Nutrient Intake And Adequacy Of Batswana Elderly|
Maruapula, S.D. & Chapman-Novakofski, K.
The purpose of this study was to determine the adequacy of nutrient intakes of the elderly in Botswana and to further assess intake by age, gender, and locality and others. The study was a cross-sectional survey with a convenience sample in purposively selected urban, semi-urban and rural settings in Botswana. Data collection included self-reported assessments of health status and food intake. Analyses compared demographic strata and health status with the intake and adequacy of self-reported consumption. A total of 99 elderly aged 60 to 99 years completed a 24-hour food recall instrument and in addition, demographic, health status, and cooking responsibilities data were collected from each respondent. Results from the survey show that 14% of the elderly rated their health as good, 76% indicated they were in fair health and 10% in poor health. The mean number of servings of food groups and some individual foods common in the daily diet show that the Grains group was the only food group whose mean intake (7.7 servings /day) was within the US recommended 6-11 servings per day. Fruit consumption was very poor (0.1 servings/day) and differed significantly by locality (p< .01), as the urban elderly had a higher consumption of fruits, but still much lower than the recommended intake. The contributions of protein, carbohydrate and fat to total energy were 15%, 66%, and 22% respectively. Adequate energy intake did differ significantly (p < .049) by self-health rating. Mean macronutrient intake differed significant by gender only for saturated fat (p< .038). Micronutrient intake differed by gender for vitamin A (p< .009), calcium (p < .01) and folic acid (p< .027). Consumption of adequate vitamin A was significantly associated with gender and cooking responsibilities. Self-health rating was also significantly associated with adequate consumption of vitamin B12 (p< .027), selenium (p< .001) and zinc (p< .009). In conclusion, Batswana elderly had poor nutrient intake associated with self-health rating, gender, and cooking responsibilities.
Elderly, Botswana, diet, nutrient, health