehrenberg, 1899: 8, nomen nudum; name mentioned in synonymy of, and preoccupied by, Labrus radiatus Linnaeus 1758.
Labrus sachettus Forsskål, 1775: xix, nomen nudum.
Labrus saxatilis var. immaculatus Risso in Bonaparte, 1846: 82, nomen nudum; mentioned in synonymy of Labrus viridis.
Labrus scapularis Bleeker, 1862f: 142, nomen nudum; in synonymy of Hemigymnus melapterus.
Labrus scaruscretic Forsskål, 1775: xix, nomen nudum.
Labrus scarusvarius Forsskål, 1775: xix, nomen nudum.
Labrus verdutius Nardo (ex Chiereghini) 1847: col. 123, nomen nudum; listed as synonym of Symphodus tinca (Linnaeus).
Labrus vittatus Forster, in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1840: 445 nomen nudum; mentioned in account of Julis cyanogaster.
Novacula plinii Risso in Bonaparte, 1846: 86, nomen nudum; in synonymy of Xyrichtys novacula.
Pseudoscarus schlegeli Steindachner, in Steindachner & Döderlein, 1887: 277 nomen nudum; mentioned in passing under Pseudoscarus ovifrons.
Scarus brachyvarius Longley in Longley & Hildebrand, 1941: 212, nomen nudum; manuscript name of Poey; in synonymy of Sparisoma rubripinne (Randall, 1990).
Scarus coerulescens Ehrenberg in Rüppell, 1829: 77, nomen nudum.
Scarus erythrogenys Bleeker (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt), 1862: 32 nomen nudum; in synonymy of Pseudoscarus nuchipunctatus.
Scarus gibbosus Kuhl & van Hasselt, in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1840: 208 nomen nudum; in synonymy of Scarus muricatus.
Scarus harith Ehrenberg, in Rüppell, 1829: 77, nomen nudum.
Scarus lividus Bleeker (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt), 1862: 40, nomen nudum; in synonymy of Pseudoscarus aeruginosus1.
Scarus nigricans Ehrenberg in Rüppell, 1829: 77, nomen nudum.
Scarus obscurus Ehrenberg in Rüppell, 1829: 77, nomen nudum.
Scarus ruber Bleeker (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt), 1862: 37, nomen nudum; in synonymy of Pseudoscarus rubroviolaceus.
Scarus rubronotatus Ehrenberg in Rüppell, 1829: 77, nomen nudum.
Scarus rurk Ehrenberg in Rüppell, 1829: 77, nomen nudum.
Scarus viridis Ehrenberg in Rüppell, 1829: 77, nomen nudum.
Scarus viridis Ehrenberg, in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1839: 231, nomen nudum; mentioned in account of Scarus gibbus.
Scarus wurk Ehrenberg in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1840: 246 nomen nudum; mentioned in account of Scarus mastax.
Sparus prasiophthalmus Richardson (ex Solander), 1843: 24 nomen nudum; mentioned in account of Julis celidotus.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We are grateful to Ernst Mikschi and Helmut Wellendorf (Naturhistorisches Museum Wien) for inviting one of us (P.P.) to visit the ichthyological collection and loaning specimens. We thank the following persons for providing information or loans of specimens: Gerald R. Allen (Western Australian Museum, Perth), Nicolas Bailly, Marie-Louise Bauchot and Martine Desoutter (Muséum nationale d'Histoire naturelle, Paris), Alberto Brito (Universidad de la Laguna, Islas Canarias), William A. Bussing (Universidad de Costa Rica), Giuliano Doria (Museo Civico di Storia Naturale "G. Doria", Genova, Italy), Malcolm Francis (National Institute Water Atmospheric Research, New Zealand), Antony C. Gill (Museum Natural History, London), Martin F. Gomon and Rudie H. Kuiter (Museum of Victoria, Melbourne), Phillip C. Heemstra (J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Grahamstown), Jeff Johnson (Queensland Museum), Sven Kullander (Swedish Museum Natural History, Stockholm), Mauro Mariani and Alberto Postonia (Acquario di Milano, Italy), Keiichi Matsuura (National Science Museum, Tokyo), Mark McGrouther (Australian Museum, Sydney South), Hans-Joachim Paepke (Museum fòr Naturkunde, Berlin), Germán R. Pequeño and Maurizio Protti (Universidad Austral de Chile), Michela Podestà (Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Di Milano, Italy), Edoardo Razzetti (Museo di Storia Naturale di Pavia, Italy), Luiz Alvez Rocha (Universidade Federal de Paraiba, Brazil), Barry Russell (Museum and Art Gallery of the Northern Territory, Australia), Shih-Chieh Shen and Eric Tsao (Taipei University), C. Lavett Smith (American Museum Natural History, New York), Katsumi Tsukamoto (Ocean Research Institute, The University of Tokyo), Mark W. Westneat (Field Museum Natural History, Chicago), Peter Wirtz and Frederico Cardigos (University of the Azores). We are grateful to William N. Eschmeyer, Carl J. Ferraris, Jr., Mysi Dang Hoang, and Douglas J. Long from the California Academy of Science for reviewing the manuscript. Many thanks to Rainer Froese (ICLARM, Philippines) for sending a copy of Fishbase 98 CD. Access to the ichthyological literature was greatly facilitated by the help of the staff of the Libraries of the Museo Civico di Storia Naturale and the Acquario e Civica Stazione Idrobiologica, Milano.

Table. List of nominal species of Labridae and Scaridae and their present allocations. New synonyms are indicated by an asterisk (*).

Nominal Species: Present Allocation

LABRIDAE

Julis abhortani Val., 1839: Thalassoma trilobatum
Cheilinus abudjubbe Rüppell, 1835: Cheilinus abudjubbe
Labrus acatirostreus Nardo, 1824: Symphodus rostratus
Ctenolabrus acutus Val., 1839: Ctenolabrus rupestris
Julis adelaidensis Castelnau, 1875: Ophthalmolepis lineolatus
Cirrhilabrus adornatus Randall & Kunzmann, 1998: C. adornatus
Labrus adspersus Walbaum, 1792: Tautogolabrus adspersus
Pseudojulis adustus Gilbert, 1890: Halichoeres adustus
Julis aeruginosus Val., 1839: Thalassoma purpureum
Labrus aeruginosus Pallas, 1814: Symphodus roissali
Halichoeres aestuaricola Bussing, 1972: H. aestuaricola
Lachnolaimus aigula Val., 1839: Lachnolaimus maximus
Lutjanus alberti Risso, 1810: Symphodus roissali
Choerops albigena De Vis, 1885: Choerodon cyanodus
Wetmorella albofasciata Schultz & Marshall, 1954: Wetmorella albofasciata
Thalassoma albolineum Nichols, 1941: T. quinquevittatum
Julis albolumbata Schmidt, 1931: Pseudocoris bleekeri
Lepidaplois albomaculatus Smith, 1957: Bodianus axillaris
Cossyphus albotaeniatus Val., 1839: Bodianus bilunulatus
Labrus albovittatus Bonnaterre, 1788: Stethojulis albovittata
Lepidaplois aldabrensis Smith, 1955: Bodianus diana
Dotalabrus alleni Russell, 1988: Dotalabrus alleni
Labropsis alleni Randall, 1981: Labropsis alleni
Platyglossus alternans Cartier, 1874: Halichoeres scapularis
Xyrichthys altipinnis Rüppell, 1835: Novaculichthys taeniourus
* Platyglossus amabilis De Vis, 1885: Halichoeres nigrescens
Choerodon ambiguus Ogilby, 1910: Choerodon venustus
Julis amblycephalus Bleeker, 1856: Thalassoma amblycephalum
Anampses amboinensis Bleeker, 1857: A. meleagrides
Duymaeria amboinensis Bleeker, 1856: Pteragogus enneacanthus
Julis amboinensis Bleeker, 1856: Halichoeres solorensis
Labrus americanus Bloch & Schneider, 1801: Tautoga onitis
Sparus anchorago Bloch, 1791: Choerodon anchorago
Julis aneitensis Günther, 1862: Thalassoma lutescens
Novacula aneitensis Günther, 1862: Xyrichtys aneitensis
Coris angulatus Lacepède, 1801: Coris aygula
Paracheilinus angulatus Randall & Lubbock, 1981: P. angulatus
Eupetrichthys angustipes Ramsay & Ogilby, 1888: E. angustipes
Julis annularis Val., 1839: Halichoeres marginatus
Halichoeres annulatus Fowler, 1904: Halichoeres miniatus
* Julis annulatus Val., 1839: Hologymnosus doliatus
Labrus annulatus Lacepède, 1801: Hologymnosus annulatus
Crenilabrus anthioides Bennett, 1832: Bodianus anthioides
Labrus aper Retzius, 1800: Labrus bergylta
Labrus aper Val., 1846: Semicossyphus darwini
Conniella apterygia Allen, 1983: Conniella apterygia
Macropharyngodon aquilolo Jenkins, 1901: M. geoffroy
Trichopus arabicus Shaw, 1803: Thalassoma lunare
Labrus arago Quoy & Gaimard, 1824: N. macrolepidotus
Julis aran Montrouzier, 1856: Thalassoma trilobatum
Crenilabrus arcuatus Risso, 1827: Symphodus roissali
Cheilinus arenatus Val., 1840: Oxycheilinus arenatus
Coris argenteostriata Steindachner, 1900: Coris ballieui
Crenilabrus argenteostriatus Nordmann, 1840: Symphodus ocellatus
Xyrichthys argentimaculata Steindachner, 1861: X. novacula
Labrus argus Bloch & Schneider, 1801: Halichoeres argus
Pseudojulis argyreogaster Playfair & Günther, 1867: Pseudojuloides argyreogaster
Suezichthys arquatus Russell, 1985: Suezichthys arquatus
Labrus ascanii Shaw, 1803: Symphodus melops
Julis ascensionis Quoy & Gaimard, 1834: Thalassoma ascensionis
Pseudocheilinops ataenia Schultz, 1960: P. ataenia
Pseudojuloides atavai Randall & Randall, 1981: P. atavai
Coris atlantica Günther, 1862: Coris atlantica
Cossyphus atrolumbus Val., 1839: Bodianus perditio
Lepidaplois atrorubens Jordan [EK], 1925: Bodianus bilunulatus
Paracheilinus attenuatus Randall, 1999: P. attenuatus
Cheilinus aurantiacus Castelnau, 1872: Dotalabrus aurantiacus
Crenilabrus aurantiacus Cocco in Facciolà, 1885?: Symphodus ocellatus
Crenilabrus aurantiacus Facciolà, 1888: Lappanella fasciata
Cirrhilabrus aurantidorsalis Allen & Kuiter, 1998: Cirrhilabrus aurantidorsalis
Pseudocoris aurantiofasciatus Fourmanoir, 1971: Pseudocoris aurantiofasciata
Cheilio auratus Lacepède, 1802: Cheilio inermis
Labrus aureomaculatus Bennett JW, 1830: Coris aygula
Julis auricularis Val., 1839: Coris auricularis
Cossyphus aurifer De Vis, 1884: Bodianus perditio
Ctenolabrus aurigarius Richardson, 1845: Pteragogus aurigarius
Coris aurilineata Randall & Kuiter, 1982: Coris aurilineata
* Julis auritus Val., 1839: Halichoeres trimaculatus
Labrichthys australis Steindachner, 1866: Pseudolabrus guentheri
Labropsis australis Randall, 1981: Labropsis australis
Torresia australis Castelnau, 1875: Choerodon schoenleinii
Julis awayae Schmidt, 1931: Pseudocoris yamashiroi
Cossyphus axillaris Val., 1839: Bodianus axillaris
Julis axillaris Quoy & Gaimard, 1824: Stethojulis balteata
Labrus axillaris Bennett, 1832: Bodianus axillaris
Coris aygula Lacepède, 1801: Coris aygula
Suezichthys aylingi Russell, 1985: Suezichthys aylingi
Julis azorensis Fowler, 1919: Coris julis
Choerops azurio Jordan & Snyder, 1901: Choerodon azurio
* Labrus baccatus de Procé 1822: Halichoeres nigrescens
Labrus badius Walbaum 1792: Labrus mixtus
Platychoerops badius Ogilby, 1893: Achoerodus gouldii
Crenilabrus bailloni Val., 1839: Symphodus bailloni
Labrus balanus Fleming, 1828: Labrus bergylta
Hemipteronotus baldwini Jordan & Evermann, 1903: Xyrichtys baldwini
Choerodon balerensis Herre, 1950: Choerodon fasciatus
Labrus ballan Bonnaterre, 1788: Labrus bergylta
Labrus ballan Walbaum 1792: Labrus bergylta
Labrus ballanus Shaw, 1803: Labrus bergylta
Coris ballieui Vaillant & Sauvage, 1875: Coris ballieui
Julis ballieui Vaillant & Sauvage, 1875: Thalassoma ballieui
Cirrhilabrus balteatus Randall, 1988: Cirrhilabrus balteatus
Julis balteatus Quoy & Gaimard, 1824: Stethojulis balteata
Julis bandanensis Bleeker, 1851: Stethojulis bandanensis
Iridio bathyphilus Beebe & Tee-Van, 1932: Halichoeres bathyphilus
Julis batuensis Bleeker, 1856: Coris batuensis
Sparus batus Perry, 1811: Cheilinus fasciatus
Paracheilinus bellae Randall, 1988: Paracheilinus bellae
Cossyphus bellis Ramsay & Ogilby, 1887: Bodianus unimaculatus
Julis beraber Montrouzier, 1857: Hemigymnus melapterus
Thalassoma berendti Seale, 1901: Thalassoma purpureum
Labrus bergsnyltrus Lacepède, 1801: Ctenolabrus rupestris
Labrus bergylta Ascanius, 1767: Labrus bergylta
Crenilabrus bertini Pras, 1961: Symphodus ocellatus
Julis bicatenatus Bennett, 1832: Thalassoma trilobatum
Labroides bicincta Saville-Kent, 1893: Labroides dimidiatus
Cheilio bicolor Bianconi, 1857: Cheilio inermis
Cossyphus bicolor Liénard in Sauvage, 1891: Bodianus anthioides
Julis bicolor Günther, 1862: Thalassoma genivittatum
* Labrichthys bicolor Day, 1871: Hemigymnus melapterus
Labroides bicolor Fowler & Bean, 1928: Labroides bicolor
Labrus bicolor Bloch & Schneider, 1801: Halichoeres bicolor
Labrus bidens Nardo, 1924: Symphodus mediterraneus
Lutjanus bidens Bloch, 1790: Symphodus mediterraneus
Cheilinus bifasciatus Bleeker, 1871: Oxycheilinus bimaculatus
Labrus bifasciatus Bloch, 1791: Thalassoma bifasciatum
Labrus bifasciatus var torquatus Bloch & Schneider, 1801: Thalassoma bifasciatum
Platyglossus bifasciatus Steindachner, 1866: Halichoeres bicolor
Julis bifer Lay & Bennett, 1839: Novaculichthys taeniourus
Suezichthys bifurcatus Russell, 1986: Suezichthys bifurcatus
Thalassoma bilateralis von Bonde, 1934: Hemigymnus fasciatus
Platyglossus bilineatus Karoli, 1882: Halichoeres bicolor
Labrus bilunulatus Lacepède, 1801: Bodianus bilunulatus
Iridio bimaculata Wilson, 1916: Halichoeres aestuaricola
Bodianus bimaculatus Allen, 1973: Bodianus bimaculatus
Cheilinus bimaculatus Val., 1840: Oxycheilinus bimaculatus
Halichoeres bimaculatus Rüppell, 1835: H. zeylonicus
Leptojulis bimaculatus Kner & Steindachner, 1867: nomen dubium
Xyrichtys bimaculatus Rüppell, 1829: Xyrichtys bimaculatus
Xyrichthys binghami Mowbray, 1925: Xyrichtys novacula
Julis binotopsis Bleeker, 1849: Halichoeres binotopsis
Halichoeres biocellatus Schultz, 1960: H. biocellatus
Macropharyngodon bipartitus Smith, 1957: M. bipartitus
Macropharyngodon bipartitus marisrubri Randall, 1978: M. bipartitus
Labrichthys biserialis Klunzinger, 1880: Pseudolabrus biserialis
Cheiliopsis bivittatus Steindachner, 1863: Bodianus opercularis
Labrus bivittatus Bloch, 1791: Halichoeres bivittatus
Novaculichthys blanchardi Cadenat & Marchal, 1963: Xyrichtys blanchardi
Cirrhilabrus blatteus Springer & Randall, 1974: C. blatteus
Hemigymnus bleasdalei Castelnau, 1875: Pictilabrus laticlavius
Coris bleekeri Hubrecht, 1876: Pseudocoris bleekeri
Halichoeres bleekeri Günther, 1861: Halichoeres chloropterus
Labrichthys bleekeri Castelnau, 1872: Notolabrus tetricus
Platyglossus bleekeri Steindachner & Döderlein, 1887: Halichoeres bleekeri
Bodianus blochii Lacepède, 1802: Bodianus rufus
* Cheilinus blochii Val., 1840: Cheilinus chlorourus
Julis blochii Val., 1839: Thalassoma hebraicum
