The prevalence of haemoglobinophy and malaria were determined in 12812 inhabitants (5227 males and 7585 females) of the twenty-one (21) autonomous communities of Old Aguata Division, Anambra State, Nigeria. The intention was not only to reveal their most current incidences but also to adduce the most probable reason(s) for the widespread myths peddled about sickle cell disease (SCD) in the area. Results revealed high incidences of sickle cell anaemia (3.54%) and sickle gene trait (26.94%), low incidences of sickle haemoglobin C (0.02%) and haemoglobin CC (0.01%) diseases and an average high prevalence of malaria (47.95%). Most of the malaria attack was caused by Plasmodium falciparum
) infection. The possession of over 20% of persisting concentration of foetal haemoglobin (HbF) by 65.86% (299/454) of identified sickle cell anaemia (SCA) subjects and the striking limited knowledge of SCD and its method of control by the inhabitants of the communities are inconsonance with the high incidence of SCA in the population. The low percentage HbC gene frequency (0.07%) computed from the data could explain the rarity of HbSC and HbCC diseases in the population. Their probable frequencies of occurrence are of the order of one in every 20,000 and 600,000 persons respectively while that of SCA is of the order of one in every 200 persons. Further results showed that dominant homozygotes (HbAA) were more susceptible to plasmodial parasite infection than sickle heterozygotes (HbAS) while recessive homnozygotes (HbSS) were most vulnerable to malaria than the other two members of genotypic groups. Furthermore, random administration of sub-standard and under-dose of anti-malaria drugs by patent medicine dealers operating in the area is suspected to be the main factor responsible for the emergence of the observed anti-malaria drug-resistant strains of P.f
which is not in consonance with high prevalence of malaria in this area.