Effects of ethanol and/or chloroquine with low protein dietary intake on some biochemical parameters in male rats|
Mbajiorgu, E F; Vlok, W; Aire, T A & Alberts, M
In malaria-endemic developing countries, plagued with malnutrition, patients undergoing chloroquine (Q) treatment on prolonged basis often consume ethanol (E) regularly. This may constitute a serious health problem. The objective of this study was to investigate whether concurrent administration of E and Q under conditions of protein malnutrition may impact negatively on biochemical parameters. An experimental study was conducted to investigate biochemical effects of E and/or Q associated with protein malnutrition in adult male Sprague Dawley rats. Two groups of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either normal protein diet (NP, 15%) or low protein diet (LP, 6%). Each diet group includes the controls (NPC, LPC), chloroquine- (Q); [NPQ; LPQ], ethanol- (E); [NPE; LPE} or both chloroquinine and ethanol (NPEQ; LPEQ) treated groups. Chloroquine diphosphate (10mg, kg -1 body weight per rat) was administered intramuscularly, on days 0, 10, 20, and 30 to appropriate groups, while 6% E in drinking water was provided ad libitum to E-treated groups. Drinking water was given to Q-treated groups, and physiological saline was injected to E-treated groups. After 40 days, b lood was collected, under ether anesthesia, by cardiac puncture for biochemical analysis. Results showed that concurrent treatment of E and Q slightly decreased TP and albumin (Alb) levels in LPEQ-rats compared to LPC, LPE and LPQ rat groups. Furthermore, TP level was substantially and significantly elevated in NPEQ-rats compared to LPEQ, NPE and NPQ rat groups. Ethanol and Chloroquine interaction exacerbated ALP and ALT activities in LPEQ-rats compared to NPEQ- rats. Urea depression was enhanced in LPEQ- than in NPEQ-rats. Creatinine levels were increased in all treatment groups. The results suggest increased toxic effect of concurrent intake of E and Q in LP- fed rats. The findings show that LP dietary intake potentiates adverse effects of combined E and Q. This has implications for clinical practice, especially in poor malaria endemic countries where prevalence of protein malnutrition is often high, and patients who consume alcohol while on chloroquine, are at greater risk of severe toxic effect of combined E and Q intake.
ethanol, chloroquine, biochemical-indices, rats, malnutrition