Thalliurus blochii Swainson, 1839: Cheilinus chlorourus
Bodianus bodianus Bloch, 1790: Bodianus rufus
Doratonotus boekei Metzelaar, 1919: D. megalepis
Odax borbonicus Val., 1840: Pseudodax moluccanus
Crenilabrus boryanus Risso, 1827: Symphodus mediterraneus
Julis boryii Lesson, 1831: Hemigymnus melapterus
Labrichthys bostockii Castelnau, 1873: Notolabrus parilus
Labrus botryocosmus Richardson, 1846: Notolabrus celidotus
Lepidaplois bourboni Fourmanoir & Guézé, 1961: Bodianus leucosticticus
Cossyphus boutoni Liénard in Sauvage, 1891: Bodianus anthioides
Sparus brachiatus Shaw, 1803: Thalassoma trilobatum
Sparus brachion Lacepède, 1802: Novaculichthys taeniourus
* Bodianus brachyrhynus Mira-Ribeiro, 1918: Bodianus rufus
Coricus brama Nordmann, 1840: Symphodus rostratus
Ctenolabrus brandaonis Steindachner, 1867: Tautogolabrus brandaonis
Labrus brasiliensis Bloch, 1791: Halichoeres radiatus
Pictilabrus brauni Hutchins & Morrison, 1996: P. brauni
Choerops brenchleyi Günther, 1872: Choerodon zosterophorus
Choerojulis brownfieldi Whitley, 1945: Halichoeres brownfieldi
Lutjanus brunnichii Lacepède, 1802: Symphodus mediterraneus
Coris bulbifrons Randall & Kuiter, 1982: Coris bulbifrons
Labrus burgall Schøpf, 1788?: Tautogolabrus adspersus
Iniistius cacatua Waite, 1901: Xyrichtys pavo
Tautoga caerulea Mitchill, 1814: Tautogolabrus adspersus
Harpe caeruleoaureus Lacepède, 1802: Bodianus rufus
Julis caeruleocephalus Cuvier, 1829: Thalassoma duperrey
Labroides caeruleolineatus Fowler, 1945: Labroides dimidiatus
Duymaeria caeruleomaculata Günther, 1862: Pteragogus flagellifer
Thalassoma caeruleomarginata Fowler, 1944: T. lucasanum
Anampses caeruleopunctatus Rüppell, 1829: Anampses caeruleopunctatus
Hemipteronotus caeruleopunctatus Yu, 1968: Xyrichtys verrens
Halichoeres caeruleovittatus Rüppell, 1835: H. scapularis
Centrolabrus caeruleus Azevedo, 1999: C. caeruleus
Crenilabrus caeruleus Risso, 1827: Symphodus melanocercus
Frontilabrus caeruleus Randall & Condè, 1989: F. caeruleus
Gomphosus caeruleus klunzingeri Klausewitz, 1962: Gomphosus caeruleus
Gomphosus caeruleus Lacepède, 1801: G. caeruleus
Halichoeres californicus Günther, 1861: Oxyjulis californica
Labrus caliophthalmus Rafinesque 1810?: Symphodus tinca
* Cheilinus calophthalmus Playfair & Günther, 1867: Cheilinus oxycephalus
Crenilabrus caninus Lowe, 1839: Bodianus scrofa
Lachnolaimus caninus Cuvier, 1829: Lachnolaimus maximus
* Trochocopus canis Philippi, 1887: Semicossyphus darwini
Julis cantori Bleeker, 1861: Halichoeres bicolor
Labrus capistratus Pallas, 1814: Symphodus roissali
Novacula carneoflava Peters, 1877: Xyrichtys pavo
Labrus carneus Ascanius, 1772: Labrus mixtus
Labrus carolinus Bonnaterre, 1788: Tautoga onitis
Paracheilinus carpenteri Randall & Lubbock, 1981: Paracheilinus carpenteri
Sparus carudse Lacepède, 1802: Ctenolabrus rupestris
Chaerojulis castaneus Kner & Steindachner, 1867: Labrichthys unilineatus
Julis casturi Bleeker, 1852: Stethojulis trilineata
Stethojulis casturi Günther, 1881: Stethojulis trilineata
Julis caudalis Poey, 1860: Halichoeres caudalis
Labrichthys caudavittatus Steindachner, 1898:Suezichthys caudavittatus
Julis caudimacula Quoy & Gaimard, 1834: Coris caudimacula
Choerodon cauteroma Gomon & Allen, 1987: C. cauteroma
Novacula celebica Bleeker, 1856: Xyrichtys celebicus
Cheilinus celebicus Bleeker, 1853: Oxycheilinus celebicus
Julis (Julis) celebicus Bleeker, 1855: Thalassoma lunare
Labrus celidotus Bloch & Schneider, 1801: Notolabrus celidotus
Labrus centiquadrus Lacepède, 1801: Halichoeres hortulanus
Coris centralis Randall, 1999: Coris centralis
Gomphosus cepedianus Val., 1840: Gomphosus varius
Novacula cephalotaenia Bleeker, 1854: Novaculichthys taeniourus
Chaerops cephalotes Castelnau, 1875: Choerodon cephalotes
Cheilinus ceramensis Bleeker, 1852: Oxycheilinus bimaculatus
Pseudojulis cerasina Snyder, 1904: Pseudojuloides cerasinus
Labricthys ceruleus Saville-Kent, 1897: Notolabrus tetricus
Labrus cettii Rafinesque 1810: Coris julis
Crenilabrus chabrolii Lesson, 1830: Bodianus macrourus
Halichoeres chierchiae Caporiacco, 1947: H. chierchiae
Labrus chinensis Linnaeus 1758: Centrolabrus exoletus
Halichoeres chlorocephalus Kuiter & Randall, 1995: Halichoeres chlorocephalus
Labrus chlorocephalus Bloch & Schneider 1801: Stethojulis interrupta
Labrus chlorodus Gray, 1854: Choerodon anchorago
Labrus chlorophthalmus Rafinesque 1810?: Symphodus tinca
Labrus chloropterus Bloch, 1791: Halichoeres chloropterus
* Lutjanus chlorosochrus Risso, 1810: Symphodus mediterraneus
Anampses chlorostigma Val., 1840: A. caeruleopunctatus
Sparus chlorourus Bloch, 1791: Cheilinus chlorourus
Macropharyngodon choati Randall, 1978: M. choati
Labrus chogset Mitchill, 1815: Tautogolabrus adspersus
Labrus chogset var fulva Mitchill, 1815: Tautogolabrus adspersus
Anampses chrysocephalus Randall, 1958: A. chrysocephalus
Crenilabrus chrysophrus Risso, 1827: nomen dubium
Labrus chrysostoma Rafinesque 1810?: Symphodus tinca
Julis chrysotaenia Bleeker, 1853: Halichoeres melanurus
Leptojulis chrysotaenia Randall & Ferraris, 1981: Leptojulis chrysotaenia
Halichoeres chrysus Randall, 1981: Halichoeres chrysus
Labrichthys cincta Hutton, 1877: Notolabrus cinctus
Julis cinctus Poey, 1860: Halichoeres garnoti
Labrus cinereus Bonnaterre, 1788: Symphodus cinereus
Labrus cinereus Pallas, 1814: Ctenolabrus rupestris
Julis cingulata Quoy & Gaimard, 1834: Thalassoma hebraicum
Cheilinus cingulatus Weber, 1913: Oxycheilinus unifasciatus
Labrus cingulum Lacepède, 1801: Coris aygula
Labrus citrinus Walbaum 1792: nomen dubium
Pseudocheilinus citrinus Randall, 1999: P. citrinus
Sparus claviera Lacepède, 1802: Labrus mixtus
Julis clepsydralis Smith & Swain, 1882: Thalassoma duperrey
Cheilinus coccineus Rüppell, 1828: Oxycheilinus digramma
Labrus coeruleus Ascanius, 1772: Labrus mixtus
Halichoeres coeruleo-vittatus Rüppell, 1835: H. scapularis
Labrus coeruleovittatus Bonnaterre, 1788: Symphodus mediterraneus
Labrus comber Bonnaterre, 1788: Labrus bergylta
Labrus comber Gmelin, 1789: Labrus bergylta
Labrus comber Walbaum, 1792: Labrus bergylta
Cheilinus commersoni Bennett, 1832: Oxycheilinus digramma
Julis commersoni Val., 1839: Thalassoma genivittatum
Choerops concolor De Vis, 1885?: Choerodon cyanodus
Cirrhilabrus condei Allen & Randall, 1996: C. condei
Labrichthys convexus Castelnau, 1875: Notolabrus parilus
Labrus cook Bloch & Schneider 1801: Labrus mixtus
Hemipteronotus copei Fowler, 1901: Xyrichtys novacula
Labrus coquus Gmelin, 1789: Labrus mixtus
Labrus coquus Walbaum, 1792: Labrus mixtus
Julis corbis Val., 1839: Halichoeres hortulanus
Labrus cordelicus Bloch & Schneider 1801: nomen dubium
Lutianus core Nardo, 1827?: Symphodus cinereus
Julis coris Lesson, 1828: Thalassoma quinquevittatum
Julis coris Val., 1839: Coris aygula
Lutjanus cornubicus Risso, 1810: Symphodus cinereus
Labrus cornubius Gmelin, 1789?: Symphodus melops
Coris coronata De Vis, 1885: Coris batuensis
Novacula coryphaenoides Schinz in Cuvier, 1822: Xyrichtys novacula
Novacula coryphena Risso, 1827: Xyrichtys novacula
Halichoeres cosmetus Randall & Smith, 1982: H. cosmetus
Pseudolabrus cossyphoides Steindachner, 1900: P. miles
Lutjanus cotta Risso, 1810: Symphodus cinereus
Acantholabrus couchii Val., 1839: Acantholabrus palloni
Crenilabrus couchii Val., 1839: Symphodus melops
Labrichthys cousteaui Estève, 1955: Larabicus quadrilineatus
Thalassoma cranei Herre, 1935: Thalassoma lutescens
Chaerops crassus Castelnau, 1875: Choerodon cyanodus
Labrus crassus Agassiz, 1831?: Labrus merula
Crenilabrus croceus Lesson, 1828: Bodianus macrourus
Choerojulis crotaphus Poey, 1860: Halichoeres poeyi
Julis crotaphus Cuvier, 1829: Halichoeres radiatus
Labrichthys cruentatus De Vis, 1885: Pseudolabrus guentheri
Polylepion cruentum Gomon, 1977: Polylepion cruentum
Pteragogus cryptus Randall, 1981: Pteragogus cryptus
Xyrichthys cultratus Val., 1840: Xyrichtys novacula
Julis cupido Tem. & Sch., 1845: Thalassoma cupido
* Thalassoma cupido bipunctatum Vasiliu, 1931: T. lunare
Anampses cuvier Quoy & Gaimard, 1824: Anampses cuvier
Julis cuvieri Bennett, 1831: Coris cuvieri
Julis cuvieri Bleeker, 1847: Halichoeres chloropterus
Labrichthys cuvieri Castelnau, 1873: Notolabrus tetricus
Coris cyanea Macleay, 1883: Coris aygula
Paracheilinus cyaneus Kuiter & Allen, 1999: P. cyaneus
Xyrichthys cyanifrons Val., 1840: Xyrichthys cyanifrons
Xirichthys cyanirostris Guerin-Meneville 1829-38: Xyrichtys pentadactylus
Labrus cyanocephalus Bloch, 1791: Halichoeres cyanocephalus
Cheilio cyanochloris Val., 1839: Cheilio inermis
Labrus cyanodus Richardson, 1843: Choerodon cyanodus
Julis cyanogaster Val., 1839: Thalassoma purpureum
Labrichthys cyanogenys Ramsay & Ogilby, 1887: Notolabrus tetricus
Julis cyanogramma Richardson, 1850: Ophthalmolepis lineolatus
Macropharyngodon cyanoguttatus Randall, 1978: Macropharyngodon cyanoguttatus
Suezichthys cyanolaemus Russell, 1985: S. cyanolaemus
Cheilinoides cyanopleura Bleeker, 1851: C. cyanopleura
Julis cyanopleura Bleeker, 1853: Leptojulis cyanopleura
Crenilabrus cyanospilatus Cocco, 1840: Symphodus melanocercus
Julis cyanostigma Val., 1839: Halichoeres radiatus
Cossyphus cyanostolus Richardson, 1846: Choerodon schoenleinii
Labrichthys cyanotaenia Bleeker, 1854: Labrichthys unilineatus
Julis cyanoventor Saville-Kent, 1893?: Thalassoma lunare
Verreo cylindriatus Tanaka, 1930: Bodianus cylindriatus
Halichoeres cymatogrammus Jordan & Seale, 1905: Halichoeres scapularis
Halichoeres daedalma Jordan & Seale, 1906: H. margaritaceus
Cossyphus darwini Jenyns, 1842: Semicossyphus darwini
* Platyglossus dayi Steindachner, 1870: Halichoeres nigrescens
Xirichthys dea Tem. & Sch., 1845: Xyrichtys dea
Coris debueni Randall, 1999: Coris debueni
Cheilinus decacanthus Bleeker, 1851: Cheilinus chlorourus
Iridio decoratus Bean, 1906: Halichoeres garnoti
Doratonotus decoris Evermann & Marsh, 1899: D. megalepis
Sparus decussatus Bennett, 1829: Halichoeres hortulanus
Halichoeres desmogenys Fowler & Bean, 1928: H. vrolikii
Julis detersor Val., 1839: Thalassoma bifasciatum
Guntheria devisi Whitley, 1941: Suezichthys devisi
Anampses diadematus Rüppell, 1835: A. caeruleopunctatus
Labrus diana Lacepède, 1801: Bodianus diana
* Halichoeres dianthus Smith, 1947: Halichoeres nigrescens
Ammolabrus dicrus Randall & Carlson, 1997: A. dicrus
Julis dieschismenacanthoides Bleeker, 1853: Halichoeres papilionaceus
Julis dieschismenacanthus Bleeker, 1852: Halichoeres papilionaceus
Labrus digramma Lacepède, 1801: Oxycheilinus digramma
Cossyphus dimidiatus Val., 1839: Labroides dimidiatus
Julis dimidiatus Agassiz in Spix & Agassiz, 1831: Halichoeres cyanocephalus
Tautoga dimidiatus Bleeker, 1849: Hemigymnus melapterus
Harpe diplotaenia Gill, 1862: Bodianus diplotaenia
Halichoeres discolor Bussing, 1983: Halichoeres discolor
Platyglossus dispilus Günther, 1864: Halichoeres dispilus
Pseudocheilinus dispilus Randall, 1999: P. dispilus
Choerops dodecacanthus Bleeker, 1868: Choerodon robustus
Symphodus doderleini Jordan, 1890: Symphodus doderleini
Platyglossus doleschalli Steindachner, 1863: Halichoeres papilionaceus
Labrus doliatus Lacepède, 1801: Hologymnosus doliatus
Crenilabrus donovani Val., 1839: Symphodus bailloni
Labrus donovani Val., 1839: Labrus bergylta
Labrus donzella Nardo, 1824?: Symphodus cinereus
Labrus donzella Rafinesque 1810?: Thalassoma pavo
Julis dorsalis Quoy & Gaimard, 1834: Thalassoma hardwicke
Labrichthys dorsalis Macleay, 1881: Pseudolabrus guentheri
Coris dorsomacula Fowler, 1908: Coris dorsomacula
Labrus dubbius Nardo, 1824: Symphodus ocellatus
* Crenilabrus dubius Gulia, 1861: Symphodus ocellatus
* Platyglossus dubius Steindachner, 1866: Halichoeres nigrescens
Julis duperrey Quoy & Gaimard, 1824: Thalassoma duperrey
* Julis dussumieri Val., 1839: Halichoeres nigrescens
Labrichthys dux De Vis, 1883: Pseudolabrus guentheri
Lachnolaimus dux Val., 1839: Lachnolaimus maximus
Cossyphus echis Guichenot, 1869: Pseudocheilinus hexataenia
Cossyphus eclancheri Val., 1846: Bodianus eclancheri
Labrichthys edelensis Castelnau, 1873: Notolabrus parilus
Anampses elegans Ogilby, 1889: Anampses elegans
Iridio elegans Bean, 1906: Halichoeres radiatus
Julis elegans Val., 1839: Halichoeres scapularis
Labrichthys elegans Steindachner, 1883: Dotalabrus aurantiacus
Coris elongata Günther, 1862: Hologymnosus annulatus
Pseudojuloides elongatus Ayling & Russell, 1977: P. elongatus
Crenilabrus enneacanthus Bleeker, 1853: Pteragogus enneacanthus
Labrus enneacanthus Lacepède, 1801: Cheilinus fasciatus
Novaculichthys entargyreus Jenkins, 1901: N. woodi
Labrus eoethinus Richardson, 1846: Pseudolabrus eoethinus
Labrus ephippium Val., 1839: nomen dubium
Lutianus eques Nardo, 1827: Symphodus ocellatus
Platyglossus equinus De Vis, 1885: Halichoeres margaritaceus
* Labrus erithrophthalmus Walbaum 1792: Symphodus mediterraneus
Julis erythrogaster Val., 1839: Thalassoma purpureum
Labrus erythrogaster Solander in Val., 1839: nomen nudum
Lutianus erythrophthalmus Rafinesque, 1810: nomen dubium
Pseudojuloides erythrops Randall & Randall, 1981: P. erythrops
Julis erythropterus Val., 1839?: Thalassoma hardwicke
Pseudocheilinus evanidus Jordan & Evermann, 1903: P. evanidus
Anampses evermanni Jenkins, 1901: Anampses cuvier
Hemipteronotus evides Jordan & Richardson, 1909: Xyrichtys baldwini
Halichoeres eximius Rüppell, 1835: Halichoeres hortulanus
Labrus exoletus Linnaeus, 1758: Centrolabrus exoletus
* Julis exornatus Richardson, 1846: Halichoeres nigrescens
Cirrhilabrus exquisitus Smith, 1957: Cirrhilabrus exquisitus
Coris eydouxii Val., 1839: Coris flavovittata
Sparus falcatus Bloch, 1791: Bodianus rufus
Cheilinus fasciatopunctatus Steindachner, 1863: C. trilobatus
Coricus fasciatus Cocco, 1833: Lappanella fasciata
Hologymnosus fasciatus Lacepède, 1801: H. doliatus
Labrus fasciatus Bloch, 1792: Hemigymnus fasciatus
Sparus fasciatus Bloch, 1791: Cheilinus fasciatus
Xiphochilus fasciatus Günther, 1867: Choerodon fasciatus
