Effect Of Groundnut Flour Substitution On Yield, Quality And Storage Stability Of Kilishi – A Nigerian Indigenous Dried Meat Product|
Mgbemere, V.N.; Akpapunam, M.A.__PS & __Igene, J.O.
Kilishi, a traditionally sun-dried roasted meat product usually produced using raw meat, Tunkusa (a locally defatted groundnut cake paste), in combination with spices and condiments in the mix was produced after substitution with conventional defatted groundnut flour. This study was undertaken to establish the potential use of conventional defatted groundnut flour in place of Tunkusa in making a better quality and shelf - stable Kilishi. The yield, quality and storage stability of the product were evaluated using standard assay techniques. Yield was estimated as the ratio of weight of Kilishi over the fresh beef. Quality was measured in terms of proximate composition which included protein, fat, carbohydrate, fibre and ash contents, and the amount of calorie obtained from the Kilishi was calculated based on these constituents. Sensory quality attributes were also measured in terms of colour/appearance, flavour, crispiness, texture and overall acceptability. Microbial counts such as total plate, yeast and mould and coliform were measured. Storage stability was evaluated in terms of thiobarbituric acid (TBA), free fatty acid (FFA) and Peroxide value (PV) values prior and following storage in ambient (25-32°C) or refrigerator (7±1°C) for 12 weeks. Yield of the Kilishi (GFK) produced from conventional defatted groundnut flour ingredients was 87.3% compared to 83.7% of traditionally defatted groundnut cake (Tunkusa) Kilishi (TK) (control). The GFK had 12.1% moisture, 51.8% protein, 13.4% fat, 5.1% ash, 2.8% crude fibre and 14.8% carbohydrate compared to TK 11.6%, 49.8%, 11.4%, 5.2%, 3.1%, and 18.9% for these constituents, respectively. GFK also had 387.0 Kcal/100g energy value compared to 377.4 for TK. Both GFK and TK were highly rated in sensory attributes, however, TK had lesser acceptability. Microbial counts were non detectable in the fresh Kilishi products until week 12 and were within standard safe limits (106 CFU/g aerobic and 107 anaerobic counts) thereafter. At week 12, microbial counts were 2.1x101 CFU/g bacteria and 3.0x100 moulds for GFK stored at ambient (25-32°C) condition and 4.5x101 CFU/g bacteria for GFK stored at refrigerator (7±1°C) conditions, whereas TK had 1.6x101 CFU/g bacteria, 1.0x101 moulds and 1.1x101 CFU/g bacteria. Storage for 12 weeks slightly decreased sensory scores, protein and fat contents and also TBA, FFA, PV but moisture increased slightly. It is possible to produce high quality and yield as well as acceptable and shelf stable Kilishi using conventional defatted groundnut flour. Also GFK Kilishi had better quality attributes when compared with TK, Tunkusa Kilishi.
Meat, Tunkusa, Kilishi, Groundnut flour, Quality