Blood Pressure Profiles Among Makerere University Undergraduate Students|
Bimenya, G. S.; Byarugaba, W.; Kalungi, S.; Mayito, J.; Mugabe, K.; Makabayi, R.; Ayebare, E.; Wanzira, H. & Muhame, M.
The purpose of this study was to set reference values for spot blood pressure and its derivatives among Makerere university undergraduate students.
Study Design: This was a cross- sectional study.
Materials and methods: A total of 183 undergraduates including 63 females and 120 males participated in the study. Blood pressure was measured, with the respondent seated, using a sphygmomanometer. Mean arterial pressure was determined as the average of the systolic and diastolic values. Pulse pressure was the difference between systolic and diastolic values. Dividing systolic by diastolic values gave the required ratio. Histograms and cumulative percentages of these results were plotted and used to set the central 95th percentile range as the reference values.
Results: Empirical ranges were: systolic BP 100-179 mmHg; diastolic BP 60-139 mmHg; systolic: diastolic pressure ratio 1.20-2.30 mmHg, mean arterial pressure 80-159 mmHg and pulse pressure 20-85 mmHg. The reference ranges covering the central 95 percentile were: systolic BP 100-150 mmHg, diastolic BP 64-100, systolic: diastolic BP ratio 1.29-2.03, the mean arterial pressure 85121 mmHg, and pulse pressure 25-70 mmHg. According to the systolic pressure, 35% were normal, 54% pre-hypertensive and 11% hypertensive. According to diastolic values, 48% were normotensive, 43% pre-hypertensive and 18% hypertensive. The mean arterial pressure was distributed like the parent pressures. The pulse pressure and the systolic:diastolic ratio were trimodally distributed with the three peaks corresponding to normotension, pre-hypertension and hypertension.
Conclusion and recommendation: Reference values for the university student population have been derived and they are recommended for application in clinical evaluation.