Anampses femininus Randall, 1972: Anampses femininus
Neolabrus fenestratus Steindachner, 1875: Malapterus reticulatus
* Artisia festiva de Beaufort, 1939: Halichoeres tenuispinis
Julis festiva Val., 1839: Coris julis
* Cheilinus festivus Val., 1840: Cheilinus trilobatus
Labrus festivus Risso, 1827: Labrus viridis
Anampses fidjensis Sauvage, 1880: Anampses neoguinaicus
Halichoeres fijiensis Herre, 1935: Halichoeres argus
Cirrhilabrichthys filamentosus Klausewitz, 1976: Cirrhilabrus filamentosus
Cossyphus filamentosus Peters, 1855: Pteragogus flagellifer
Paracheilinus filamentosus Allen, 1974: P.filamentosus
Stethojulis filholi Sauvage, 1880: Stethojulis trilineata
Julis finlaysoni Val., 1839: Leptojulis cyanopleura
Ctenolabrus flagellifer Val., 1839: Pteragogus flagellifer
Labrus flavescens Bloch & Schneider 1801: nomen dubium
Paracheilinus flavianalis Kuiter & Allen, 1999: Paracheilinus flavianalis
Cirrhilabrus flavidorsalis Randall & Carpenter, 1980: Cirrhilabrus flavidorsalis
Julis flavovittatus Bennett, 1828: Coris flavovittata
Lutianus flavus Rafinesque, 1814?: Symphodus ocellatus
Platyglossus florealis Jordan & Gilbert, 1882: Halichoeres bivittatus
Platyglossus floscorallis Jordan & Seale, 1906:Halichoeres melanurus
Julis formosus Val., 1839: Thalassoma trilobatum
Labrus formosus Bennett JW, 1830: Coris formosa
Cheilio forskalii Val., 1839: Cheilio inermis
Choerodon frenatus Ogilby, 1910: Choerodon frenatus
Crenilabrus fraenatus Bennett, 1835: Symphodus cinereus
Labrus fraenatus Pallas 1814: Symphodus cinereus
Iridio frenatus Nichols, 1920: Halichoeres maculipinna
Cossyphus frenchii Klunzinger, 1880: Bodianus frenchii
Coris frerei Playfair & Günther, 1867: Coris formosa
Labrus fucicola Richardson, 1840: Notolabrus fucicola
Labrichthys fucicolor Hutton, 1890: Notolabrus fucicola
Labrus fucii Rafinesque, 1810?: Symphodus cinereus
Labrichthys fuentesi Regan, 1913: Pseudolabrus fuentesi
Labrus fuliginosus Lacepède, 1801: Hemigymnus fasciatus
Symphodus fulvescens Rafinesque, 1810: S. rostratus
Stethojulis fulvoventris Seale, 1901: Stethojulis bandanensis
Cheilio fuscus Lacepède, 1802: Cheilio inermis
Gomphoses fuscus Val., 1840: Gomphosus varius
Gomphosus fuscus Bennett JW,1828: G. caeruleus
Labrus fuscus Gmelin 1789: Symphodus mediterraneus
Labrus fuscus Lacepède, 1801: Thalassoma trilobatum
Labrus fuscus Pallas, 1814: Symphodus cinereus
* Labrus fuscus Walbaum 1792: Symphodus mediterraneus
Labrus fusiformis Rüppell, 1835: Cheilio inermis
Coris gaimard africana Smith, 1957: Coris cuvieri
Coris gaimard speciosa Fowler, 1946: Coris gaimard
Julis gaimard Quoy & Gaimard, 1824: Coris gaimard
Scarus gallus Forsskål, 1775: Thalassoma lunare
Julis ganymede Bennett JW, 1830: Coris gaimard
Hiatula gardeniana Lacepède, 1800: Tautoga onitis
Julis garnoti Val., 1839: Halichoeres garnoti
Labrus gayi Val., 1839: Pseudolabrus gayi
Xyrichtys geisha Araga & Yoshino, 1986: Xyrichtys geisha
Julis genivittatus Val., 1839: Thalassoma genivittatum
Clepticus genizara Cuvier, 1829: Clepticus parrae
Crenilabrus geoffroi Risso, 1827: Symphodus tinca
Julis geoffroy Quoy & Gaimard, 1824:Macropharyngodon geoffroy
Lutjanus geofroyius Risso, 1810: Symphodus tinca
Anampses geographicus Val., 1840: A. geographicus
Scarus georgii Bennett JW, 1830: Thalassoma purpureum
Scarus georgiiquarti Bennett [JW], 1841: Thalassoma purpureum
Julis gibbifrons Quoy & Gaimard, 1834: Coris aygula
Labrus gibbosus Bonnaterre, 1788: Symphodus melops
Labrus gibbus Gmelin, 1789: Symphodus melops
Julis gillianus Poey, 1860: Thalassoma bifasciatum
Labrus giofredi Risso, 1810: Coris julis
Julis girardi Bleeker, 1859: nomen dubium
Eupetrichthys gloveri Scott, 1974: Pictilabrus laticlavius
Anampses godeffroyi Günther, 1881: Anampses cuvier
Chilinus godeffroyi Günther, 1872: Cheilinus undulatus
Labrus goldsinny Bonnaterre, 1788: Symphodus melops
Labrus gouanii Lacepède, 1801: nomen dubium
Labrus gouldii Richardson, 1843: Achoerodus gouldii
Julis gracilis Steindachner, 1863: Thalassoma lunare
Labrichthys gracilis Steindachner & Dóderlein, 1887: Suezichthys gracilis
Thalassoma grammaticum Gilbert, 1890: T. grammaticum
Lepidaplois grandisquamis Smith, 1968: Decodon grandisquamis
Amorphocephalus granulatus Bowdich, 1825: Xyrichtys novacula
Choerops graphicus De Vis, 1885: Choerodon graphicus
Chlorichthys grayii Swainson, 1839?: Thalassoma lunare
Coris greenoughii Günther, 1862: Coris gaimard
Julis greenovii Bennett, 1828: Coris gaimard
Labrus griseus Gmelin, 1789: Symphodus cinereus
Choerojulis grandisquamis Gill, 1863: Halichoeres bivittatus
Julis guentheri Bleeker, 1862: Thalassoma quinquevittatum
Pseudolabrus guentheri Bleeker, 1862: Pseudolabrus guentheri
Coris guineensis Bleeker, 1863: Coris atlantica
Lappanella guineensis Bauchot, 1969: Lappanella guineensis
Duymaeria guttata Fowler & Bean, 1928: Pteragogus guttatus
Cheilinus guttatus Bleeker, 1847: Cheilinus chlorourus
Labrus guttatus Bloch, 1791: Halichoeres argus
Labrus guttatus Bonnaterre 1788: Symphodus ocellatus
Labrus guttatus Gmelin, 1789: Symphodus ocellatus
* Labrus guttatus Walbaum, 1792: Symphodus ocellatus
Labrus guttulatus Lacepède, 1801: Halichoeres argus
Platyglossus guttulatus Macleay, 1883: Halichoeres chloropterus
Labrus gymnocephalus Bloch & Schneider, 1801: Halichoeres chloropterus
Labrichthys gymnogenis Günther, 1862: Notolabrus gymnogenis
Xiphochilus gymonogenys Playfair & Günther, 1867: Choerodon gymnogenys
Coris halei Day, 1888: Coris formosa
Sparus hardwicke Bennett JW, 1830: Thalassoma hardwicke
Julis hardwickii Gray, 1832: Thalassoma lunare
Julis harloffii Bleeker, 1847: Halichoeres margaritaceus
Julis hartzfeldii Bleeker, 1852: Halichoeres hartzfeldii
Labrus hassek Lacepède, 1801: Cheilio inermis
Labrus hebraicus Lacepède, 1801: Thalassoma hebraicum
Thalassoma heiseri Randall & Edwards, 1984: T. heiseri
Cheilio hemichrysos Val., 1839: Cheilio inermis
Sparus hemisphaericus Shaw, 1803: Thalassoma trilobatum
Sparus hemisphaerium Lacepède, 1802: Novaculichthys taeniourus
Paracheilinus hemitaeniatus Randall & Harmelin-Vivien, 1977: Paracheilinus hemitaeniatus
Labrus herbeus Walbaum 1792: Labrus mixtus
Thalassoma herrei Seale, 1935: Thalassoma lunare
Cirrhilabrus heterodon Bleeker, 1871: C. cyanopleura
Julis heteropterus Bleeker, 1857: Pseudocoris heteroptera
Coris hewetti Randall, 1999: Coris hewetti
Chilinus hexagonatus Günther, 1881: Oxycheilinus unifasciatus
Cheilinus hexataenia Bleeker, 1857: Pseudocheilinus hexataenia
Labrus hiatula Linnaeus, 1766: Tautoga onitis
Labrus hirsutus Lacepède, 1801: Bodianus macrourus
Choerops hodgkinsonii Saville-Kent, 1893: Choerodon cephalotes
Novacula hoedtii Bleeker, 1856: Novaculichthys taeniourus
Cheilinus hoevenii Bleeker, 1862: Oxycheilinus celebicus
Julis hoevenii Bleeker, 1851: Halichoeres melanurus
Labrus hortulanus Lacepède, 1801: Halichoeres hortulanus
Julis humeralis Poey, 1860: Halichoeres bivittatus
Coris hupferi Fischer, 1885: Coris atlantica
Hemipteronotus hypospilus Schultz, 1960: Xyrichtys bimaculatus
* Julis hyrtlii Bleeker, 1856: Halichoeres bicolor
Labrus iagonensis Bowdich, 1825: Bodianus speciosus
Halichoeres ianthinus Fourmanoir, 1955: H. marginatus
Anampses ikedai Tanaka 1908: Anampses meleagrides
Acantholabrus imbricatus Lowe, 1839: Acantholabrus palloni
Coris imbris Tanaka, 1918: Coris aygula
Novacula immaculata Val., 1840: Xyrichtys pavo
* Platyglossus immaculatus Macleay, 1878: Halichoeres nigrescens
Thalassoma immanis Fowler, 1900: Thalassoma purpureum
Labrus imperialis Rafinesque 1810?: Thalassoma pavo
Xyrichtys incandescens Edwards & Lubbock, 1981: Xyrichtys incandescens
Labrus inermis Forsskål, 1775: Cheilio inermis
Xyrichthys infirmus Bean, 1891: Xyrichtys martinicensis
Labrus infuscus Walbaum 1792: Coris julis
Julichthys inornata De Vis, 1885: nomen dubium
Pseudojulis inornatus Gilbert, 1890: Pseudojuloides inornatus
Labrus inscriptus Richardson, 1848: Notolabrus inscriptus
Epibulus insidiator var flava Bleeker, 1849: Epibulus insidiator
Sparus insidiator Pallas, 1770: Epibulus insidiator
Bodianus insularis Gomon & Lubbock, 1980: B. insularis
Halichoeres insularis Allen & Robertson, 1992: H. insularis
Crenilabrus intermedius Gulia, 1861: nomen dubium
Julis internasalis Poey, 1861: Halichoeres cyanocephalus
Julis interruptus Bleeker, 1851: Stethojulis interrupta
Halichoeres iridescens Jenkins, 1901: H. ornatissimus
Halichoeres irideus Starks, 1913: Halichoeres radiatus
Halichoeres irideus torquatus Parr, 1930: H. radiatus
Halichoeres iridis Randall & Smith, 1982: H. iridis
Ctenolabrus iris Val., 1839: Lappanella fasciata
Halichoeres iris Seale, 1910: Thalassoma hardwicke
Labrichthys isleanus Sauvage, 1875: Nelabrichthys ornatus
Bodianus izuensis Araga & Yoshino, 1975: B. izuensis
Novacula jacksonensis Ramsay, 1881: X. jacksonensis
Cossyphus jagonensis Troschel, 1866: Bodianus speciosus
Julis jansenii Bleeker, 1856: Thalassoma jansenii
Duymaeria japonica Bleeker, 1856: Pteragogus aurigarius
Choerodonoides japonicus Kamohara, 1958: Choerodon gymnogenys
Labrus japonicus Houttuyn, 1782: nomen dubium
Labrus japonicus Val., 1839: Choerodon azurio
Novacula javanica Bleeker, 1862: Xyrichtys javanicus
* Julis javanicus Bleeker, 1857: Halichoeres nigrescens
Labrus javensis Bloch & Schneider 1801: nomen dubium
Hemipteronotus jenkinsi Snyder, 1904: Xyrichtys baldwini
Xyrichthys jessiae Jordan, 1888: Xyrichtys novacula
Cirrhilabrus johnsoni Randall, 1988: Cirrhilabrus johnsoni
Choerops jordani Snyder, 1908: Choerodon jordani
Cirrhilabrus jordani Snyder, 1904: Cirrhilabrus jordani
Novacula julioides Bleeker, 1851: Novaculichthys macrolepidotus
Labrus julis Linnaeus, 1758: Coris julis
Pseudojuloides kaleidos Kuiter & Randall, 1995: P. kaleidos
Julis kallochroma Bleeker, 1853: Halichoeres kallochroma
Julis kallopisos Bleeker, 1853: Halichoeres leucurus
Novacula kallosoma Bleeker, 1860: Novaculichthys taeniourus
Stethojulis kallosoma Bleeker, 1862: Stethojulis interrupta
Julis kalosoma Bleeker, 1852: Stethojulis interrupta
Cirrhilabrus katherinae Randall, 1992: C. katherinae
Cirrhilabrus katoi Senou & Hirata, 2000: C. katoi
Julis kawarin Bleeker, 1852: Halichoeres timorensis
Hemicoris keleipionis Jenkins, 1901: Coris ballieui
Labrus keslik Lacepède 1801: Coris julis
Cheilinus ketlitzii Val., 1840: Cheilinus oxycephalus
Iridio kirschii Jordan & Evermann, 1898: Halichoeres poeyi
Thalassoma klunzingeri Fowler & Steinitz, 1956: Thalassoma rueppellii
* Halichoeres kneri Bleeker, 1862: Halichoeres nigrescens
Labrus koelreuteri Walbaum, 1792: Stethojulis albovittata
Julis kuelkuel Montrouzier, 1857?: Cymolutes praetextatus
Macropharyngodon kuiteri Randall, 1978: M. kuiteri
Labrichthys labiosa Macleay, 1881: Pictilabrus laticlavius
Cirrhilabrus laboutei Randall & Lubbock, 1982: C. laboutei
Cheilinus lacrymans Val., 1840: Oxycheilinus digramma
Lutjanus lamarckii Risso, 1810: Symphodus rostratus
Julis lamarii Val., 1839: Halichoeres marginatus
Leptojulis lambdastigma Randall & Ferraris, 1981: Leptojulis lambdastigma
Cirrhilabrus lanceolatus Randall & Masuda, 1991: Cirrhilabrus lanceolatus
Labrichthys lantzii Sauvage, 1875: Nelabrichthys ornatus
Halichoeres lao Jenkins, 1901: Halichoeres ornatissimus
Halichoeres lapillus Smith, 1947: Halichoeres lapillus
Labrus lapina Forsskål, 1775: Symphodus tinca
* Julis laportei Liénard, 1845: Hologymnosus doliatus
Labrus lappanoides Rafinesque 1810?: Symphodus tinca
Labrus lappanus Rafinesque 1810?: Symphodus tinca
Labrus larvatus Lowe, 1852: Labrus mixtus
Labrus laticlavius Richardson, 1840: Pictilabrus laticlavius
Labrus latovittatus Lacepède in Rüppell, 1835: Labroides dimidiatus
Cossyphus latro De Vis, 1885: Bodianus perditio
Xyrichthys lecluse Quoy & Gaimard, 1824: Cymolutes lecluse
Anampses lennardi Scott, 1959: Anampses lennardi
Labrus leo Rafinesque, 1810: Thalassoma pavo
Julis leparensis Bleeker, 1852: Halichoeres argus
Coris lepomis Jenkins, 1901: Coris flavovittata
Halichoeres leptotaenia Randall & Earle, 1994: H. leptotaenia
Julis leschenaulti Val., 1839: Halichoeres scapularis
Julis lessonii Val., 1839: Thalassoma sanctaehelenae
Tautoga leucomos Bleeker, 1858: Hemigymnus
Julis leucorhynchos Bleeker, 1856: Coris gaimard
Labrus leucosticticus Bennett, 1832: Bodianus leucosticticus
* Halichoeres leucostigma Fowler & Bean, 1928: H. nigrescens
Halichoeres leucoxanthus Randall & Smith, 1982: Halichoeres leucoxanthus
Crenilabrus leucozona Bleeker, 1858: Choerodon anchorago
* Iniistius leucozonus Jenkins, 1901: Xyrichtys pavo
Labrus leucurus Walbaum, 1792: Halichoeres leucurus
Anampsodax lienardi Bleeker, 1875: A. geographicus
Labrus limbatus Val., 1839: Labrus merula
Stethojulis linearis Schultz, 1960: Stethojulis bandanensis
Coryphaena lineata Gmelin, 1789: Xyrichtys novacula
Pseudojulis lineata Castelnau, 1873: Ophthalmolepis lineolatus
Torresia lineata De Vis, 1885: Choerodon schoenleinii
Cirrhilabrus lineatus Randall & Lubbock, 1982: C. lineatus
Labrus lineatus Bonnaterre, 1788: Labrus mixtus
Labrus lineatus Walbaum 1792: nomen dubium
Xyrichthys lineatus Val., 1840: Xyrichtys martinicensis
Coryphaena lineolata Rafinesque, 1810: Xyrichtys novacula
Anampses lineolatus Bennett, 1836: A. caeruleopunctatus
Julis lineolatus Val., 1839: Ophthalmolepis lineolatus
Labrus lineolatus Val., 1839: Labrus merula
Paracheilinus lineopunctatus Randall & Lubbock, 1981: Paracheilinus lineopunctatus
Lutjanus linkii Bloch, 1790: Symphodus tinca
Hemipteronotus liogenys Fowler, 1904: Xyrichtys aneitensis
Crenilabrus littoralis Risso, 1827: Symphodus ocellatus
Labrus livens Linnaeus, 1758?: Labrus merula
Labrus lividus Val., 1839: Labrus viridis
Sparus lividus Lacepède, 1802?: Labrus merula
* Crenilabrus locaninus Gulia, 1861: Symphodus melops
Coris longipes Günther, 1862: Hologymnosus longipes
Acarauna longirostris Sevastianoff, 1802: Gomphosus caeruleus
Lepidaplois loxozonus Snyder, 1908: Bodianus loxozonus
Thalassoma loxum Randall & Mee, 1994: T. loxum
Cirrhilabrus lubbocki Randall & Carpenter, 1980: C. lubbocki
Julis lucasanus Gill, 1862: Thalassoma lucasanum
Labrus luculentus Richardson, 1848: Pseudolabrus luculentus
Crenilabrus melops lugubris Risso in Bonaparte, 1846: nomen nudum
Labrus lunaris Linnaeus, 1758: Thalassoma lunare
Anampses lunatus Sauvage, 1891: Anampses meleagrides
Cirrhilabrus lunatus Randall & Masuda, 1991: C. lunatus
Cheilinus lunifer Nichols, 1923: Cheilinus lunulatus
Labrus lunulatus Forsskål, 1775: Cheilinus lunulatus
Labrus luscus Linnaeus, 1758: Labrus viridis
Lepidaplois luteopunctatus Smith, 1957: Bodianus trilineatus
Cirrhilabrus luteovittatus Randall, 1988: C. luteovittatus
Julis lutescens Lay & Bennett, 1839: Thalassoma lutescens
Labrus luteus Walbaum 1792: Labrus viridis
Labrus luvarus Rafinesque, 1810: Labrus mixtus
Cirrhilabrus lyukyuensis Ishikawa, 1904: C. cyanopleura
Halichoeres macgregori Gilbert & Starks, 1904: H. nicholsi
Choerops macleayi Ramsay & Ogilby, 1887: Choerodon cephalotes
Halichoeres macleayi Jordan & Seale, 1906: Xenojulis margaritaceus
Labrichthys macleayi Herzenstein, 1896: Dotalabrus aurantiacus
Cossyphus macrodon Bleeker, 1849: Choerodon anchorago
Labrus macrodontus Lacepède, 1801: Choerodon anchorago
Lepidaplois macrognathos Morris, 1974: Bodianus macrognathos
Labrus macrolepidotus Bloch, 1791: Novaculichthys macrolepidotus
Labrus macrolepidotus Walbaum 1792: nomen dubium
Labrus macrostomus Rafinesque 1810?: Symphodus rostratus
Labrus macrourus Lacepède, 1801: Bodianus macrourus
Cossyphus macrurus Günther, 1862: Bodianus macrourus
Julis maculata Lesson, 1828: Thalassoma lunare
Labrichthys maculata Macleay, 1881: Austrolabrus maculatus
* Dentex maculatus Perez Canto, 1886: Semicossyphus darwini
Labrichthys maculatus De Vis, 1885: Pseudolabrus guentheri
Labrus maculatus Bloch, 1792: Labrus bergylta
* Platyglossus maculatus Jatzow & Lenz, 1898: Halichoeres nigrescens
Scarus maculatus Gronow in Gray, 1854?: Symphodus ocellatus
Stethojulis maculatus Schmidt, 1931: Stethojulis maculata
Pseudojulis maculifer Castelnau, 1875: Halichoeres nebulosus
Julis maculipinna Müller & Troschel, 1848: Halichoeres maculipinna
Perca maculosa Retzius, 1800: Symphodus melops
Cheilinus maculosus Val., 1840: Cheilinus trilobatus
* Hemipteronotus maculosus Fourmanoir, 1967: Xyrichtys baldwini
* Julidio maculosus Clark, 1936: Halichoeres nicholsi
Labrus maculosus Gronow,1854: nomen dubium
Choerops maeander Cartier, 1874: Choerodon anchorago
Cheilolabrus magnilabris Alleyne & Macleay, 1877: Hemigymnus melapterus
Labrus malacopterus Forster 1795: nomen dubium
Labrus malapteronotus Lacepède, 1801: Hemigymnus fasciatus
Labrus malapterus Bloch 1792: Hemigymnus melapterus
Cossyphus maldat Val., 1839: Bodianus macrourus
Halichoeres malpelo Allen & Robertson, 1992: H. malpelo
Labropsis manabei Schmidt, 1931: Labropsis manabei
Lutianus manis Nardo, 1827: nomen dubium
Pseudocheilinus margaretae Smith, 1956: P. octotaenia
Julis margaritaceus Val., 1839: Halichoeres margaritaceus
Platyglossus margaritaceus Macleay, 1883: Xenojulis margaritaceus
* Xyrichthys margaritatus Fourmanoir, 1967: Xyrichtys dea
Choerodon margaritiferus Fowler & Bean, 1928: Choerodon margaritiferus
* Labrus margaritiferus, Cuvier, 1829: Macropharyngodon geoffroy
Julis margaritiphorus Bleeker, 1853: Halichoeres bicolor
Ctenolabrus marginatus Val., 1839: Ctenolabrus rupestris
Halichoeres marginatus Rüppell, 1835: H. marginatus
Labrus marmoratus Rafinesque 1810?: Symphodus tinca
Thalassoma marnae Schultz, 1943: T. amblycephalum
Coris marquesensis Randall, 1999: Coris marquesensis
Stethojulis marquesensis Randall, 2000: S. marquesensis
Xyrichthys martinicensis Val., 1840: Xyrichtys martinicensis
* Thalassoma mascarenum Fricke, 1999: T. genivittatum
Lutjanus massa Risso, 1810: Symphodus cinereus
Lutjanus massiliensis Lacepède, 1802: Symphodus mediterraneus
Bodianus masudai Araga & Yoshino, 1975: B. masudai
Julis matthoei Val., 1839: Thalassoma genivittatum
Cossyphus maxillosus Guichenot, 1865: Choerodon robustus
Labrus maximus Walbaum, 1792: Lachnolaimus maximus
Paracheilinus mccoskeri Randall & Harmelin-Vivien, 1977: Paracheilinus mccoskeri
Sparus meaco Lacepède, 1802: Hemigymnus fasciatus
Julis mediterranea Risso, 1827: Coris julis
Perca mediterranea Linnaeus, 1758: Symphodus mediterraneus
Labrus mediterraneus Bloch & Schneider, 1801: Symphodus mediterraneus
Doratonotus megalepis Günther, 1862: D. megalepis
Labrus melampterus Bloch & Schneider, 1801: Hemigymnus melapterus
Lutjanus melanocercus Risso, 1810: Symphodus melanocercus
Halichoeres melanochir Fowler & Bean, 1928:Halichoeres melanochir
Julis melanochir Bleeker, 1857: Thalassoma amblycephalum
Thalassoma melanochir Fowler, 1904: T. amblycephalum
Cirrhilabrus melanomarginatus Randall & Shen, 1978: Cirrhilabrus melanomarginatus
Cheilinus melanopleura Bleeker, 1866: Oxycheilinus bimaculatus
* Julis melanoptera Günther, 1862: Thalassoma lutescens
Labrus melanopterus Forster 1795?: Hemigymnus melapterus
Novacula melanopus Bleeker, 1857: Xyrichtys melanopus
Choerodon melanostigma Fowler & Bean, 1928: Choerodon melanostigma
Pseudojulis melanotis Gilbert, 1890: Halichoeres melanotis
Labrus melanotus Rafinesque 1810: nomen dubium
Gomphosus melanotus Bleeker, 1855: Gomphosus caeruleus
Crenilabrus melanoxanthurus Cocco, 1840: Symphodus melanocercus
Julis melanura Lowe, 1839: Coris julis
Labrichthys melanura Macleay, 1881: Pseudolabrus guentheri
Anampses melanurus Bleeker, 1857: Anampses melanurus
Anampses melanurus lineatus Randall, 1972: A. lineatus
Julis melanurus Bleeker, 1851: Halichoeres melanurus
Labrus melapterus Bloch, 1791: Hemigymnus melapterus
Halichoeres melas Randall & Earle, 1994: H. melas
Decodon melasma Gomon, 1974: Decodon melasma
Halichoeres melasmapomus Randall, 1981: H. melasmapomus
Anampses meleagrides Val., 1840: Anampses meleagrides
Anampses meleagris Günther, 1862: Anampses meleagrides
Choerops meleagris Rüppell, 1852: Choerodon anchorago
Julis meleagris Val., 1839: Macropharyngodon meleagris
Labrus melops Linnaeus, 1758: Symphodus melops
Labrus mendovella Rafinesque 1810: Symphodus ocellatus
Julis meniscus Val., 1839: Thalassoma lunare
Cheilinus mentalis Rüppell, 1828: Oxycheilinus mentalis
Cheilinus mertensii Val., 1840: Cheilinus undulatus
Julis mertensii Val., 1839?: Thalassoma lunare
Tautoga mertensii Val., 1839: Hemigymnus fasciatus
Labrus merula Linnaeus, 1758: Labrus merula
Pseudojuloides mesostigma Randall & Randall, 1981: Pseudojuloides mesostigma
Labrus mesothorax Bloch & Schneider, 1801: Bodianus mesothorax
* Platyglossus metager Day, 1888: Halichoeres marginatus
Iridio meyeri Bean, 1906: Halichoeres maculipinna
Labrus microlepidotus Bloch, 1792?: Labrus mixtus
Xyrichthys microlepidotus Val., 1840: Cymolutes lecluse
Novacula microlepis Vaillant & Sauvage, 1875: Cymolutes lecluse
Labropsis micronesica Randall, 1981: L. micronesica
Cheilio microstoma Val., 1839: Cheilio inermis
Crenilabrus microstoma Thompson, 1837: Centrolabrus exoletus
Iridio microstomus Bean, 1906: Halichoeres maculipinna
Labrus miles Forster in Bl. & Schn., 1801: Pseudolabrus miles
Julis miniatus Val., 1839: Halichoeres miniatus
Lepidaplois mirabilis Snyder, 1908: Choerodon fasciatus
Labrus mixtus Linnaeus, 1758: Labrus mixtus
Crenilabrus modestus Garrett, 1864: Bodianus bilunulatus
Julis modestus Bleeker, 1847: Halichoeres chloropterus
Julis modestus Girard, 1854: Oxyjulis californica
Xyrichthys modestus Poey, 1867: Xyrichtys martinicensis
* Labrus mola Cuvier 1829: Halichoeres nigrescens
Odax moluccanus Val., 1840: Pseudodax moluccanus
Pseudodax moluccensis Günther, 1862: P. moluccanus
* Anampses moniliger Cuvier, 1829: Halichoeres leucurus
Choerodon monostigma Ogilby, 1910: C. monostigma
Xenojulis montillai de Beaufort, 1939: X. margaritaceus
Scarus mordax Gronow in Gray, 1854: Bodianus mesothorax
Crenilabrus morelli Nordmann, 1840: Symphodus ocellatus
Cirrhilabrus morrisoni Allen, 1999: Cirrhilabrus morrisoni
Labrichthys mortonii Johnston, 1885: Pseudolabrus rubicundus
Cheilinus mossambicus Günther, 1862: Oxycheilinus bimaculatus
Macropharyngodon moyeri Shepard & Meyer, 1978: M. moyeri
Platychoerops muelleri Klunzinger, 1880: Achoerodus gouldii
Halichoeres multicolor Rüppell, 1835: Coris caudimacula
Labrus multicostatus Gronow in Gray, 1854: Halichoeres bivittatus
Crenilabrus multidentatus Thompson, 1837: Labrus bergylta
Xyrichthys mundiceps Gill, 1862: Xyrichtys mundiceps
Iniistius mundicorpus Gill, 1862: Xyrichtys pavo
Psudojulis murrayensis De Vis, 1885: Halichoeres miniatus
Julis musume Jordan & Snyder, 1904: Coris picta
Harpe naevius Eigenmann, 1894: Bodianus pulchellus
Halichoeres nafae Tanaka, 1908: H. margaritaceus
Anampses nagayoi Tanaka 1908: Anampses meleagrides
Labrus nardii Perugia 1866: Labrus viridis
Gomphoses nasutus Parkinson in Cuv. & Val., 1840: Gomphosus varius
Labrus nasutus Günther, 1862: nomen nudum
Choerops natalensis Gilchrist & Thompson, 1909: Anchichoerops natalensis
Thalassoma neanis Jordan & Evermann, 1907: T. lutescens
Cheilinus nebulosus Richardson, 1846: Cheilinus trilobatus
Julis nebulosus Val., 1839: Halichoeres nebulosus
Macropharyngodon negrosensis Herre, 1932: M. negrosensis
Cossyphus neilli Day, 1867: Bodianus neilli
Crenilabrus nematopterus Bleeker, 1851: Pteragogus flagellifer
Anampses neoguinaicus Bleeker, 1878: A. neoguinaicus
Labrus nereus Risso, 1810: Labrus merula
Labrus neustriae Lacepède, 1801: Labrus bergylta
Julis newtoni Osorio, 1891?: Thalassoma ascensionis
Platyglossus nicholsi Jordan & Gilbert, 1882: Halichoeres nicholsi
* Labrus niger Nardo 1824: Symphodus tinca
Sparus niger Lacepède, 1802: Hemigymnus melapterus
Tautoga niger Mitchill, 1814: Tautoga onitis
Tautoga niger var alius Mitchill, 1814: Tautoga onitis
Tautoga niger var fuscus Mitchill, 1814: Tautoga onitis
Tautoga niger var rubens Mitchill, 1814: Tautoga onitis
Novacula nigra Steindachner, 1900: Xyrichtys niger
Crenilabrus nigrescens Risso, 1827: Symphodus mediterraneus
Labrus nigrescens Bloch & Schneider, 1801: Halichoeres nigrescens
Cossyphus nigromaculatus Gilchrist & Thompson, 1908: Bodianus perditio
Hemipteronotus nigromaculatus Herre, 1933: Xyrichtys twistii
Platyglossus nigromaculatus Günther, 1872: Macropharyngodon meleagris
Labrichthys nigromarginatus Macleay, 1878: Notolabrus gymnogenis
Cheilinus nigropinnatus Seale, 1901: Wetmorella nigropinnata
Halichoeres nigropunctatus Seale, 1901: Macropharyngodon meleagris
Coris nigrotaenia Mee & Hare, 1995: Coris nigrotaenia
Julis nitida Günther, 1862: Thalassoma bifasciatum
Julis nitidissima Goode, 1877: Thalassoma bifasciatum
Xyrichthys niveilatus Jordan & Evermann, 1903: X. aneitensis
Julis noronhana Boulenger, 1890: Thalassoma noronhanum
Lutjanus norwegicus Bloch, 1791: Symphodus melops
Chaerops notatus Alleyne & Macleay, 1877: Choerodon schoenleinii
Julis notatus Richardson & Solander in Richardson, 1843: Notolabrus celidotus
Lutjanus notatus Bloch, 1790: nomen dubium
Pseudolabrus notatus Kamohara, 1958: Suezichthys notatus
Stethojulis notialis Randall, 2000: Stethojulis notialis
* Cheilinus notophthalmus Bleeker, 1853: Oxycheilinus arenatus
Julis notophthalmus Bleeker, 1847: Halichoeres hortulanus
Tautoga notophthalmus Bleeker, 1856: Halichoeres hortulanus
Julis notopsis Val., 1839: Halichoeres marginatus
Pseudojulis notospilus Günther, 1864: Halichoeres notospilus
Gomphosus notostigma Bleeker, 1862: Gomphosus varius
Coryphaena novacula Linnaeus, 1758: Xyrichtys novacula
Xyrichthys novaculoides Bleeker, 1853: Cymolutes torquatus
Labrus nubilus Val., 1843: Labrus bergylta
Labrichthys nudigena De Vis, 1885: Halichoeres hartzfeldii
Choerops nyctemblema Jordan & Evermann, 1902?: Choerodon schoenleinii
Julis obscura Günther, 1880: Thalassoma ballieui
Labrus ocellaris Linnaeus 1758?: Symphodus ocellatus
Wetmorella ocellata Schultz & Marshall, 1954: W. nigropinnata
Labrus ocellatus Forsskål, 1775: Symphodus ocellatus
Platyglossus ocellatus Kner & Steindachner, 1867: Labrichthys unilineatus
Pseudocheilinus ocellatus Randall, 1999: P. ocellatus
Pseudocoris ocellatus Chen & Shao, 1995: P. ocellata
Cossyphus octomaculatus Liénard in Sauvage, 1891: Bodianus axillaris
Paracheilinus octotaenia Fourmanoir, 1955: P. octotaenia
Pseudocheilinus octotaenia Jenkins, 1901: P. octotaenia
Labrus oculusperdix Rafinesque 1810: Symphodus roissali
Crenilabrus oligacanthus Bleeker, 1851: Choerodon oligacanthus
* Choerops olivaceus De Vis, 1885: Choerodon cyanodus
Labrus olivaceus Bonnaterre, 1788: Symphodus ocellatus
* Labrus olivaceus Walbaum, 1792: Symphodus ocellatus
Cossyphus ommopterus Richardson, 1846: Choerodon schoenleinii
Labrus onitis Linnaeus, 1758: Tautoga onitis
Julis opalina Val., 1839: Halichoeres radiatus
Cossyphus opercularis Guichenot, 1847: Bodianus opercularis
Cossyphus opercularis Peters, 1855: Pteragogus pelycus
Platyglossus opercularis Günther, 1862: Halichoeres margaritaceus
Trochocopus opercularis Günther, 1862: Bodianus opercularis
Cheilinus orientalis Günther, 1862: Oxycheilinus orientalis
Julis ornatissimus Garrett, 1863: Halichoeres ornatissimus
Gomphosus ornatus Bennett, 1830: Gomphosus caeruleus
Labrus ornatus Carmichael, 1819: Nelabrichthys ornatus
Labrus ornatus Gronow in Gray, 1854: Thalassoma bifasciatum
Macropharyngodon ornatus Randall, 1978: M. ornatus
Thysanocheilus ornatus Kner, 1865: Labrichthys unilineatus
Labrus ossifagus Linnaeus, 1758: Labrus mixtus
Cheilinus oxycephalus Bleeker, 1853: C. oxycephalus
Cossyphus oxycephalus Bleeker, 1862: Bodianus oxycephalus
Julis oxyrhynchos Bleeker, 1857: Hologymnosus doliatus
Cheilinus oxyrhynchus Bleeker, 1862: Oxycheilinus celebicus
Gomphosus pacificus Seale, 1901: Gomphosus varius
Verreo pacificus Kamohara, 1952: Decodon pacificus
Platyglossus pagenstecheri Kossmann & Räuber, 1877: Halichoeres scapularis
Choerops palawanensis Seale, 1910: Choerodon oligacanthus
Coris pallida MacLeay, 1881: Coris batuensis
Halichoeres pallidus Kuiter & Randall, 1995: H. pallidus
* Labrus pallidus Nardo, 1824: Acantholabrus palloni
Lutjanus palloni Risso, 1810: Acantholabrus palloni
Xyrichthys panamensis Fowler, 1944: Xyrichtys pavo
Julis papilionaceus Val., 1839: Halichoeres papilionaceus
Coris papuensis Macleay, 1883: Coris batuensis
Labroides paradiseus Bleeker, 1851: Labroides dimidiatus
Julis pardaleocephalus Bleeker, 1849: Halichoeres pardaleocephalus
Leptojulis pardalis Kner, 1867: Macropharyngodon meleagris
Tautoga parila Richardson, 1850: Notolabrus parilus
Labrus paroticus Linnaeus, 1758: Coris julis
Brama parrae Bloch & Schneider1801: Clepticus parrae
Julis patatus Val., 1839: Halichoeres radiatus
Labrus pavo Linnaeus, 1758: Thalassoma pavo
Xyrichtys pavo Val., 1840: Xyrichtys pavo
Julis pavoninus Val., 1839: nomen dubium
Xyrichthys pavoninus Val., 1840: Xyrichtys pavo
Choerodon paynei Whitley, 1945: Choerodon paynei
Gomphosus pectoralis Quoy & Gaimard, 1824: G. varius
Labroides pectoralis Randall & Springer, 1975: L. pectoralis
Harpe pectorallis Gill, 1862: Bodianus diplotaenia
Halichoeres pelicieri Randall & Smith, 1982: H. pelicieri
Pteragogus pelycus Randall, 1981: Pteragogus pelycus
Crenilabrus pennantii Val., 1839: Symphodus melops
Halichoeres penrosei Starks, 1913: H. maculipinna
Labrus pentacanthus Lacepède, 1801: Centrolabrus exoletus
Coryphaena pentadactyla Linnaeus, 1758: Xyrichtys pentadactylus
Labrus perdica Forsskål 1775: Coris julis
Labrus perditio Quoy & Gaimard, 1834: Bodianus perditio
Labrus perioides Walbaum 1792: nomen dubium
Xyrichtys perlas Wellington, Allen & Robertson, 1994: Novaculichthys perlas
Choerops perpulcher De Vis, 1885: Choerodon cephalotes
Labrus perspicillatus Pallas, 1814: Symphodus ocellatus
Choerodon pescadorensis Yu, 1968: Choerodon robustus
Pseudolepidaplois pfaffi Bauchot & Blanc, 1961:Bodianus scrofa
Julis phaiopus Bleeker, 1853: Halichoeres marginatus
Julis phaiotaenia Bleeker, 1855: Halichoeres scapularis
Stethojulis phecadopleura Martens, 1876: Stethojulis trilineata
Julis phekadopleura Bleeker, 1849: Stethojulis trilineata
Coris philippina Fowler & Bean, 1928: Pseudocoris bleekeri
Wetmorella philippina bifasciata Schultz & Marshall, 1954: Wetmorella nigropinnata
Wetmorella philippina Fowler & Bean, 1928: W. albofasciata (in part)
Wetmorella philippina Fowler & Bean, 1928: Wetmorella nigropinnata (in part)
Labroides phthirophagus Randall, 1958: L. phthirophagus
Coris pictoides Randall & Kuiter, 1982: Coris pictoides
Chaeropsodes pictus Gilchrist & Thompson, 1909: Bodianus perditio
Crenilabrus pictus Lowe, 1838: Symphodus mediterraneus
Julis pictus Poey, 1860: Halichoeres pictus
Labrus pictus Bloch & Schneider1801: Coris picta
Labrus pictus Gronow, 1854: nomen dubium
Labrus pincus Nardo, 1824: Labrus viridis
Labrus pirca Walbaum 1792?: Symphodus bailloni
Cirrhilabrus piscilineatus Cornic, 1987: Paracheilinus piscilineatus
Labrus pitimoides Rafinesque 1810?: Symphodus rostratus
Pseudolabrus pittensis Waite, 1910: Notolabrus fucicola
Labrus pittima Rafinesque, 1810: Symphodus mediterraneus
Julis podostigma Bleeker, 1854: Halichoeres podostigma
Julis poecila Lay & Bennett, 1839: Halichoeres margaritaceus
Julis poecilepterus Temminck & Schlegel, 1845: Parajulis poecilepterus
Labrus poecilopleura Val., 1839: Notolabrus celidotus
Julis poecilopterus Richardson, 1846: Parajulis poecilepterus
Platyglossus poeyi Steindachner, 1867: Halichoeres poeyi
Labrus polychrous Pallas, 1814: Symphodus tinca
Cheilinus polygramma Val., 1840: Oxycheilinus unifasciatus
Leptojulis polylepis Randall, 1996: Leptojulis polylepis
Labropsis polynesica Randall, 1981: Labropsis polynesica
Labrus polyodon Bloch & Schneider1801?: Thalassoma lunare
Labrus polyodon Walbaum 1792?: Thalassoma lunare
Julis polyophthalmus Bleeker, 1852: Halichoeres argus
Labrus porcus Rafinesque, 1810: nomen dubium
Julis porphyrocephala Bennett, 1832: Thalassoma lunare
Julis praetextata Quoy & Gaimard, 1834: Cymolutes praetextatus
Labrus prasostictes Pallas, 1814: Labrus viridis
Julis principis Val., 1839: Halichoeres radiatus
Bodianus prognathus Lobel, 1981: Bodianus prognathus
* Crenilabrus propinquus Gulia, 1861: Symphodus tinca
Julis prosopeion Bleeker, 1853: Halichoeres prosopeion
Julis prostigma Kuhl & van Hasselt, 1839: Thalassoma hardwicke
Stethojulis psacas Jordan & Snyder, 1902: S. strigiventer
Platyglossus pseudogramma Cartier, 1874: Halichoeres bicolor
Julis pseudominiatus Bleeker, 1856: Halichoeres nebulosus
Labrus psittaculus Lacepède, 1801: Halichoeres bivittatus
Labrus psittaculus Richardson 1840: Pseudolabrus rubicundus
Pseudocheilinus psittaculus, Kner & Steindachner 1867: Pseudocheilinus hexataenia
Coryphaena psittacus Linnaeus, 1766: Xyrichtys novacula
Labrus psittacus Lacepède, 1801: Labrus viridis
Labrus psittacus Risso, 1827: Labrus merula
Lachnolaimus psittacus Val., 1839: Lachnolaimus maximus
Anampses pterophthalmus Bleeker, 1857: A. geographicus
Cossyphus puellaris Poey, 1860: Decodon puellaris
Cheilinus pulchellus Sauvage, 1880: Cheilinus trilobatus
Cossyphus pulchellus Poey, 1860: Bodianus pulchellus
Anampses pulcher Regan, 1913: A. caeruleopunctatus
Labrus pulcher Ayres, 1854: Semicossyphus pulcher
Coris pulcherrima Günther, 1862: Coris gaimard
Labrus pulcherrimus Forster, 1839: Thalassoma hardwicke
Cheilinus punctatus Bennett, 1832: Cheilinus chlorourus
Cirrhilabrus punctatus Randall & Kuiter, 1989: C. punctatus
Julis punctatus Seale, 1901: Thalassoma purpureum
Platyglossus punctatus De Vis, 1885: Coris batuensis
Labrichthys punctulata Günther, 1862: Notolabrus parilus
Novacula punctulata Val., 1840: Xyrichtys bimaculatus
Cheilinus punctulatus Val., 1840: Cheilinus chlorourus
Julis punctulatus Val., 1839: Halichoeres argus
Xyrichthys puniceus Richardson, 1846: Xyrichtys pavo
Scarus purpuratus Shaw, 1803: Thalassoma purpureum
Julis purpureolineatus Val., 1839: Leptojulis cyanopleura
Labrus purpurescens Bloch & Schneider1801: Halichoeres leucurus
Julis purpureus Rüppell, 1828: Thalassoma rueppellii
Scarus purpureus Forsskål, 1775: Thalassoma purpureum
Crenilabrus pusillus Nordmann, 1840: Symphodus cinereus
Cirrhilabrus pylei Allen & Randall, 1996: Cirrhilabrus pylei
Pseudojuloides pyrius Randall & Randall, 1981: P. pyrius
Julìs pyrrhogramma Temminck & Schlegel, 1845: Parajulis poecilepterus
Julis pyrrhogrammatoides Bleeker, 1853: Leptojulis cyanopleura
Thalassoma pyrrhovinctum Jenkins, 1901: T. duperrey
Julis quadricolor Lesson, 1828: Thalassoma purpureum
Choerodon quadrifasciatus Yu, 1968: C. schoenleinii
Labrus quadrilineatus Rüppell, 1835: Larabicus quadrilineatus
Labrus quadrimaculatus Risso, 1827: Labrus mixtus
Xiphochilus quadrimaculatus Günther, 1880: Xiphocheilus typus
Labrus quindecimaculeatus Lacepède, 1801: Thalassoma hardwicke
Cheilinus quinquecinctus Rüppell, 1835: Cheilinus fasciatus
Scarus quinquefasciatus Bennett JW, 1830: Hemigymnus fasciatus
Crenilabrus quinquemaculatus Risso, 1827: Symphodus roissali
Labrus quinquemaculatus Bloch, 1792: nomen dubium
Scarus quinquevittatus Lay & Bennett, 1839: Thalassoma quinquevittatum
Cheilinus radiatus Val., 1840: Oxycheilinus digramma
Labrus radiatus Linnaeus, 1758: Halichoeres radiatus
Sparus radiatus Bloch & Schneider1801: Oxycheilinus digramma
Xyrichtys rajagopalani Venkataramanujam et al., 1987: Xyrichtys rajagopalani
Labrus ramentosus Forsskål, 1775: Pteragogus flagellifer
Cheilio ramosus Jenyns, 1842: Cheilio inermis
Cirrhilabrus randalli Allen, 1995: Cirrhilabrus randalli
* Platyglossus ransonneti Steindachner, 1870: Halichoeres nigrescens
Julis rapan Montrouzier, 1857: Thalassoma lunare
Julis reichei Bleeker, 1858: Halichoeres nebulosus
Hemicoris remedius Jenkins, 1901: Coris venusta
Julis renardi Bleeker, 1851: Stethojulis strigiventer
Cossyphus reticulatus Val., 1839: Semicossyphus reticulatus
Labrus reticulatus Bonnaterre, 1788: Symphodus ocellatus
Labrus reticulatus Lowe, 1839: Labrus bergylta
Labrus reticulatus Walbaum, 1792: nomen dubium
Malapterus reticulatus Val., 1839: Malapterus reticulatus
* Platyglossus reticulatus Cartier, 1874: Halichoeres argus
Coris rex Ramsay & Ogilby, 1886: Coris sandageri
Labrichthys rex De Vis, 1885: Pseudolabrus guentheri
Cheilinus rhodochrous Playfair & Günther, 1867: Oxycheilinus rhodochrous
Hologymnosus rhodonotus Randall & Yamakawa, 1988: Hologymnosus rhodonotus
Cirrhilabrus rhomboidalis Randall, 1988: C. rhomboidalis
Labrichthys richardsoni Castelnau, 1872: Notolabrus tetricus
Lepidaplois richardsoni Fowler, 1908: Bodianus bilunulatus
Pseudolabrus richardsonii Steindachner, 1867: P. guentheri
Halichoeres richmondi Fowler & Bean, 1928: H. richmondi
Crenilabrus rissoi Val., 1839: Symphodus ocellatus
Cheilinus rivulatus Val., 1840: Cheilinus trilobatus
Semicossyphus robecchii Steindachner & Bellotti, 1887: Semicossyphus reticulatus
Thalassoma robertsoni Allen, 1995: Thalassoma robertsoni
Platyglossus robinsoni Gilchrist & Thompson, 1914: Nelabrichthys ornatus
Xiphochilus robustus Günther, 1862: Choerodon robustus
Lutjanus roissali Risso, 1810: Symphodus roissali
Acantholabrus romeritus Val., 1843: Centrolabrus trutta
Labrus rone Ascanius, 1772: Symphodus melops
Coris rosea Vaillant & Sauvage, 1875: Coris ballieui
Julis rosea Quoy & Gaimard, 1834: Hologymnosus doliatus
Cirrhilabrus roseafascia Randall & Lubbock, 1982: Cirrhilabrus roseafascia
Labrichthys roseipunctata Hutton, 1880: Pseudolabrus miles
Coris roseoviridis Randall, 1999: Coris roseoviridis
* Cheilinus roseus Val., 1840: Oxycheilinus digramma
Platyglossus roseus Day, 1888: Halichoeres nigrescens
Xyrichthys rosipes Jordan & Gilbert, 1884: X. novacula
* Cheilinus rostratus Cartier, 1874: Cheilinus undulatus
Lutjanus rostratus Bloch, 1791: Symphodus rostratus
Julis rubecula Richardson, 1843?: Pseudolabrus miles
Ctenolabrus rubellio Richardson, 1845: Pteragogus aurigarius
Labrus rubellio Walbaum 1792: Symphodus cinereus
* Labrus rubens Bloch & Schneider, 1801: Symphodus ocellatus
Lutianus ruber Rafinesque,1810: Symphodus ocellatus
Choerops rubescens Günther, 1862: Choerodon rubescens
Lutjanus rubescens Risso, 1810: Symphodus rostratus
Labrichthys rubicunda Macleay, 1881: Pseudolabrus rubicundus
Choerodon rubidus Scott, 1959: Choerodon schoenleinii
Julis rubiginosus Richardson, 1843?: Pseudolabrus miles
Labrus rubiginosus Richardson, 1846: Pseudolabrus sieboldi
Labrus rubiginosus Risso 1827: nomen dubium
Labrus rubiginosus Temminck & Schlegel, 1846 (in part): Pseudolabrus eoethinus
Labrus rubiginosus Temminck & Schlegel, 1846 (in part): Pseudolabrus sieboldi
Labrichthys rubra Castelnau, 1875: Notolabrus parilus
Halichoeres rubricephalus Kuiter & Randall, 1995: Halichoeres rubricephalus
Cirrhilabrus rubrimarginatus Randall, 1992: C. rubrimarginatus
Cirrhilabrus rubripinnis Randall & Carpenter, 1980: Cirrhilabrus rubripinnis
Cirrhilabrus rubrisquamis Randall & Emery, 1983: Cirrhilabrus rubrisquamis
Cirrhilabrus rubriventralis Springer & Randall, 1974: Cirrhilabrus rubriventralis
Anampses rubrocaudatus Randall, 1958: A. chrysocephalus
Labroides rubrolabiatus Randall, 1958: L. rubrolabiatus
Labrus rubrolineatus Lacepède, 1801: Bodianus macrourus
Stethojulis rubromacula Scott, 1959: S. bandanensis
Anampses rubroviridis Liénard in Sauvage, 1891: A. viridis
Terelabrus rubrovittatus Randall & Fourmanoir, 1998: Terelabrus rubrovittatus
Julis rueppellii Klunzinger, 1871: Thalassoma rueppellii
Novacula rufa Day, 1873: Xyrichthys cyanifrons
Labrus rufus Linnaeus, 1758: Bodianus rufus
Labrus rufus Rathke, 1837: Labrus viridis
Trochocopus rufus Macleay, 1878: Bodianus frenchii
Labrus rupestris Linnaeus, 1758: Ctenolabrus rupestris
Julis ruppelii Bennett, 1831: Coris aygula
Julis ruptus Poey, 1860: Halichoeres garnoti
Bodianus russelli Gomon & Randall, 1975: Polylepion russelli
Suezichthys russelli Randall, 1981: Suezichthys russelli
Julis sanctaehelenae Val., 1839: Thalassoma sanctaehelenae
Novacula sanctaehelenae Günther, 1868: Xyrichtys sanctaehelenae
Cymolutes sandeyeri Hector, 1884: Coris sandageri (Hector)
Gomphosus sandvicensis Günther, 1862: Gomphosus varius
Cheilinus sanguineus Val., 1840: Cheilinus oxycephalus
Cirrhilabrus sanguineus Cornic, 1987: C. sanguineus
* Labrus sanguineus Nardo 1824: Symphodus tinca
Verriculus sanguineus Jordan & Evermann, 1903:Bodianus sanguineus
Trochocopus sanguinolentus De Vis, 1883: Bodianus perditio
Labrus saphyrinus Walbaum 1792: Labrus viridis
Labrus saxatilis Risso, 18: Labrus viridis
Labrus saxorum Val., 1839: Labrus merula
Julis scapularis Bennett, 1832: Halichoeres scapularis
Labrus scarus Linnaeus, 1758: nomen dubium
Coris schauinslandii Steindachner, 1900: Coris ballieui
* Crenilabrus schemberianus Gulia, 1861: Symphodus ocellatus
Cossyphus schoenleinii Val., 1839: Choerodon schoenleinii
Julis schroederii Bleeker, 1858: Coris batuensis
Julis schwanenfeldii Bleeker, 1853: Thalassoma hardwicke
Julis schwarzii Bleeker, 1847: Halichoeres papilionaceus
* Xyrichthys sciistius Jordan & Thompson 1914: Novaculichthys woodi
Labrus scina Forsskål, 1775?: Symphodus rostratus
Cirrhilabrus scottorum Randall & Pyle, 1989: C. scottorum
Labrus scrofa Val., 1839: Bodianus scrofa
Halichoeres sebae Kner, 1860: Stethojulis trilineata
Julis sebanus Val., 1839: Stethojulis trilineata
Halichoeres sellifer Gilbert, 1890: Halichoeres nicholsi
Coris semicincta Ramsay, 1883: Coris picta
Julis semicintus Ayres, 1859: Halichoeres semicinctus
Julis semicoeruleus Rüppell, 1835: Thalassoma purpureum
Julis semidecorata Lesson, 1828: Halichoeres hortulanus
Labrus semidiscus Lacepède, 1801: Hologymnosus annulatus
Julis semifasciatus Val., 1839: Thalassoma hardwicke
Labrichthys semifasciatus Rendahl, 1921: Pseudolabrus semifasciatus
Labrus semilunatus Lacepède 1804?: Thalassoma lutescens
Coris semipartita Günther, 1862: Hologymnosus annulatus
Julis semipuncatus Rüppell, 1835: Coris aygula
Labrus semiruber Lacepède, 1801: Bodianus rufus
Thalassoma septemfaciata Scott, 1959: T. septemfasciatum
Labrus serpentinus Bonnaterre, 1788: Symphodus mediterraneus
Crenilabrus serranoides Gulia, 1861: nomen dubium
Crenilabrus serranus Gulia, 1861: nomen dubium
Halichoeres sexfasciatus Rüppell, 1835: Hemigymnus fasciatus
Labrichthys sexlineatus De Vis, 1885: Pseudolabrus guentheri
Novacula sexmaculata Val. 1840: Xyrichtys pentadactylus * Halichoeres sexmaculatus Fowler, 1946: Xenojulis margaritaceus
Pseudolabrus sieboldi Mabuchi & Nakabo, 1997: P. sieboldi
Halichoeres signifer Randall & Earle, 1994: H. signifer
Iridio similis Nichols, 1920: Halichoeres maculipinna
Labrus simus Pallas 1814: 'Symphodus cinereus
Cheilinus sinuosus Quoy & Gaimard, 1824: C. trilobatus
Thalassoma socorroense Gilbert, 1890: Thalassoma virens
Suezichthys soelae Russell, 1985: Suezichthys soelae
Cirrhilabrus solorensis Bleeker, 1853: C. solorensis
Julis solorensis Bleeker, 1853: Halichoeres solorensis
Julis souleyetii Val., 1839: Thalassoma trilobatum
Julis speciosa Risso, 1827: Coris julis
Diastodon speciosus Bowdich, 1825: Bodianus speciosus
Crenilabrus spilogaster Bleeker, 1854: Pteragogus aurigarius
Labrus spilonotus Bennett, 1836: Bodianus macrourus
Novacula spilonotus Bleeker, 1857: Xyrichtys melanopus
Cossyphus spilotes Guichenot, 1865: Bodianus diana
Julis spilurus Bleeker, 1851: Halichoeres trimaculatus
Xyrichthys splendens Castelnau, 1855: Xyrichtys splendens
Julis squamismarginatus Bowdich, 1825: Thalassoma pavo
Crenilabrus staitii Nordmann, 1840: Symphodus cinereus
Thalassoma steindachneri Jordan, 1890: T. lucasanum
Crenilabrus stejnegeri Ishikawa, 1904: Choerodon azurio
Julis stellatus Val., 1839: Coris cuvieri
Halichoeres stictus Fowler, 1944: Halichoeres nicholsi
Halichoeres stigmasepia Fowler, 1944: Halichoeres nicholsi Halichoeres stigmaticus Randall & Smith, 1982: H. stigmaticus
Novacula stockumii Reuvens, 1895?: Xyrichtys twistii
Epibulus striatus Day, 1871: Epibulus insidiator
Minilabrus striatus Randall & Dor, 1980: M. striatus
Julis strigiventer Bennett, 1832: Stethojulis strigiventer
Lepidaplois strophodes Jordan & Evermann, 1903: Bodianus bilunulatus
Thalassoma stuckiae Whitley, 1959: Gomphosus varius
Bermudichthys subfurcatus Nichols, 1920: Thalassoma bifasciatum
Labrus subfuscus Bloch & Schneider 1801: Coris julis
Labrus subfuscus Walbaum, 1792: Tautoga onitis
Choerodon sugillatum Gomon, 1987: Choerodon sugillatum
Labrus suillus Linnaeus, 1758?: Ctenolabrus rupestris
Lachnolaimus suillus Cuvier, 1829: Lachnolaimus maximus
Julis sukl Montrouzier, 1857: Stethojulis trilineata
Labrus syriacus Bloch & Schneider, 1801: Thalassoma pavo
Julis taenianotus Cuvier in Quoy & Gaimard, 1824: Novaculichthys macrolepidotus
Anampses taeniatus Liénard in Sauvage, 1891: Anampses caeruleopunctatus
Coris taeniatus Steindachner, 1863: Coris julis
Cossyphus taeniatus Val., 1839: Larabicus quadrilineatus
Cossyphus taeniops Peters, 1855: Pteragogus taeniops
Labrus taeniourus Lacepède, 1801: Novaculichthys taeniourus
Labrus ?tagiselem Montrouzier, 1857: nomen dubium
Labrus tancoides Lacepède, 1801: Symphodus tinca
Bodianus tanyokidus Gomon & Madden, 1981: B. tanyokidus
* Cymolutes tateyamaensis Sakamoto, 1930: C. torquatus
Novaculichthys tattoo Seale, 1901: Novaculichthys woodi
Labrus tautoga Mitchill, 1815: Tautoga onitis
Julis temmincki Bleeker, 1853: Halichoeres leucurus
Cirrhilabrus temminckii Bleeker, 1853: C. temminckii
Novacula temporalis Regan, 1905: Xyrichtys pavo
Platyglossus tenuispinis Günther, 1862: Halichoeres tenuispinis
Stethojulis terina Jordan & Snyder, 1902: S. interrupta
Labrus tesselatus Bloch, 1792: Symphodus melops
Novacula tessellata Val., 1840: Xyrichtys pavo
Labrus tetraodon Bloch & Schneider 1801: nomen dubium
Pseudocheilinus tetrataenia Schultz, 1960: P. tetrataenia
Cheilinus tetrazona Bleeker, 1853: Cheilinus trilobatus
Novacula tetrazona Bleeker, 1859: Xyrichtys pavo
Labrichthys tetrica var fuscipinnis Klunzinger, 1872: Notolabrus tetricus
Labrichthys tetrica var ocellata Klunzinger, 1880?: Notolabrus tetricus
Labrichthys tetrica var tigripinnis Klunzinger, 1872: Notolabrus tetricus
Labrus tetricus Richardson, 1840: Notolabrus tetricus
Doratonotus thalassinus Jordan & Gilbert, 1884: D. megalepis
Julis thirsites Richardson, 1846: Parajulis poecilepterus
Bodianus thoracotaeniatus Yamamoto, 1982: B. thoracotaeniatus
Crenilabrus tigrinus Risso, 1827: Symphodus roissali
Julis timorensis Bleeker, 1852: Halichoeres timorensis
Crenilabrus tinca Val., 1839: Symphodus doderleini
Labrus tinca Linnaeus, 1758: Symphodus tinca
Labrus tinea Forsskål, 1775: nomen dubium
Anampses tinkhami Fowler, 1946: A. caeruleopunctatus
Paracheilinus togeanensis Kuiter & Allen, 1999: Paracheilinus togeanensis
Cirrhilabrus tonozukai Allen & Kuiter, 1999: Cirrhilabrus tonozukai
Pseudolabrus torotai Russell & Randall, 1981: P. torotai
* Labrus torquatus Walbaum, 1792: Thalassoma bifasciatum
Xyrichthys torquatus Val., 1840: Cymolutes torquatus
Choerodon transversalis Whitley, 1956: C. graphicus
Cossyphus tredecimspinosus Günther, 1862: Bodianus speciosus
* Halichoeres tremebundus Jordan & Snyder, 1902: H. bleekeri
Gomphosus tricolor Quoy & Gaimard, 1824: G. varius
Pseudojulis trifasciatus Weber, 1913: Thalassoma amblycephalum
Labrus trilineatus Bloch & Schneider, 1801: Stethojulis trilineata
Lepidaplois trilineatus Fowler, 1934: Bodianus trilineatus
Julis trilobata var ß Günther, 1862: Thalassoma purpureum
Cheilinus trilobatus Lacepède, 1801: Cheilinus trilobatus
Labrus trilobatus Lacepède, 1801: Thalassoma trilobatum
Cheilinus trilobus Schinz in Cuvier, 1822: C. trilobatus
Coris trimaculata Ogilby, 1888: Coris sandageri
Julis trimaculata Quoy & Gaimard, 1834: Halichoeres trimaculatus
Julis trimaculata Val., 1839: Novaculichthys macrolepidotus
Julis trimaculatus Rüppell, 1835: Thalassoma lunare
Labrus trimaculatus Bonnaterre, 1788: Labrus mixtus
Labrus trimaculatus Gmelin 1789: Labrus mixtus
Wetmorella triocellata Schultz & Marshall, 1954: Wetmorella nigropinnata
Suezichthys tripunctatus Randall & Kotthaus, 1977: S. notatus (in part)
Suezichthys tripunctatus Randall & Kotthaus, 1977: S. russelli (in part)
Halichoeres trispilus Randall & Smith, 1982: H. trispilus
Xyrichtys trivittatus Randall & Cornish, 2000: X. trivittatus
Stethojulis trossula Jordan & Snyder, 1902: S. interrupta
Lepidaplois trotteri Fowler & Bean, 1923: Bodianus loxozonus
Julis truncatus Cartier, 1874: Thalassoma lunare
Crenilabrus trutta Lowe, 1834: Centrolabrus trutta
Crenilabrus trutta var unicolor Lowe, 1838: Centrolabrus trutta
Julis turcica Risso, 1827: Thalassoma pavo
Julis turcica var lemniscata Lowe, 1843: Thalassoma pavo
Julis turcica var torquata Lowe, 1843: Thalassoma pavo
Labrus turdus Linnaeus, 1758: Labrus viridis
Anampses twistii Bleeker, 1856: Anampses twistii
Novacula twistii Bleeker, 1856: Xyrichtys twistii
Xiphocheilos typus Bleeker, 1856: Xiphocheilus typus
Platyglossus ubayensis Cartier, 1874: Halichoeres vrolikii
Cheilio udanad Montrouzier, 1857: Cheilio inermis
Hemipteronotus umbrilatus Jenkins, 1901: Xyrichtys umbrilatus
Julis umbrostygma Rüppell, 1835: Thalassoma purpureum
Cheilinus undulatus Rüppell, 1835: Cheilinus undulatus
Gomphosus undulatus Streets, 1877: Gomphosus varius
Labrichthys unicolor Castelnau, 1875: Notolabrus parilus
Labrus unicolor Bloch & Schneider 1801: nomen dubium
Trochocopus unicolor Günther, 1876: Achoerodus gouldii
Cheilinus unifasciatus Streets, 1877: Oxycheilinus unifasciatus
Cossyphus unilineatus Guichenot, 1847: Labrichthys unilineatus
Julis unimaculata Lowe, 1840: Thalassoma pavo
Julis unimaculata var lineolata Lowe, 1840: Thalassoma pavo
Julis unimaculata var taeniata Lowe, 1840: Thalassoma pavo
Choerops unimaculatus Cartier, 1874: Choerodon schoenleinii
* Choerops unimaculatus De Vis, 1885: Choerodon cyanodus
Cossyphus unimaculatus Günther, 1862: Bodianus unimaculatus
Labrus unimaculatus Gmelin, 1789: Symphodus mediterraneus
Ctenolabrus uninotatus Val., 1839: Tautogolabrus adspersus
Xyrichthys uniocellatus Agassiz in Spix & Agassiz, 1829: Xyrichtys novacula
Julis urostigma Bleeker, 1853: Thalassoma hardwicke
Leptojulis urostigma Randall, 1996: Leptojulis urostigma
Julis vanikorensis Quoy & Gaimard, 1834: Novaculichthys taeniourus
Labrus variabilis Thompson, 1837: Labrus bergylta
Macropharyngodon varialvus Smith, 1957: M. bipartitus
Coris variegata Ramsay & Ogilby, 1887: Coris aygula
Halichoeres variegatus Rüppell, 1835: Coris variegata
Labrus variegatus Gmelin, 1789: Labrus mixtus
Labrus variegatus Nardo, 1824: nomen dubium
Anampses variolatus Ogilby, 1889: Anampses elegans
Gomphosus varius Lacepède, 1801: Gomphosus varius
Labrus varius Linnaeus 1758: Labrus mixtus
Odax varius Val., 1840: Pseudodax moluccanus
Cheilinus venosus Val., 1840: Oxycheilinus mentalis
Labrus venosus Gmelin, 1789: Symphodus ocellatus
Labrus venosus Walbaum, 1792: Symphodus ocellatus
* Julis ventralis De Vis, 1885: Thalassoma lunare
Xyrichthys ventralis Bean, 1891: Xyrichtys splendens
Coris venusta Vaillant & Sauvage, 1875: Coris venusta
Choerops venustus De Vis, 1884: Choerodon venustus
* Pseudojulis venustus Jenkins & Evermann, 1889: Halichoeres semicinctus
Xyrichthys venustus Poey, 1876: Xyrichtys martinicensis
Iniistius verater Jenkins, 1901: Xyrichtys niger
Labrus verdolidus Rafinesque, 1810?: Symphodus rostratus
Xyrichthys vermiculatus Poey, 1860: Xyrichtys novacula
Hemipteronotus verrens Jordan & Evermann, 1902: Xyrichtys verrens
Lutjanus verres Bloch, 1791: Bodianus rufus
Julis verticalis Smith & Swain, 1882: Thalassoma ballieui
Guntheria [sic] vestalis Whitley, 1958: Halichoeres trimaculatus
Labrichthys vestita Castelnau, 1872: Notolabrus tetricus
Labrus vetula Bloch, 1792: Labrus mixtus
* Platyglossus vicinus Günther, 1909: Halichoeres trimaculatus
Xyrichtys victori Wellington, 1992: Xyrichtys victori
Labrus violaceus Bloch & Schneider1801: Symphodus tinca
Coryphaena virens Linnaeus, 1766: nomen oblitum
Thalassoma virens Gilbert, 1890: Thalassoma virens
Xyrichthys virens Val., 1840: nomen dubium
Halichoeres virescens Fourmanoir & Guézé, 1961: H. marginatus
Lutjanus virescens Bloch, 1791: Symphodus rostratus
Acantholabrus viridis Val., 1839: Centrolabrus trutta
Anampses viridis Val., 1840: Anampses viridis
Cheilio viridis Val., 1839: Cheilio inermis
Gomphosus viridis Bennett JW, 1830: G. caeruleus
Gomphosus viridis Cuvier, 1829: Gomphosus varius
Heterochoerops viridis Steindachner, 1866: Achoerodus viridis
Labrus viridis Bloch 1791: Thalassoma lunare
Labrus viridis Linnaeus, 1758: Labrus viridis
Pictilabrus viridis Russell, 1988: Pictilabrus viridis
Choerodon vitta Ogilby, 1910: Choerodon vitta
Xyrichthys vitta Val., 1840: Xyrichtys novacula
Labrus vittatus Walbaum, 1792: Labrus mixtus
Macropharyngodon vivienae Randall, 1978: M. vivienae
Julis vrolikii Bleeker, 1855: Halichoeres vrolikii
Julis vulgaris Fleming, 1828: Coris julis
Julis vulgaris Val., 1839: Coris julis
Julis vulgaris Val., 1843: Thalassoma pavo
Cossyphus vulpinus Richardson, 1850: Bodianus vulpinus
Cirrhilabrus walindi Allen & Randall, 1996: C. walindi
Choerodon weberi Ogilby, 1911: Choerodon anchorago
Xyrichtys wellingtoni Allen & Robertson, 1995: X. wellingtoni
Antonichthys wetmorelloides Bauchot & Blanc, 1961: Doratonotus megalepis
* Julis whitmii Günther, 1909: Thalassoma lutescens
Novaculichthys woodi Jenkins, 1901: Novaculichthys woodi
Pseudojuloides xanthomos Randall & Randall, 1981: P. xanthomos
Labropsis xanthonota Randall, 1981: Labropsis xanthonota
Labroides xanthurus Bleeker, 1856: Diproctacanthus xanthurus
Platyglossus xanti Karoli, 1882?: Halichoeres bicolor
Novacula xyrichthyoides Bleeker, 1856: Cymolutes praetextatus
Julis yamashiroi Schmidt, 1931: Pseudocoris yamashiroi
Acantholabrus yarellii Val., 1839: Labrus mixtus
Choerops zamboangae Seale & Bean, 1907: Choerodon zamboangae
Stethojulis zatima Jordan & Seale, 1905: S. interrupta
* Crenilabrus zeraphinus Gulia, 1861: Symphodus ocellatus
Labrus zeylanicus Forster, 1781: Thalassoma lunare
Julis zeylonicus Bennett, 1832: Halichoeres zeylonicus
Pseudojulis ziczac De Vis, 1885: Halichoeres scapularis
Labrus zittoides Rafinesque, 1810: Labrus viridis
Labrus zittus Rafinesque, 1810: Labrus viridis
Sparus zonephorus Lacepède, 1802: Hemigymnus fasciatus
Cheilinus zonurus Jenkins, 1901: Oxycheilinus unifasciatus
Choerops zosterophorus Bleeker, 1868: Choerodon zosterophorus
Cossyphus zosterophorus Bleeker, 1857: Bodianus anthioides

SCARIDAE

Callyodon abacurus Jordan & Seale, 1906: Chlorurus japanensis
Sparisoma abbotti Fowler, 1915: Sparisoma radians
Sparus abildgaardi Bloch, 1791: Sparisoma chrysopterum
Scarus acutus Poey, 1860: Scarus vetula
Scaridea aerosa Jordan & Snyder, 1907: Calotomus zonarchus
Scarus aeruginosus Val., 1840: Scarus ferrugineus
Callyodon africanus Smith, 1955: Scarus rubroviolaceus
Scarus ahula Jenkins, 1901: Chlorurus perspicillatus
Cryptotomus albimarginatus Fourmanoir & Guézé, 1961: Calotomus carolinus
Callyodon albipunctatus Seale, 1910: Chlorurus sordidus
Scarus alternans Val., 1840: Scarus iseri
Pseudoscarus altipinnis Steindachner, 1879: Scarus altipinnis
Scarus amplus Ranzani, 1842: Sparisoma viride
Callyodon apridentatus Smith, 1956: Scarus ghobban
Pseudoscarus arabicus Steindachner, 1902: Scarus arabicus
Scarus aracanga Günther, 1862: Scarus iseri
Scarus arcuatus Val., 1840: Scarus rivulatus
Scarus atomarius Poey, 1861: Sparisoma atomarium
Scarus atrilunula Randall & Bruce, 1983: Chlorurus atrilunula
Scarus atropectoralis Schultz, 1958: Scarus xanthopleura
Pseudoscarus augustinus Kossmann & Räuber, 1877: Scarus ferrugineus
Sparus aureoruber Lacepède, 1802: Sparisoma viride
Scarus auritus Val., 1840: Leptoscarus vaigiensis
Scarus aurofrenatus Val., 1840: Sparisoma aurofrenatum
Callyodon auropunctatus Val., 1840: Nicholsina usta
Scarus axillaris Steindachner, 1878: Sparisoma rubripinne
Scarus azureus Meek & Hildebrand, 1928: Scarus ghobban
Scaridea balia Jenkins, 1903: Calotomus zonarchus
Scarus balinensis Bleeker, 1849: Scarus psittacus
Scarus barborus Jordan & Evermann, 1903: Chlorurus perspicillatus
Scarus bataviensis Bleeker, 1857: Scarus psittacus
Scarus bennetti Val., 1840: Scarus dubius
Cryptotomus beryllinus Jordan & Swain, 1884: Nicholsina usta
Scarus bicolor Rüppell, 1829: Cetoscarus bicolor
Callyodon bipallidus Smith, 1955: Chlorurus sordidus
Callyodon bleekeri de Beaufort, 1940: Chlorurus bleekeri
Callyodontichthys bleekeri Steindachner, 1863: Sparisoma radians
Scarus blochii Val., 1840: Chlorurus japanensis
Scarus bollmani Jordan & Evermann, 1887: Scarus taeniopterus
Callyodon borborus Jordan & Evermann, 1905: Chlorurus perspicillatus
Scarus bottae Val., 1840: Leptoscarus vaigiensis
Callyodon bowersi Snyder, 1909: Chlorurus bowersi
Scarus brachialis Poey, 1861: Sparisoma chrysopterum
Callyodon brachysoma Bleeker, 1861: Calotomus carolinus
Pseudoscarus brevifilis Günther, 1909: Scarus altipinnis
Scarus brighami Bryan & Herre, 1903: Chlorurus frontalis
Scarus brunneus Jenkins, 1901: Scarus psittacus
Scarus caerulescens Val., 1840: Scarus ferrugineus
Pseudoscarus californiensis Pellegrin, 1901: Scarus ghobban
Scarus calus Fowler, 1904: Scarus rubroviolaceus
Scarus canariensis Val., 1838: Sparisoma cretense
Scarus caninus Gronow in Gray, 1854: nomen dubium
Pseudoscarus cantori Bleeker, 1861: Scarus ghobban
Scarus capistratoides Bleeker, 1847: Chlorurus capistratoides
Scarus capistratus Val., 1840: nomen dubium
Scarus capitaneus Cuvier, 1829: Chlorurus enneacanthus
Xanothon carifanus Smith, 1956: Scarus psittacus
Callyodon carolinus Val., 1840: Calotomus carolinus
Scarus catesby Lacepède, 1802: Sparisoma viride
Pseudoscarus caudofasciatus Günther, 1862: Scarus caudofasciatus
Scarus celebicus Bleeker, 1854: Chlorurus sordidus
Scarus chadri Lacepède, 1802?: Scarus niger
Scarus chameleon Choat & Randall, 1986: S. chameleon
Pseudoscarus chinensis Steindachner, 1867: Scarus chinensis
Scarus chloris Bloch & Schneider1801: Sparisoma chrysopterum
Scarus chlorodon Jenyns, 1842: Scarus prasiognathos
Calliodon chlorolepis Richardson, 1845: Leptoscarus vaigiensis
Pseudoscarus chloromelas Playfair & Günther, 1867: Chlorurus cyanescens
Scarus chrysopomus Bleeker, 1847: Scarus quoyi
Scarus chrysopterus Bloch & Schneider, 1801: Sparisoma chrysopterum
Scarus circumnotatus Poey, 1861?: Sparisoma rubripinne
Scarus coccineus Bloch & Schneider1801: Sparisoma viride
Scarus coelestinus Val., 1840: Scarus coelestinus
Coryphaena coerulea Bloch, 1786: Scarus coeruleus
Scarus coeruleopunctatus Rüppell, 1835: Leptoscarus vaigiensis
Pseudoscarus collana var eques Steindachner, 1903: Scarus fuscopurpureus
Scarus collana Rüppell, 1835: Scarus collana
Scarus collaris Val., 1840: Scarus collana
Callyodon compressus Osburn & Nichols, 1916: Scarus compressus
Cryptotomus crassiceps Bean, 1906: Cryptotomus roseus
Callyodon cretensis Bloch, 1789: nomen dubium
Labrus cretensis Linnaeus, 1758: Sparisoma cretense
Scarus croicensis Bloch, 1790: Scarus iseri
Scarus cruentatus Val., 1840: nomen dubium
Scarus cuzamilae Bean, 1891: Scarus vetula
Scarus cyanescens Val., 1840: Chlorurus cyanescens
Scarus cyanognathus Bleeker, 1847: Scarus tricolor
Callyodon cyanogrammus Jordan & Seale, 1906: Chlorurus sordidus
Sparisoma cyanolene Jordan & Swain, 1884: Sparisoma radians
Scarus cyanotaenia Bleeker, 1854?: Chlorurus bleekeri
Scarus cyanurus Val., 1840: Hipposcarus harid
Calotomus cyclurus Jenkins, 1903: Calotomus japonicus
Scarus cypho Seale, 1901: Scarus schlegeli
Scarus denticulatus Lacepède, 1802: nomen dubium
Xenoscarus denticulatus Evermann & Radcliffe, 1917: Nicholsina denticulata
Scarus dentiens Poey, 1861: Nicholsina usta
Scarus diadema Val., 1840: Scarus iseri
Scarus dimidiatus Bleeker, 1859: Scarus dimidiatus
Scarus distinctus Poey, 1861: Sparisoma aurofrenatum
Scarus dubius Bennett, 1828: Scarus dubius
Scarus dubius Hildebrand, 1946: Scarus perrico
Scarus dussumieri Val., 1840: Scarus ghobban
Callyodon elerae Jordan & Seale, 1907: Scarus tricolor
Sparisoma elongatum Meek & Hildebrand, 1928: Sparisoma chrysopterum
Scarus emarginatus Poey, 1868?: Sparisoma rubripinne
Scarus emblematicus Jordan & Rutter, 1897: Scarus taeniopterus
Scarus enneacanthus Lacepède, 1802: Chlorurus enneacanthus
Callyodon erythacus Jordan & Seale, 1906: Scarus psittacus
Scarus erythrinoides Guichenot, 1865: Sparisoma aurofrenatum
Scarus erythrodon Val., 1840: Chlorurus sordidus
Scarus evermanni Jordan, 1887: nomen dubium
Pseudoscarus falcipinnis Playfair, 1868: Scarus falcipinnis
Scaridea farri Jordan [EK], 1925: Calotomus zonarchus
Scarus fasciatus Val., 1840: Scarus rivulatus
Scarus fehlmanni Schultz, 1969: Scarus ghobban
Scarus ferrugineus Forsskål, 1775: Scarus ferrugineus
Scarus festivus Val., 1840: Scarus festivus
Pseudoscarus filholi Sauvage, 1880: Scarus psittacus
Scarus flavescens Bloch & Schneider1801: Sparisoma chrysopterum
Scarus flavipectoralis Schultz, 1958: Scarus flavipectoralis
Pseudoscarus flavipinnis De Vis, 1885: Scarus ghobban
Pseudoscarus flavolineatus Alleyne & Macleay, 1877: Scarus rivulatus
Pseudoscarus flavomaculatus Bliss, 1883: Scarus scaber
Pseudoscarus flavomarginatus Kner, 1865: Scarus niger
Scarus flavomarginatus Val., 1840: Scarus iseri
Scarus formosus Val., 1840: Scarus dubius
Pseudoscarus forskalii Klunzinger, 1871: Scarus psittacus
Pseudoscarus forsskalii fuscopurpureus Klunzinger, 1871: Scarus fuscopurpureus
Pseudoscarus forsteni Bleeker, 1861: Scarus forsteni
Scarus forsteri Val., 1840: Scarus psittacus
Xanothon fowleri Smith, 1956: Scarus russelii
Scarus frenatus Lacepède, 1802: Scarus frenatus
Scarus frondosus Agassiz, 1829: Sparisoma viride
Pseudoscarus frontalis Macleay, 1883: Scarus rubroviolaceus
Scarus frontalis Val., 1840: Chlorurus frontalis
Callyodon fumifrons Jordan & Seale, 1906: Scarus dimidiatus
Scarus fuscocaudalis Randall & Myers, 2000: Scarus fuscocaudalis
Callyodon fuscocuneus Fowler, 1935: Scarus ghobban
Pseudoscarus fuscus De Vis, 1885: Scarus globiceps
Scarus galena Jordan [EK], 1925: Scarus psittacus
Pseudoscarus garretti Günther, 1909: Scarus ghobban
Scarus genazonatus Randall & Bruce, 1983: Chlorurus genazonatus
Callyodon genistriatus Val., 1840: Calotomus carolinus
Scarus ghardaqensis Bebars, 1978: Scarus collana
Scarus ghobban Forsskål, 1775: Scarus ghobban
Calliodon gibbosus Bloch & Schneider1801: Scarus coeruleus
Scarus gibbosus Bleeker, 1862: nomen nudum
Scarus gibbus Rüppell, 1829: Chlorurus gibbus
Scarus gilberti Jenkins, 1901: Scarus psittacus
Scarus globiceps Val., 1840: Scarus globiceps
Pseudoscarus gnathodus Poey, 1867: Scarus vetula
Pseudoscarus godeffroyi Günther, 1909: Scarus niger
Pseudoscarus goldiei Macleay, 1883: Chlorurus sordidus
Pseudoscarus gracilis Steindachner, 1869: Scarus gracilis
Sparisoma griseorubra Cervigón, 1982: S. griseorubra
Scarus guacamaia Cuvier, 1829: Scarus guacamaia
Scarus guttatus Bloch & Schneider, 1801: Scarus ghobban
Scarus gymnognathos Bleeker, 1853: Chlorurus sordidus
Callyodon hadji Seale, 1910: Scarus quoyi
Scarus harid Forsskål, 1775: Hipposcarus harid
Hipposcarus harid vexillus Smith, 1959: Hipposcarus harid
Scarus haridoides Bleeker, 1855: Scarus ghobban
Pseudoscarus heliotropinus Bryan, 1906: Scarus rubroviolaceus
Scarus hertit Ehrenberg, 1840: Scarus psittacus
Scarus hildebrandi Kanazawa, 1952: Scarus perrico
Pseudoscarus hoefleri Steindachner, 1881: Scarus hoefleri
Sparus holocyaneos Lacepède, 1802: Scarus coeruleus
Scarus hoplomystax Cope, 1871: Sparisoma radians
Callyodon hornbosteli Fowler, 1925: Scarus psittacus
Xenoscarus hubbsi Harry, 1950: Nicholsina denticulata
Scarus humeralis Poey, 1861: nomen dubium
Scarus hypselopterus Bleeker, 1853: Scarus hypselopterus
Callyodon hypselosoma Bleeker, 1855: Calotomus spinidens
Pseudoscarus iensis Steindachner, 1887: Scarus niger
Callyodon ikan Montrouzier, 1857: nomen nudum
Callyodon improvisus Smith, 1956: Scarus falcipinnis
Scarus insulaesanctaecrucis Bloch & Schneider, 1801: Scarus iseri
Calotomus irradians Jenkins, 1901: Calotomus carolinus
Callyodon iseri Bloch, 1789: Scarus iseri
Pseudoscarus ismailius Kossmann & Räuber, 1877:Scarus collana
Scarus janthochir Bleeker, 1853: Scarus prasiognathos
Scarus japanensis Bloch, 1789: Chlorurus japanensis
Callyodon japonicus Val., 1840: Calotomus japonicus
Scarus javanicus Bleeker, 1854: Scarus hypselopterus
Scarus jenkinsi Jordan & Evermann, 1903: Scarus psittacus
Pseudoscarus jonesi Street, 1877: Chlorurus frontalis
Pseudoscarus jordani Jenkins, 1901: Scarus rubroviolaceus
Scarus kakatoe Lacepède, 1802: nomen dubium
Callyodon kelloggii Jordan & Seale, 1906: Scarus spinus
Pseudoscarus knerii Steindachner, 1887: Scarus oviceps
Scarus koputea Randall & Choat, 1980: Scarus koputea
Scarus kraussi Jordan [EK], 1925: Chlorurus perspicillatus
Pseudoscarus labiosus Macleay, 1883: Scarus psittacus
Scarus lacerta Val., 1840: Scarus ghobban
Scarus lacrimosus Poey, 1861: Sparisoma radians
Callyodon latax Jordan & Seale, 1906: Chlorurus frontalis
Scarus lateralis Poey, 1860: Sparisoma chrysopterum
Callyodon latifasciatus Seale & Bean, 1907: Scarus tricolor
Scarus latus Val., 1840: Hipposcarus harid
Scarus lauia Jordan & Evermann, 1903: Scarus dubius
Callyodon laxtoni Whitley, 1948: Scarus forsteni
Callyodon lazulinus Jordan & Seale, 1906: Scarus oviceps
Scarus lepidus Jenyns, 1842: Scarus globiceps
Scarus leucostigma Jordan, Evermann & Tanaka, 1927: Chlorurus perspicillatus
Scaridea leucotaeniata Fowler, 1944: Chlorurus sordidus
Scarus limbatus Val., 1840: Scarus niger
Calliodon lineatus Bloch. & Schneider, 1801: Scarus iseri
Callyodon lineolabiatus Fowler & Bean, 1928: Scarus niger
Pseudoscarus lineolatus Poey, 1867: Scarus taeniopterus
Petronason longicauda Swainson, 1839: Hipposcarus harid
Scarus longiceps Val., 1840: Hipposcarus longiceps
Scarus longipinnis Randall & Choat, 1980: S. longipinnis
Sparisoma lorito Jordan & Swain, 1884: S. chrysopterum
Scarus loro Bloch & Schneider, 1801: Scarus coeruleus
Callyodon lunula Snyder, 1908: Scarus festivus
Scarus lunulatus Val., 1840: nomen dubium
Scarus lupus Fowler, 1900: Chlorurus frontalis
Callyodon macleayi Jordan & Seale in Seale, 1906: Scarus rubroviolaceus
Scarus macrocheilos Bleeker, 1854: Hipposcarus longiceps
Scarus maculatus Gronow in Gray, 1854: nomen dubium
Pseudoscarus maculiceps Peters, 1876: omen dubium
Scarus maculosus Lacepède, 1802: Scarus ghobban
Pseudoscarus madagascariensis Steindachner, 1887: Scarus niger
Scarus magrathii Bennett, JW, 1841: Scarus ghobban
Scarus makaravar Montrouzier, 1857?: Scarus niger
Callyodon malindiensis Smith, 1956: Scarus virifucatus
Callyodon maoricus Jordan & Seale, 1906: Scarus niger
Callyodon margarita Fowler, 1917: Scarus iseri
Pseudoscarus margaritus Cartier, 1874: Chlorurus sordidus
Scarus marshalli Schultz, 1958: Scarus ferrugineus
Scarus maschalespilos Bleeker, 1862: Sparisoma chrysopterum
Scarus mastax Rüppell, 1829: Hipposcarus harid
Scarus melanotis Bleeker, 1862: Sparisoma viride
Scarus mentalis Val., 1840: nomen dubium
Scarus mertensii Val., 1840: nomen dubium
* Pseudoscarus microcheilos Bleeker, 1861: Chlorurus strongylocephalus
Scarus micrognathos Bleeker, 1847: Scarus rivulatus
Callyodon microps Osburn & Nichols, 1916: Scarus perrico
Scarus microrhinos Bleeker, 1854: Chlorurus microrhinos
Scarus miniatus Jenkins, 1901: Chlorurus perspicillatus
Scarus miniofrenatus Poey, 1861: Sparisoma aurofrenatum
Scarus moensi Bleeker, 1860: Scarus hypselopterus
Callyodon moluccensis Bleeker, 1861: Calotomus spinidens
Pseudoscarus moresbyensis Macleay, 1883: Scarus quoyi
Scarus muricatus Val., 1840: Bolbometopon muricatum
Callyodon mus Smith, 1956: Scarus tricolor
Callyodon mutabilis Gronow in Gray, 1854: Scarus quoyi
Scarus mutabilis Lowe, 1838: Sparisoma cretense
Scarus naevius Val., 1840: Leptoscarus vaigiensis
Pseudoscarus natalensis Gilchrist & Thompson, 1909: Scarus ghobban
Scarus niger Forsskål, 1775: Scarus niger
Pseudoscarus niger var viridis Klunzinger, 1871: Scarus niger
Scarus nigrescens Meek & Hildebrand, 1928: Scarus vetula
Scarus nigricans Val., 1840: Chlorurus sordidus
Pseudoscarus nigripinnis Playfair & Günther, 1867: Cetoscarus bicolor
Sparisoma niphobles Jordan & Bollmann, 1889: Sparisoma radians
Scarus noyesi Heller & Snodgrass, 1903: Scarus ghobban
Scarus nuchalis Poey, 1860: Scarus coeruleus
Scarus nuchipunctatus Val., 1840: Scarus niger
Pseudoscarus nudirostris Alleyne & Macleay, 1877:Scarus ghobban
Scarus obishime Randall & Earle, 1993: Scarus obishime
Scarus obscurus Ehrenberg in Rüppell, 1829: nomen nudum
Scarus obtusus Poey, 1860: Scarus coeruleus
Scarus ocellatus Val., 1840: Cetoscarus bicolor
Scaridea octodon Fowler, 1928: Sparisoma radians
Pseudoscarus oktodon Bleeker, 1861?: Scarus psittacus
Callyodon oedema Snyder, 1909: Chlorurus oedema
Callyodon ogos Seale, 1910: Scarus hypselopterus
Scarus ophthalmistius Herre, 1933: Cetoscarus bicolor
Scarus oviceps Val., 1840: Scarus oviceps
Scarus ovifrons Temminck & Schlegel, 1846: Scarus ovifrons
Scarus oxybrachius Poey, 1868: Sparisoma aurofrenatum
Sparisoma pachycephalum Longley, 1941: S. rubripinne
Scarus paluca Jenkins, 1901: Scarus rubroviolaceus
Pseudoscarus papuensis Macleay, 1883?: Scarus ghobban
Xanothon parvidens Smith, 1956: Scarus psittacus
Scarus pectoralis Val., 1840: Scarus scaber
Pseudoscarus pentazona Bleeker, 1861: Scarus schlegeli
Scarus pepo Bennett JW, 1830: Scarus ghobban
Scarus perrico Jordan & Gilbert, 1882: Scarus perrico
Scarus persicus Randall & Bruce, 1983: Scarus persicus
Scarus perspicillatus Steindachner, 1879: Chlorurus perspicillatus
Callyodon philippinus Fowler, 1918: Chlorurus japanensis
Callyodon pindae Smith, 1956: Scarus falcipinnis
Scarus pinguirostratus Fowler, 1904: Hipposcarus longiceps
Pseudoscarus platodoni Seale, 1901: Chlorurus sordidus
Scarus pleianus Poey, 1861: Scarus guacamaia
Pseudoscarus plumbeus Bean, 1912: Scarus coelestinus
Scarus prasiognathos Val., 1840: Scarus prasiognathos
Sparus prasiophthalmus Richardson, 1843: nomen nudum
Scarus pronus Fowler, 1900: Scarus globiceps
Scarus psittacus Forsskål, 1775: Scarus psittacus
Scarus pulchellus Rüppell, 1835: Cetoscarus bicolor
Scarus punctulatus Val., 1840: Scarus iseri
Scarus purpureus Val. 1840: Chlorurus sordidus
Callyodon pyrrhurus Jordan & Seale, 1906: Chlorurus japanensis
Scarus pyrrostethus australianus Paradice, 1927: Scarus ghobban
Scarus pyrrostethus Richardson, 1846: Scarus ghobban
Scarus quadrispinosus Val., 1840: nomen dubium
Scarus quoyi Bleeker, 1853: Chlorurus bleekeri
Scarus quoyi Val., 1840: Scarus quoyi
Scarus radians Val., 1840: Sparisoma radians
Scarus randalli Schultz, 1958: Scarus frenatus
Scarichthys rarotongae Seale, 1906: Calotomus carolinus
Hemistoma reticulata Swainson, 1839: Scarus ghobban
Calliodon retractus Poey, 1868: Nicholsina usta
Chlorurus rhakoura Randall & Anderson, 1997: C. rhakoura
Psudoscarus rhoduropterus Bleeker, 1861?: Chlorurus troschelii
Sparisoma rhomaleum Meek & Hildebrand, 1928: S. rubripinne
Pseudoscarus richardsoni Castelnau, 1875: nomen dubium
Scarus rivulatoides Bleeker, 1847: Scarus rivulatus
Scarus rivulatus Val., 1840: Scarus rivulatus
Scarus roseiceps Val., 1840: Cetoscarus bicolor
Scarus roseiventer Fowler, 1944: Scarus vetula
Cryptotomus roseus Cope, 1871: Cryptotomus roseus
Callyodon rostratus Seale, 1910: Chlorurus sordidus
Pseudoscarus rostratus Günther, 1909: Scarus rubroviolaceus
Scarus rostratus Poey, 1860: Scarus coelestinus
Scarus rostratus Shaw, 1803: nomen dubium
Callyodon ruberrimus Jordan & Seale, 1906: Scarus rubroviolaceus
Scarus rubiginoides Guichenot, 1865: Sparisoma cretense
Scarus rubiginosus Val., 1840: Sparisoma cretense
Scarus rubripinnis Val., 1840: Sparisoma rubripinne
Callyodon rubrofasciatus Smith, 1956: Scarus caudofasciatus
Scarus rubronotatus Val., 1840: Leptoscarus vaigiensis
Scarus rubroviolaceus Bleeker, 1847: S. rubroviolaceus
Scarus ruppelii Val., 1840: Hipposcarus harid
Scarus russelii Val., 1840: Scarus russelii
Scarus scaber Val., 1840: Scarus scaber
Scarus scabriusculus Val., 1840: Scarus ghobban
Pseudoscarus schlegeli Bleeker, 1861: Scarus schlegeli
Hipposcarus schultzi Smith, 1959: Hipposcarus longiceps
Callyodon scriptus Gronow in Gray, 1854: Cetoscarus bicolor
Scarus sexvittatus Rüppell, 1835: Scarus frenatus
Callyodon shimoniensis Smith, 1953: Bolbometopon muricatum
Scarus siculus Cocco, 1846: Sparisoma cretense
Pseudoscarus simplex Poey, 1865: Scarus coelestinus
Scarus singaporensis Bleeker, 1852: Scarus prasiognathos
Calotomus snyderi Jenkins, 1903: Calotomus carolinus
Scarus sordidus Forsskål, 1775: Chlorurus sordidus
Callyodon speigleri Smith, 1956: Scarus ghobban
Pseudoscarus spilonotus Kner, 1868: Scarus globiceps
Scarus spilurus Val., 1840: Chlorurus sordidus
Scarus spinidens Guichenot, 1865: Sparisoma rubripinne
Scarus spinidens Quoy & Gaimard, 1824: Calotomus spinidens
Pseudoscarus spinus Kner, 1868: Scarus spinus
Scarus squalidus Poey, 1860: Sparisoma chrysopterum
Scarus striatus Val., 1840: nomen dubium
Scarus strigatus Günther, 1862: Sparisoma strigatum
Pseudoscarus strigipinnis De Vis, 1885: Scarus globiceps
Scarus strongylocephalus Bleeker, 1854: Chlorurus strongylocephalus
Scarus sumbawensis Bleeker, 1848?: Chlorurus sordidus
Scarus superbus Poey, 1860: Scarus vetula
Callyodon swicensis Val., 1840: Calotomus carolinus
Scarus taeniopterus Desmarest, 1831: Scarus taeniopterus
Scarus taeniurus Val., 1840: Scarus psittacus
Scarus toshi Whitley, 1933: Scarus ghobban
Scarus tricolor Bleeker, 1847: Scarus tricolor
Scarus trilobatus Lacepède, 1802: Scarus coeruleus
Scarus trispinosus Val., 1840: nomen dubium
Scarus troschelii Bleeker, 1853: Chlorurus troschelii
Scarus truncatus Poey, 1868: Sparisoma rubripinne
Scarus turchesius Val., 1840: Scarus guacamaia
Callyodon ultramarinus Jordan & Seale, 1906: C. microrhinos
Callyodon upolensis Jordan & Seale, 1906: Scarus frenatus
Callyodon urbanus Smith, 1959: Scarus tricolor
Nicholsina usta collettei Schultz, 1968: Nicholsina usta
Callyodon ustus Val., 1840: Nicholsina usta
Scarus vaigiensis Quoy & Gaimard, 1824: Leptoscarus vaigiensis
Scarus variegatus Val., 1840: Chlorurus sordidus
Scarus venosus Val., 1840: Scarus psittacus
Callyodon vermiculatus Fowler & Bean, 1928: Scarus frenatus
Callyodon verweyi de Beaufort, 1940: Scarus festivus
Scarus vetula Bloch & Schneider, 1801: Scarus vetula
Scarus virens Val., 1840?: Sparisoma chrysopterum
Scarus virginalis Jordan & Swain, 1884: S. taeniopterus
Pseudoscarus viridescens Castelnau, 1875: nomen dubium
Scarus viridescens Rüppell, 1835: Calotomus viridescens
Callyodon viridibusius Fowler & Bean, 1928: Scarus tricolor
Callyodon viridifucatus Smith, 1956: Scarus viridifucatus
Scarus viridis Bloch, 1790: Chlorurus japanensis
Scarus viridis Bonnaterre, 1788: Sparisoma viride
* Scarus visayanus Herre, 1933: Scarus tricolor
Pseudoscarus vitriolinus Bryan, 1906: Chlorurus sordidus
Callyodon waigiensis Val., 1840: Calotomus spinidens
Callyodon waitei Seale, 1906: Scarus altipinnis
Labrus xantherythrus Rafinesque 1810: Sparisoma cretense
Scarus xanthopleura Bleeker, 1853: Scarus xanthopleura
Calotomus xenodon Gilbert, 1890: Calotomus carolinus
Sparisoma xystrodon Jordan & Swain, 1884: S. radians
Scaridea zonarcha Jenkins, 1903: Calotomus zonarchus
Pseudoscarus zonatus Macleay, 1883: Scarus oviceps
Callyodon zonularis Jordan & Seale, 1906: Scarus dimidiatus
Scarus zufar Randall & Hoover, 1995: Scarus zufar


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We are grateful to Ernst Mikschi and Helmut Wellendorf (Naturhistorisches Museum Wien) for inviting one of us (P.P.) to visit the ichthyological collection and loaning specimens. We thank the following persons for providing information or loans of specimens: Gerald Allen; Nicolas Bailly, Marie-Louise Bauchot and Martine Desoutter (Muséum nationale d'Histoire naturelle, Paris), Alberto Brito (Universidad de la Laguna, Islas Canarias), William Bussing (Universidad de Costa Rica), Giuliano Doria (Museo Civico di Storia Naturale "G. Doria", Genova, Italy), Malcolm Francis (National Institute Water Atmospheric Research, New Zealand), Antony Gill (Museum Natural History, London), Martin Gomon and Rudie Kuiter (Museum of Victoria, Melbourne), Phillip Heemstra (J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Grahams-town), Jeff Johnson (Queensland Museum), Sven Kullander (Swedish Museum Natural History, Stockholm), Mauro Mariani and Alberto Postonia (Acquario di Milano, Italy), Keiichi Matsuura (National Science Museum, Tokyo), Mark McGrouther (Australian Museum, Sydney), Hans Paepke (Museum fòr Naturkunde, Berlin), Germán Pequeño and Maurizio Protti (Universidad Austral de Chile), Michela Podestà (Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Di Milano, Italy), Edoardo Razzetti (Museo di Storia Naturale di Pavia, Italy), Luiz Rocha (Universidade Federal de Paraiba, Brazil), Barry Russell (Museum and Art Gallery of the Northern Territory, Australia), Shih-Chieh Shen and Eric Tsao (Taipei University), C. L. Smith and Melanie J. Stiassny (American Museum Natural History, New York), Katsumi Tsukamoto (Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo), Benjamin Victor, (University of California, Irvine), Mark W. Westneat (Field Museum Natural History, Chicago), Peter Wirtz and Frederico Cardigos (University of the Azores). We are grateful to William Eschmeyer, Carl Ferraris, Jr., Mysi Dang Hoang, and Douglas Long (California Academy of Science) for reviewing the manuscript. Many thanks to Rainer Froese (ICLARM, Philippines) for sending a copy of Fishbase 98 CD. Access to the ichthyological literature was greatly facilitated by the help of the staff of the Libraries of the Museo Civico di Storia Naturale and the Acquario e Civica Stazione Idrobiologica, Milano.

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BLEEKER, P. 1854d. Faunae ichthyologicae japonicae species novae. Natuurkd. Tijdschr. Neder.-Indië 6: 395-426.
BLEEKER, P. 1854e. Vijfde bijdrage tot de kennis der ichthyologische fauna van Celebes. Natuurkd. Tijdschr. Neder.-Indië 7: 225-260.
BLEEKER, P. 1854f. Specierum piscium javanensium novarum vel minus cognitarum diagnoses adumbratae. Natuurkd. Tijdschr. Neder.-Indië 7: 415-488.
BLEEKER, P. 1855a. Bijdrage tot de kennis der ichthyologische fauna van de Batoe-einlanden. Natuurkd. Tijdschr. Neder.-Indië 8: 305-328.
BLEEKER, P. 1855b. Visschen van de Duizend-eilanden. Natuurkd. Tijdschr. Neder.-Indië 8: 344.
BLEEKER, P. 1855c. Zesde bijdrage tot de kennis der ichthyologische fauna van Amboina. Natuurkd. Tijdschr. Neder.-Indië 8: 391-434.
BLEEKER, P. 1855d. Vierde bijdrage tot de kennis der ichthyologische fauna van de Kokos-eilanden. Natuurkd. Tijdschr. Neder.-Indië 8: 445-460.
BLEEKER, P. 1855e. Achtste bijdrage tot de kennis der ichthyologische fauna van Celebes. Natuurkd. Tijdschr. Neder.-Indië 9: 281-314.
BLEEKER, P. 1856a. Beschrijvingen van nieuwe of weinig bekende vischsoorten van Amboina, verzameld op eene reis door den Molakschen Archipel, gedaan in het gevolg van den Gouverneur-Generaal Duymaer van Twist in September en October 1855. Acta Soc. Sci. Indo-Neerl. 1: 1-76.
BLEEKER, P. 1856b. Beschrijvingen van nieuwe of weinig bekende vischsoorten van Manado en Makassar grootendeels verzameld op eene reis naar den Molakschen Archipel in het gevolg van den Gouverneur-Generaal Duymaer van Twist. Acta Soc. Sci. Indo-Neerl. 1: 1-80.
BLEEKER, P. 1856c. Zevende bijdrage tot de kennis der ichthyologische fauna van Ternate. Natuurkd. Tijdschr. Neder.-Indië 10: 357-386.
BLEEKER, P. 1856d. Verslag omtrent eenige vischsoorten gevangen aan de Zuidkust van Malang in Oost-Java. Natuurkd. Tijdschr. Neder.-Indië 11: 81-92.
BLEEKER, P. 1856e. Bijdrage tot de kennis der ichthyologische fauna van Nias. Natuurkd. Tijdschr. Neder.-Indië 12: 211-228.
BLEEKER, P. 1856f. Derde bijdrage tot de kennis der ichthyologische fauna van de Batoe-einlanden. Natuurkd. Tijdschr. Neder.-Indië 12: 229-242.
BLEEKER, P. 1856g. Index specierum piscium malayo-moluccensium in voluminibus 1-10 Diarii Societatis Indo-Batavae descriptarum. Natuurkd. Tijdschr. Neder.-Indië 10: 472-500.
BLEEKER, P. 1857a. Tweede bijdrage tot de kennis der ichthyologische fauna van Boeroe. Natuurkd. Tijdschr. Neder.-Indië 13: 55-82.
BLEEKER, P. 1857b. Descriptiones specierum piscium javanensium novarum vel minus cognitarum diagnosticae. Natuurkd. Tijdschr. Neder.-Indië 13: 323-368.
BLEEKER, P. 1857c. Achtste bijdrage tot de kennis der Visch-fauna van Amboina. Acta Soc. Sci. Indo-Neerl. 2: 1-102.
BLEEKER, P. 1858a. Tiende bijdrage tot de kennis der vischfauna van Amboina. Acta Soc. Sci. Indo-Neerl. 3: 1-4.
BLEEKER, P. 1858b. Zesde bijdrage tot de kennis der visch-fauna van Sumatra (Visschen van Padang, Troessan, Priaman, Sibogha en Palembang) Acta Soc. Sci. Indo-Neerl. 3: 1-50.
BLEEKER, P. 1858c. Vierde Bijdrage tot de kennis der visch-fauna van Biliton. Natuurkd. Tijdschr. Neder.-Indië 15: 219-240.
BLEEKER, P. 1859a. Derde bjidrage tot de kennis der ichthyologische faune van Bali. Natuurkd. Tijdschr. Neder.-Indië 17: 141-175.
BLEEKER, P. 1859b. Bijdrage tot de kennis der vischfauna van Nieuw-Guinea. Acta Soc. Sci. Indo-Neerl. 6: 1-24.
BLEEKER, P. 1859c. Over eenige vischsoorten van de Zuidkust-wateren van Java. Natuurkd. Tijdschr. Neder.-Indië 19: 329-352.
BLEEKER, P. 1859d. Enumeratio specierum piscium hucusque in Archipelago Indico observatarum, adjectis habitationibus citationibusque ubi descriptiones earum recentiores reperiuntur, nec non speciebus Musei Bleekeriani Bengalensibus, Japonicis, Capensibus Tasmanicisque. Acta Soc. Sci. Indo-Neerl. 6: i-xxvi, 1-276.
BLEEKER, P. 1860a. Achtste bijdrage tot de kennis der vischfauna van Sumatra. Visschen van Benkoelen, Priaman, Tandjong, Palembang en Djambi. Acta Soc. Sci. Indo-Neerl. 8 (art. 2): 1-88.
BLEEKER, P. 1860b. Elfde bijdrage tot de kennis der visch-fauna van Amboina. Acta Soc. Sci. Indo-Neerl. 8(5): 1-14.
BLEEKER, P. 1860c. Dertiende Bijdrage tot de kennis der vischfauna van Celebes. Visschen van Bonthain, Badjoa, Sindjai, Lagoesi en Pompenoea. Acta Soc. Sci. Indo-Neerl. 8: 1-60.
BLEEKER, P. 1861a. Iets over de vischfauna van het eiland Pinang. Versl. Akad. Amst. 12: 64-80.
BLEEKER, P. 1861b. Iets over de geslachten der Scaroïden en hunne Indisc-archipelagische soorten. Versl. Akad. Amst. 12: 228-244.
BLEEKER, P. 1862a. Conspectus generum Labroideorum analyticus. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1861 (pt 3): 408-418.
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BLEEKER, P. 1862e. Notices ichthyolgiques (V) Sur une nouvelle espèce de Pseudolabre (Güntheri) de la Nouvelle Hollande. Versl. Akad. Amst. 14: 130-133.
BLEEKER, P. 1862f. Atlas Ichthyologique des Indes Orientales Néerlandaises, publié sous les auspices du Gouvernement colonial néerlandais. Frédérec Muller, Amsterdam. Vol. 1. Scaroides et Labroides: xxi + 168 pp, 48 pls.
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BLEEKER, P. 1866. Description d'une espèce inédite de Cheilinus. Ned. Tijdschr. Dierk. 3: 134-135.
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BLEEKER, P. 1873. Addition au mémoire sur la faune ichthyologique de Chine. Ned. Tijdschr. Dierk. 4: 233-234.
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BLEEKER, P. 1878. Quatrième mémoire sur la faune ichthyologique de la Nouvelle-Guinée. Arch. Néerl. Sc. Nat. 13: 35-66.
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Case 2905. Labrus Linnaeus, 1758, Cichlasoma Swainson, 1839 and Polycentrus Mller & Troschel, 1848 (Osteichthyes, Perciformes): proposed conservation of usage by the designation of neotypes for Labrus bimaculatus Linnaeus, 1758 and L. punctatus Linnaeus, 1758. Proposed by R. Fricke & C.J. Ferraris. 1996. Bull. Zool. Nom. 53(2): 106-111.
Case 3051. Scarus chrysopterum Bloch & Schneider, 1801 (currently Sparisoma chrysopterum; Osteichthyes, Perciformes): proposed conservation of the specific name and designation as the type-species of Sparisoma Swainson, 1839. Proposed by R.L. Moura & J.E. Randall. 1998. Bull. Zool. Nom. 55(3): 151-154.
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